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The Civil War (1861

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The Civil War (1861 1865) Fort Sumter With Lincoln in office and all hope of compromise extinguished, the Confederate president and Confederate Congress authorized ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil War (1861


1
The Civil War (18611865)
2
Fort Sumter
  • With Lincoln in office and all hope of compromise
    extinguished, the Confederate president and
    Confederate Congress authorized an army and navy
    and set about taking control of federal civil and
    military installation in the South.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________.
  • If supplies did not come soon, they would have to
    ______________ the fort to the Confederacy.

3
Fort Sumter
  • Throughout March of 1861, the Confederate
    government tried to negotiate the peaceful
    evacuation of the Union garrison at Fort Sumter,
    but Lincoln remained adamant that the United
    States would not give up the fort.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________.

4
A Difficult Decision
  • Lincoln had to make an important decision.
  • He made the decision he thought would be best.
  • He would __________________________.
  • Then he waited to see what happened.

5
Davis Response
  • Now Jefferson Davis had to make a decision. He
    decided to attack the fort before the supply
    ships arrived.
  • Faced with South Carolina fire-eaters (radical
    Confederates) who threatened to seize the fort on
    their own, Jefferson Davis decided that he had to
    take action.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________.

6
The fire-eaters
  • He assigned the mission of capturing the fort to
    Brigadier General Pierre Gustave Toutant
    Beauregard, who laid siege to Sumter, hoping to
    starve out post commandant major Robert Anderson
    and his men.
  • __________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________!

7
April 12, 1861, 430 a.m.
  • With great deliberation and delay, a ship was
    finally loaded with reinforcements and supplies.
  • But it was too late!
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _______________

8
  • All proper facilities will be afforded for the
    removal of yourself and command, together with
    company arms and property, and all private
    property, to any post in the United States which
    you may select. The flag which you have upheld
    so long and with so much fortitude, under the
    most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you
    on taking it down.

9
April 12, 1861, 430 a.m.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __.
  • The ensuing bombardment last an unbelievable 34
    hours before Anderson, satisfied that he had done
    his duty, surrendered.
  • It would be the first battle of the Civil War.

10
The First Battle of Bull Run
  • The first major battle of the Civil War ended in
    a victory for ________________.
  • It became known as the ______________ _____
    because the following year a battle occurred at
    almost exactly the same site.

11
The First Battle of Bull Run
  • Approximately 35,000 troops were involved on each
    side.
  • The Union suffered about 2,900 casualties, the
    military term for those killed, wounded,
    captured, or missing in action.
  • Confederate casualties were fewer than 2,000.

12
Preparing for War Strengths of the North and the
South
  • Northern Advantages
  • _____________________________________
  • More factories
  • Better balance between farming and industry
  • _____________________________________
  • A functioning government, an army, and a navy
  • _____________________________________

13
Preparing for War Strengths of the North and the
South
  • Southern Advantages
  • Leadership
  • __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________.
  • Military tactics
  • Because the South was defending its borders, its
    army needed only to repel Northern advances
    rather than initiate military action.
  • Morale
  • __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________.

14
Preparing for War Military Strategies
15
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16
War in the East
  • The Monitor and the Merrimack
  • March 9, 1862, the ships met off the Virginia
    coast.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _____.
  • These ships made the wooden navies of the world
    obsolete.

17
War in the East
  • The Battle of Seven Pines
  • __________________________________________________
    _________________.
  • They landed southeast of
  • Richmond.
  • The Union troops were met by
  • 15,000 Confederate forces.
  • The Confederate forces retreated
  • toward Richmond.
  • As McClellans army neared the
  • capital, the Southerners turned
  • and attacked.
  • The North claimed victory, but both sides
  • suffered heavy casualties.

18
The South Attacks
  • The Battle of Antietam
  • The Confederate forces invaded the North.
  • The Union army learned of General Lees strategy.
  • __________________________________________________
    _____________________________________________.

19
The South Attacks
  • The Union forces had more than 75,000 troops,
    with nearly 25,000 in reserve. The Confederate
    forces numbered about 40,000.
  • By the days end, the Union casualties numbered
    more than 12,000. The Confederate casualties
    were nearly 14,000, more than a third of the
    entire army.
  • __________________________________________________
    _____________________.

20
Politics in the South
  • The Confederate Government
  • Had to persuade people to give up personal
    interests for the common good
  • __________________________________________________
    _____________________________
  • Called for a draft, or required military service,
    of three years
  • __________________________________________________
    ______________________________
  • Failed to gain recognition, or official
    acceptance as an independent nation

21
Politics in the South
  • States Rights Advocates
  • Resisted sacrificing personal interests
  • Claimed that a draft violated states rights.
  • Almost 25 percent of men eligible for the draft
    refused
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ________________________________________.

22
Politics in the North
  • The Union Government
  • Shut down opposition newspapers
  • Prevented Marylands secession by _______
    ____________________________________
  • Put Kentucky under ___________________
    ___________________________________.
  • Martial law is an emergency rule during which
    some guarantees under the Bill of Rights are
    suspended.

23
Politics in the North
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________
  • Created a national currency, called greenbacks.
  • This paper money was not backed by gold, but it
    was declared to be acceptable as legal payment.

24
Emancipation and the War
  • On January 1, 1863, President Lincoln issued the
    final Emancipation Proclamation.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____.
  • Although the proclamation did not bring an
    immediate end to slavery, it promised that
    enslaved people would be free when the North won
    the war.

25
Emancipation and the War
  • The most significant reaction to the proclamation
    came from Europe.
  • Europeans felt very strongly about ______
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _________________________________.

26
African Americans Join the War
  • Early in the war, General Butler said that slaves
    captured by the Union army were contraband,
    property of one side seized by the other.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _________________________.

27
African Americans Join the War
  • Congress authorized Lincoln to accept African
    Americans into the military after McClellans
    defeat in Virginia.

28
African Americans Join the War
  • By 1865, nearly 180,000 African Americans had
    enlisted in the Union army.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________.

29
The Hardships of War
  • The Northern Economy
  • Northern farms and factories produced
    __________________________________________________
    _____________________.
  • Women filled critical jobs in factories and on
    farms.
  • _______________ paid women lower wages than male
    workers and sold inferior products at inflated
    prices.

30
The Hardships of War
  • The Southern Economy
  • Many planters refused to grow food instead of
    cotton.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ________________.
  • Even though production increased, the South was
    never able to provide all the goods its army
    needed.
  • Labor shortages and a lack of goods contributed
    to inflation.
  • Women filled many of the factory jobs.

31
The Hardships of War
  • Medical Care
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _____.
  • Disease killed many of them.
  • Poor nutrition and contaminated foods led to
    dysentery and typhoid fever.
  • Malaria and pneumonia were also killers.

32
The Hardships of War
  • A Union soldier was three times more likely to
    die in camp or in a hospital than he was to be
    killed on the battlefield.
  • Some 4,000 women served as _________ for the
    Union army.

33
The Hardships of War
  • By the end of the war, nursing was no longer only
    a mans profession.
  • __________________________________.
  • Rotting food and garbage littered the ground.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __.

34
Major Battles of 1863
35
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36
The Importance of 1863
  • On July 4, 1863
  • 30,000 Confederate troops defending Vicksburg
    laid down their arms and surrendered.
  • Former slaves celebrated Independence Day for the
    first time.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _____.

37
The Gettysburg Address
  • On November 19, 1863, some 15,000 people gathered
    at __________________ to honor the Union soldiers
    who had died there just four months before.

38
The Gettysburg Address
  • President Lincoln delivered a two-minute speech
    which became known as the Gettysburg Address.
  • He reminded people that _____________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ___________________________________.

39
The Gettysburg Address
  • The Gettysburg Address has become one of the
    best-loved and most-quoted speeches in the
    English language.
  • It expresses grief at the terrible cost of war
    and the importance of ________________
    _________________________________.

40
Grant Takes Command
  • The Battles
  • In an effort to exhaust the Confederate troops,
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________.

41
Grant Takes Command
  • In May and June of 1864, the Union and
    Confederate armies clashed in three major
    battles
  • The Battle of the Wilderness began on May 5,
    1864.
  • The armies met in a dense forest in a battle that
    lasted two days.

42
Grant Takes Command
  • May 8, 1864, the __________________
    ________________________________ Spotsylvania
    Court House.
  • The fighting that took place over nearly two
    weeks is called the Battle of Spotsylvania.

43
Grant Takes Command
  • In early June, the armies clashed again at the
    Battle of Cold Harbor, just eight miles from
    Richmond.

44
The Siege of Petersburg
  • Unable to reach Richmond or defeat Lees army,
    Grant moved around the capital and attacked
    Petersburg.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ___.

45
The Siege of Petersburg
  • The attack on Petersburg failed, and Grants army
    suffered some 65,000 casualties.
  • Grant then turned to the tactic of siege that he
    had used in _______________________.
  • On June 18, 1864, Grant began the _______
    ___________________________________.

46
Sherman Marches to the Sea
  • In early September, the ____________ army was
    forced to leave ___________________.
  • General Sherman vowed to make Georgia howl.
  • __________________________________________________
    _____________________.
  • He left the city in ruins.
  • He led some 62,000 soldiers on a march to the sea
    to capture Savannah.

47
Sherman Marches to the Sea
  • On December 21, 1864, the Union army entered
    Savannah without a fight.
  • Shermans message to Lincoln read
  • I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, the
    city of Savannah.

48
The Election of 1864
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Republicans changed their party name to the
    ______________________________________.
  • Dropped Vice President Hannibal Hamlin from the
    ticket.
  • Replaced Hamlin with Andrew Johnson of Tennessee.
  • Johnson was a Democrat and a pro-Union Southerner.

49
The Election of 1864
  • Shermans capture of Atlanta showed the North
    that __________________________.
  • In November, Lincoln won an easy victory.

50
The Election of 1864
  • George McClellan
  • Democrats nominated General George McClellan.
  • McClellan was happy to oppose Lincoln, who had
    twice fired him.
  • McClellan was still admired and respected by his
    soldiers.
  • __________________________________________________
    ___________________________.
  • McClellan promised that if elected he would
    negotiate an end to the war.

51
A New Birth of Freedom
  • The Thirteenth Amendment was ______ by the states
    and became law in December 1865.
  • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
    except as punishment for crime whereof the party
    shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
    within the United States, or any place subject to
    their jurisdiction.

52
A New Birth of Freedom
  • Lincoln noted in his Second Inaugural Address
    that slavery had divided the nation, but he also
    laid the groundwork to __________________________
    ______.

53
Surrender at Appomattox
  • On April 2, 1865, Lee tried to slip around
    Grants army.
  • He planned to unite his troops with those of
    General Johnston.
  • Lee hoped that together they would be able to
    continue the war.
  • On April 9, 1865, Lees forces came to the
    Virginia town of Appomattox Court House.
  • __________________________________________________
    ____________________________.

54
Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lees officers suggested that the army could
    scatter and continue to fight as
    guerrillassoldiers who use surprise raids and
    hit-and-run tactics.
  • Lee rejected this idea.
  • That afternoon Generals Lee and Grant met in a
    private home.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________.

55
Civil War Deaths
56
Lincoln Is Assassinated
  • Abraham Lincoln did not live to see the official
    end of the war.
  • Throughout the winter of 18641865, a group of
    Southern conspirators in Washington, D.C., had
    plotted to kidnap Lincoln and exchange him for
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ________.

57
Lincoln Is Assassinated
  • After several unsuccessful attempts, their
    leader, John Wilkes Booth, assigned members of
    his group to assassinate top Union officials.
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _____________________________.

58
John Wilkes Booth at first escaped according to
his plan and was hunted for 12 days. His
conspiracy plan to also eliminate the ______
___________________________________.
59
Lincoln Is Assassinated
  • Booth had fled from the theater and was found
    hiding in a tobacco barn.
  • Cornered in the barn, Booth was shot in the spine
    when he refused to surrender.
  • In his final moments, he asked to have his hands
    lifted up before his eyes and reportedly said,
    "Useless, useless!"

60
Lincoln Is Assassinated
  • Lincolns funeral train took 14 days to travel
    from Washington, D.C., to his hometown of
    ___________________.

61
The nation mourned the loss of Lincoln just days
after the close of the long bloody Civil War.
Members of Booth's conspiracy team were rounded
up, tried and quickly executed, including Mary
Surratt whose boarding house was used as a
meeting place. The bodies were left hanging from
the scaffold a full half hour while photographs
were taken. The hoods worn by the convicted can
be seen in the Lincoln Museum today with Booth's
gun and knife.
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