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The Renaissance in Northern Europe

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The Renaissance in Northern Europe Explain how the printing revolution shaped European society. Describe the themes that northern European artists and writers explored. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance in Northern Europe


1
The Renaissance in Northern Europe
2
Objectives
  • Explain how the printing revolution shaped
    European society.
  • Describe the themes that northern European
    artists and writers explored.
  • Analyze the ideas of northern humanist thinkers.

3
Terms and People
  • Johann Gutenberg printer who invented a
    printing press with movable type
  • Flanders a prosperous region of cities in the
    present-day Netherlands, France, and Belgium,
    where the northern Renaissance began
  • Albrecht Dürer German artist who spread
    Renaissance ideas in northern Europe
  • engraving a technique in which an artist etches
    a design on a metal plate using acid the plate
    is then used to make prints

4
Terms and People (continued)
  • vernacular the everyday spoken language of the
    common people
  • Erasmus Dutch religious scholar who called for
    the translation of the Bible into the vernacular
  • Thomas More English humanist who described an
    ideal society in Utopia
  • utopian idealistic or visionary usually used
    to describe a perfect society
  • Shakespeare the leading English language poet
    and playwright of the Renaissance

5
How did the Renaissance develop in northern
Europe?
As the Renaissance began to flower in Italy,
northern Europe was still recovering from the
ravages of the Black Death. But by the 1400s,
the cities of the north began to enjoy economic
growth and the wealth needed to develop their own
Renaissance.
6
In 1455 Johann Gutenberg printed a complete
edition of the Bible using a printing press with
movable type.
  • Printed books were far easier to produce than
    hand-copied books.
  • More people had access to a broad range of
    learning.
  • By 1500, the number of books in Europe had risen
    from a few thousand to between 15 and 20 million.

The printing revolution transformed Europe.
7
The Northern Renaissance began in the prosperous
cities of Flanders.
  • Many painters focused on the common people,
    creating scenes of everyday life.
  • Many writers also focused on the common people.

From Flanders, ideas spread to Spain, France, and
England.
8
Northern Renaissance painters focused on realism
in their art.
  • New oil paints were made using oils from linseed,
    walnuts, or poppies.
  • More realistic colors reflected light, adding
    depth and glow.
  • In the 1400s, the paintings of Van Eyck were
    filled with rich and realistic detail.
  • Pieter Bruegel used vibrant colors to portray
    scenes of peasant life.

9
Albrecht Dürer applied Renaissance painting
techniques to engraving.
Peter Paul Rubens blended the realistic tradition
of Flemish painters with classical themes.
A humanist of the 1600s, Rubens used themes from
classical history and mythology.
Dürer is called the Leonardo of the North
because of his varied interests and his role in
spreading Renaissance ideas in the late 1400s.
10
Northern humanist scholars stressed education and
classical learning.
  • They hoped to bring about religious and moral
    reform.
  • Some began writing in the vernacular, the
    everyday language of ordinary people.
  • This appealed to the new middle class that was
    arising in northern towns and cities.

11
The Dutch priest Desiderius Erasmus was one of
the major religious scholars of the age.
  • Erasmus called for translation of the Bible into
    the vernacular.
  • He believed a persons chief duties were to be
    open-minded and show good will to others.
  • He also sought reform in the Church.

Born in 1466, Erasmus helped spread humanist
ideas to a wider public.
12
Sir Thomas More was an English humanist who
pushed for social reforms.
In Gargantua and Pantagruel, two giants on a
comic adventure offer opinions on religion and
education.
In Utopia, he described an ideal society where
all are educated and people live in harmony. The
book gave us the word utopian.
13
The towering figure of northern Renaissance
literature was the English playwright and poet
William Shakespeare.
Between 1590 and 1613, he wrote 37 plays which
are still performed today, including
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • Hamlet
  • A Midsummer Nights Dream

14
Shakespeare explored Renaissance ideals such as
the complexity of the individual.
Well-known quotes from Shakespeare include
Neither a borrower nor a lender be and A rose
by any other name would smell as sweet. He used
common language understood by all and added 1,700
words to the English language.
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