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Nutrition

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Nutrition & Digestion Ch.18 Nutrition Nutrition process by which we obtain food Nutrients substances used in metabolism. Nutrients obtained thru major food ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nutrition


1
Nutrition Digestion
  • Ch.18

2
Nutrition
  • Nutrition process by which we obtain food
  • Nutrients substances used in metabolism.
  • Nutrients obtained thru major food groups.
  • Bread/Cereal
  • Fruit/Vegetable
  • Meat/Fish/Poultry
  • Dairy
  • Oils/Fats

3
Types of Nutrition
  • Autotrophs can make their own food
  • Heterotrophs cant make their own food

4
Types of Digestion
  • Mechanical
  • Break food into smaller pieces.
  • Increases surface area for digestion.
  • Chemical
  • Breaks down food molecules into their basic
    building blocks. Ex) Carbs to monosaccharides
  • Intracellular within the cell
  • Extracellular outside the cell

5
Adaptations for Nutrition
  • Protozoan intracellular diges, osmosis
  • Hydra osmosis, tentacles, stinging cells,
  • gastro-vascular cavity.
  • Earthworm alimentary canal, typhlosole
  • Grasshopper gizzard/teeth, diges glands

6
Basic Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates monosacchrides
  • Proteins amino acids
  • Lipids glycerol fatty acids
  • Vitamins organic cmpds needed in small amts
  • Minerals inorganic ions needed in small amts
  • Water most basic important nutrient

7
Balanced Diet
  • 2000 4000 Calories/day
  • Diet should supply more than just the energy
    needed for that day.

8
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9
Human Digestive System
  • 9 meters long w/ specialized sections
  • Duct glands secrete to specific location
  • Ductless glands individual cell secretions
  • Mucus protects most surfaces

10
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11
Mouth
  • Teeth mechanical digestion
  • Tongue tastes food, assists swallowing
  • Saliva lubricates food for swallowing,
  • Mostly Water (90)
  • Amylase digests Carbs to Disaccahrides

12
Esophagus
  • Connects mouth to stomach.
  • Epiglottis covers trachea so food enters the
    esophagus when you swallow.
  • Composed of circular muscles.
  • Peristalsis pushes food along with a wave of
    muscle contractions.

13
Stomach
  • Stores food 3-4 hours
  • Churns food mechanical digestion
  • Gastric juice chemical digestion
  • Pepsin digests proteins to large peptides
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • activates enzyme
  • kills bacteria
  • curdles milk
  • Ulcers are holes in stomach lining

14
Liver
  • Accessory Digestive Organ
  • Produces Bile emulsifies fats
  • Gall Bladder stores bile excretes cholesterol

15
Pancreas
  • Juices digest all 3 food groups
  • Amylase Carbs to disacchrides
  • Lipase Fats to glycerol fatty acids
  • Trypsin Proteins to small peptide chains
  • Sodium Bicarbonate neutralizes acids
  • Insulin regulates sugar absortion

16
Small Intestine
  • Digestion is completed here
  • Maltase, Sucrase, Lactase digest disaccharides
  • Lipase digests remaining lipids
  • Eripsin completes protein digestion to AAs
  • Absorption of all nutrients occurs here
  • Villi increase surface area of intestine
  • Microvilli are extensions of villi cells
  • Blood vessels absorb water soluble nutrients
  • Lacteals absorb fat soluble nutrients

17
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18
Large Intestine
  • Undigestible materials pass thru here
  • Water is reabsorbed
  • Feces is concentrated remains
  • Bacteria feed on remains and produce
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin B12
  • Appendix is a vestigial organ (no function)

19
Rectum
  • Feces is stored here for elimination
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