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Nixon, Ford, Carter

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Title: Nixon, Ford, Carter


1
Nixon, Ford, Carter
  • Mr. McMinn
  • American History

2
Nixons Domestic Policy
  • How did Richard Nixons personality affect his
    relationship with his staff?
  • How did Nixons domestic policies differ from
    those of his predecessors?
  • How did Nixon apply his southern strategy to
    the issue of civil rights and to his choice of
    Supreme Court justices?
  • Describe the first manned moon landing.

3
Nixon in Person
  • Although he had a reserved and remote
    personality, many Americans respected Nixon for
    his experience and service.
  • Nixon was willing to say or do anything to defeat
    his enemies, who included political opponents,
    the government bureaucracy, the press corps, and
    leaders of the antiwar movement.
  • Believing that the executive branch needed to be
    strong, Nixon gathered a close circle of trusted
    advisors around him.

4
Nixons Staff
  • Nixons Close Advisors
  • H. R. Haldeman After campaigning tirelessly for
    Nixon, advertising executive H. R. Haldeman
    became Nixons chief of staff.
  • John Ehrlichman Lawyer John Ehrlichman served
    as Nixons personal lawyer and rose to the post
    of chief domestic advisor.
  • John Mitchell Asked to be Attorney General
    after working with Nixons campaign in New York,
    Mitchell often spoke with Nixon several times a
    day.
  • Henry Kissinger Although he had no previous
    ties to Nixon, Harvard government professor Henry
    Kissinger first became Nixons national security
    advisor and later his Secretary of State.

5
Domestic PolicyOil and Inflation
  • During Nixons first few years in office,
    unemployment and inflation rose, and federal
    spending proved difficult to control. In
    response, Nixon turned to the practice of deficit
    spending, or spending more money in a year than
    the government receives in revenues. He also
    imposed two price freezes lasting several months
    each.
  • When the United States supported its ally Israel
    in a war against Egypt and Syria in 1973, the
    Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum
    Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo, or
    ban, on shipping oil to the United States. The
    resulting shortage resulted in high oil prices,
    which in turn drove inflation even higher.

6
Domestic PolicySocial Programs
  • Although Nixon himself supported cutting back or
    eliminating federal social programs, he did not
    want to alienate those voters who favored them.
  • Under Nixons New Federalism, states were asked
    to assume greater responsibility for the
    well-being of their citizens, taking some of this
    responsibility away from the federal government.

7
The Southern Strategy
  • Nixons Views on Civil Rights
  • Nixon did not support advances in civil rights,
    believing that to do so would cost him the
    support of many white southern voters.
  • Hoping to win over white southern Democrats,
    Nixon sought a southern strategy which would
    keep his supporters happy.
  • Results of Nixons Views
  • Nixons views resulted in a slowdown of
    desegregation.
  • Although Nixon tried to prevent the extension of
    certain provisions of the Voting Rights Act of
    1965, Congress went ahead with the extension.
  • Busing to end segregation in schools was slowed,
    but not halted entirely, by Nixons opposition to
    it.

8
Nixons Supreme Court
  • During Nixons first term in office, four of the
    nine Supreme Court justices either died,
    resigned, or retired. This gave him the
    opportunity to name four new justices and, thus,
    reshape the court.
  • Warren Burger, Nixons choice for Chief Justice,
    was a moderate. However, Nixons later
    appointees reflected his conservative views.
  • The Senate rejected two of Nixons nominees from
    the South, charging that they showed racial bias.

9
The First Moon Landing
  • During Nixons presidency, the United States
    achieved its goal of a successful moon landing.
  • On July 20, 1969, Neil A. Armstrong became the
    first man to walk on the moon. He was joined by
    Edwin E. Buzz Aldrin, Jr., a fellow crewman on
    the Apollo 11 spacecraft.
  • Television viewers around the world watched the
    moon landing, and Apollo 11s crew were treated
    as heroes when they returned.

10
Nixons Domestic PolicyAssessment
  • Which of these was an effect of the 1973 OPEC oil
    embargo?
  • (A) Rising oil prices drove inflation higher.
  • (B) Many social programs became the
    responsibility of the states.
  • (C) Busing to desegregate schools became more
    widespread.
  • (D) Nixon was able to name four new Supreme
    Court justices.
  • What was Nixons southern strategy?
  • (A) a way to balance the federal budget
  • (B) an attempt to win the support of white
    southern Democrats
  • (C) the name of the first moon mission
  • (D) an effort to end segregation

11
Nixons Domestic PolicyAssessment
  • Which of these was an effect of the 1973 OPEC oil
    embargo?
  • (A) Rising oil prices drove inflation higher.
  • (B) Many social programs became the
    responsibility of the states.
  • (C) Busing to desegregate schools became more
    widespread.
  • (D) Nixon was able to name four new Supreme
    Court justices.
  • What was Nixons southern strategy?
  • (A) a way to balance the federal budget
  • (B) an attempt to win the support of white
    southern Democrats
  • (C) the name of the first moon mission
  • (D) an effort to end segregation

12
Nixons Foreign Policy
  • What role did Henry Kissinger play in relaxing
    tensions between the United States and the major
    Communist powers?
  • What was Nixons policy toward the Peoples
    Republic of China?
  • How did Nixon reach an agreement with the Soviet
    Union on limiting nuclear arms?

13
Henry Kissinger
  • Practical Politics
  • Kissinger admired the European political
    philosophy of realpolitik, or practical politics.
    Under this policy, nations make decisions based
    on maintaining their strength rather than on
    moral principles.
  • Kissinger applied a realpolitik approach to his
    dealings with China and the Soviet Union, which
    led to better diplomatic relations with both
    nations.
  • Public Opinion
  • Kissinger understood the power of the media and
    was able to use it to shape public opinion.
  • Kissingers efforts in ending the Vietnam War and
    easing Cold War tensions made him a celebrity.
    He topped a list of most-admired Americans, was
    often featured on the cover of Time magazine, and
    in 1973 shared the Nobel peace prize.

14
Relaxing Tensions
  • Détente
  • Although Nixon had built a reputation as a strong
    anti-Communist, he and Kissinger reversed the
    direction of postwar American foreign policy by
    holding talks with China and the Soviet Union.
  • Nixon and Kissingers greatest accomplishment was
    in bringing about détente, or a relaxation in
    tensions, between the United States and these
    Communist nations.
  • Complex Foreign Affairs
  • Kissinger understood that foreign affairs were
    more complicated than just a standoff between the
    United States and communism.
  • The Soviet Union and China, once allies, had
    become bitter enemies. This development had the
    potential to reshape global politics.

15
A New Approach to China
  • Easing Relations Between the United States and
    China
  • Historical Background After its Communist
    takeover in 1949, the United States refused to
    recognize the Peoples Republic of China, viewing
    the government of Taiwan as the legitimate
    Chinese rulers.
  • Steps to Ease Relations During the early 1970s,
    relations eased between the United States and the
    Peoples Republic of China. Nixon referred to
    the nation by name, travel and trade restrictions
    were lifted, and American table-tennis players
    visited China, beginning Ping-Pong diplomacy.
  • Nixons Visit to China In February 1972, Nixon
    became the first American President to visit
    China. Touring Chinese sites in front of
    television cameras, Nixon established the basis
    for future diplomatic ties during his visit.
  • Recognizing the Chinese Government The United
    States decided to join other nations in
    recognizing the Chinese government. In October
    1971, Taiwan lost its seat in the United Nations
    to the Peoples Republic of China.

16
Limiting Nuclear Arms
  • Nixon viewed arms control as a vital part of his
    foreign policy. Although he had taken office
    planning to build more nuclear weapons, Nixon
    came to believe that achieving balance between
    the superpowers was a better strategy than an
    increasing nuclear arms race.
  • In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union
    signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation
    Treaty, known as SALT I. In this treaty, both
    nations agreed to freeze the number of certain
    types of missiles at 1972 levels.
  • SALT I demonstrated that arms control agreements
    between the superpowers were possible. However,
    it did not reduce the number of weapons that
    either nation possessed, nor did it halt the
    development of conventional weapon technologies.

17
Nixons Foreign PolicyAssessment
  • Which of these definitions best describes
    realpolitik?
  • (A) An understanding of the power of the media
    to shape public opinion
  • (B) A push to end the arms race
  • (C) A relaxation in international tensions
  • (D) A political policy that advocates national
    strength above moral issues
  • What effect did Nixons 1972 visit to China have
    on American foreign policy?
  • (A) It began the practice of Ping-Pong
    diplomacy.
  • (B) It established the basis for diplomatic ties
    with China.
  • (C) It eased relations with the Soviet Union.
  • (D) It resulted in a freeze on certain types of
    nuclear weapons.

18
Nixons Foreign PolicyAssessment
  • Which of these definitions best describes
    realpolitik?
  • (A) An understanding of the power of the media
    to shape public opinion
  • (B) A push to end the arms race
  • (C) A relaxation in international tensions
  • (D) A political policy that advocates national
    strength above moral issues
  • What effect did Nixons 1972 visit to China have
    on American foreign policy?
  • (A) It began the practice of Ping-Pong
    diplomacy.
  • (B) It established the basis for diplomatic ties
    with China.
  • (C) It eased relations with the Soviet Union.
  • (D) It resulted in a freeze on certain types of
    nuclear weapons.

19
The Watergate Scandal
  • How did the Nixon White House battle its
    political enemies?
  • How did the Committee to Reelect the President
    conduct itself during Nixons reelection
    campaign?
  • What was the Watergate break-in, and how did the
    story of the scandal unfold?
  • What events led directly to Nixons resignation?

20
Battling Political Enemies
  • Nixons suspicious and secretive nature caused
    the White House to operate as if it were
    surrounded by political enemies. One result of
    this mind-set was the creation of an enemies
    list, a list of prominent people seen as
    unsympathetic to the administration.
  • When someone in the National Security Council
    appeared to have leaked secret government
    information to the New York Times, Nixon ordered
    that wiretaps, or listening devices, be installed
    on the telephones of some news reporters and
    members of his staff.
  • Leaks to the press continued, including former
    Defense Department official Daniel Ellsbergs
    leak of the Pentagon Papers, a government study
    that revealed widespread deception about the
    situation in Vietnam.
  • In response, Nixon organized a special White
    House unit, nicknamed the Plumbers, to stop
    government leaks. In September 1971, the
    Plumbers broke into the office of Ellsbergs
    psychiatrist, hoping to punish Ellsberg by
    disclosing damaging personal information about
    him.

21
Nixons Reelection Campaign
  • Campaign Funding
  • The Committee to Reelect the President, led by
    John Mitchell, aimed to collect as much campaign
    money as possible before a new law required such
    contributions to be reported.
  • The money that the Committee collected was
    intended to fund both routine campaign activities
    and secret unethical actions.
  • Dirty Tricks
  • Attempts to sabotage Nixons political opponents
    came to be known as dirty tricks. These
    efforts included sending hecklers to disrupt
    Democratic campaign meetings and assigning spies
    to join the campaigns of opposing candidates.
  • One particularly damaging dirty trick involved
    a faked letter that seriously hurt the candidacy
    of Edmund Muskie, a leading Democratic
    presidential contender.

22
The Watergate Break-In
  • In March 1972, a group within the Committee to
    Reelect the President made plans to wiretap the
    phones at the Democratic National Committee
    Headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex
    in Washington, D.C. This group was led by E.
    Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy.
  • The groups first attempt failed. During their
    second attempt on June 17, 1972, five men were
    arrested. The money they carried was traced
    directly to Nixons reelection campaign, linking
    the break-in to the campaign.
  • The break-in and the coverup which resulted
    became known as the Watergate scandal.

23
The Watergate Coverup
  • Although Nixon had not been involved in the
    break-in, he became involved in its coverup. He
    illegally authorized the CIA to try to persuade
    the FBI to stop its investigation of the
    break-in, on the grounds that the matter involved
    national security.
  • Nixon advisors launched a scheme to bribe the
    Watergate defendants into silence, as well as
    coaching them on how to lie in court.
  • During the months following the break-in, the
    incident was barely noticed by the public. Nixon
    won the 1972 election by a landslide.

24
The Scandal Unfolds
  • The Watergate Trial
  • At the trial of the Watergate burglars in early
    1973, all the defendants either pleaded guilty or
    were found guilty.
  • Judge John J. Sirica, presiding over the trial,
    was not convinced that the full story had been
    told. He sentenced the burglars to long prison
    terms, suggesting that their terms could be
    reduced if they cooperated with upcoming Senate
    hearings on Watergate.
  • Woodward and Bernstein
  • Two young Washington Post reporters, Bob Woodward
    and Carl Bernstein, were influential in tracking
    down information to uncover the Watergate story.
  • Woodward and Bernstein believed that the White
    House would prove to be involved in the Watergate
    scandal.

25
The Scandal Unfolds
  • The Senate Investigates
  • Aided by Woodward and Bernstein and by the
    testimony of one of the Watergate burglars, a
    Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign
    Activities began to investigate the Watergate
    affair.
  • Millions of Americans watched the Senate hearings
    unfold on national television.
  • Nixon attempted to protect himself by forcing two
    top aides to resign and by proclaiming that he
    would take final responsibility for the mistakes
    of others.
  • A Secret Taping System
  • During the Senate hearings, Alexander
    Butterfield, a former presidential assistant,
    revealed the existence of a secret taping system
    in the Presidents office.
  • The taping system had been set up to provide a
    historical record of Nixons presidency. Now it
    could be used to show whether or not Nixon had
    been involved in the Watergate coverup.

26
The Saturday Night Massacre
  • In an effort to demonstrate his honesty, in May
    1973 Nixon agreed to the appointment of a special
    prosecutor for the Watergate affair. A special
    prosecutor works for the Justice Department and
    conducts an investigation into claims of
    wrongdoing by government officials.
  • The Watergate special prosecutor, Archibald Cox,
    insisted that Nixon release the White House
    tapes. Nixon ordered him fired on Saturday,
    October 20, 1973, beginning a series of
    resignations and firings that became known as the
    Saturday Night Massacre.

27
An Administration in Jeopardy
  • Problems in the Nixon Administration, 19731974
  • Nixons public approval rating plummeted after
    his firing of Cox.
  • When Coxs replacement, Leon Jaworski, also
    requested that Nixon turn over the tapes, Nixon
    turned over edited transcripts instead. Feelings
    of anger and disillusionment arose among many who
    read them.
  • Vice President Spiro Agnew, accused of evading
    income taxes and taking bribes, resigned in early
    October 1973. His successor, Gerald Ford, was
    not confirmed until two months later.

28
Impeachment Hearings and Nixons Resignation
  • After the Saturday Night Massacre, Congress began
    the process of determining if they should impeach
    the President, or charge him with misconduct
    while in office.
  • In the summer of 1974, the House Judiciary
    Committee voted to impeach Nixon on numerous
    charges. Conviction, and removal from office,
    seemed likely.
  • On August 5, 1974, Nixon released the White House
    tapes, with an 18 1/2 minute gap. Even with this
    gap, the tapes revealed his involvement in the
    Watergate coverup. On August 9, 1974, Nixon
    resigned, the first President ever to do so.
    Gerald Ford was sworn in as the new President.

29
The Watergate ScandalAssessment
  • Why did members of the Committee to Reelect the
    President break into the Watergate apartment
    complex in 1972?
  • (A) To cover up an increasing scandal
  • (B) To raise undocumented campaign funds
  • (C) To prevent Nixon from turning over tapes
  • (D) To wiretap phones of the Democratic National
    Committee
  • Which statement best describes Nixons role in
    the Watergate affair?
  • (A) He was involved in the break-in but not the
    coverup.
  • (B) He was involved in the coverup but not the
    break-in.
  • (C) He was involved in both the break-in and the
    coverup.
  • (D) He was involved in neither the break-in nor
    the coverup.

30
The Watergate ScandalAssessment
  • Why did members of the Committee to Reelect the
    President break into the Watergate apartment
    complex in 1972?
  • (A) To cover up an increasing scandal
  • (B) To raise undocumented campaign funds
  • (C) To prevent Nixon from turning over tapes
  • (D) To wiretap phones of the Democratic National
    Committee
  • Which statement best describes Nixons role in
    the Watergate affair?
  • (A) He was involved in the break-in but not the
    coverup.
  • (B) He was involved in the coverup but not the
    break-in.
  • (C) He was involved in both the break-in and the
    coverup.
  • (D) He was involved in neither the break-in nor
    the coverup.

31
The Ford Administration
  • How did Gerald Ford become President, and why did
    he pardon Richard Nixon?
  • What economic problems did the Ford
    administration face?
  • What actions in foreign policy did President Ford
    take during his term?
  • How did Americans celebrate the nations
    bicentennial?

32
Ford Becomes President
  • When Gerald Ford took over the Presidency
    following Nixons resignation, he was viewed as a
    popular and noncontroversial political figure.
  • Ford named New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller
    as Vice President, rounding off an administration
    in which neither the President nor the Vice
    President had been elected.

33
The Nixon Pardon
  • At the beginning of Fords presidency, Time
    magazine noted a mood of good feeling and even
    exhilaration in Washington. However, this was
    soon to change.
  • A month after Nixons resignation, Ford pardoned
    the former President for all offenses he might
    have committed, avoiding future prosecution.
    This decision proved to be unpopular, both among
    the general public and among Nixon loyalists
    still facing prosecution. As a result, many
    Republicans were voted out of office in the 1974
    congressional elections.

34
Economic Problems
  • The Economy Stalls
  • Preoccupation with Watergate had prevented Nixon
    from dealing with the economy. By 1974, both
    inflation and unemployment were rising, making
    the economy stagnant. Economists named this
    situation stagflation.
  • Although Ford tried to restore public confidence
    in the economy with the voluntary Whip Inflation
    Now, or WIN program, he later recognized the
    need for more direct action.
  • Government Spending and Conflicts With Congress
  • Although Ford was generally against government
    spending, he supported an increase in
    unemployment benefits and a tax cut in an effort
    to help the economy.
  • Ford was often at odds with the
    Democratic-controlled Congress, which wanted the
    government to take a more active role in the
    economy. In response to Fords vetoes, Congress
    created the highest percentage of veto overrides
    since the 1850s.

35
Foreign PolicySoutheast Asia
  • When North Vietnam began a new offensive against
    the South in the spring of 1975, Ford asked for
    military aid to help South Vietnam. However,
    both Congress and the American people were
    against further involvement in Vietnam.
  • To prevent such involvement, Congress was
    prepared the invoke the War Powers Act, a
    Nixon-era law limiting the Presidents ability to
    involve the United States in foreign conflicts
    without receiving a formal declaration of war
    from Congress.
  • When Communist Cambodia captured the American
    merchant ship Mayaguez, Ford sent the marines to
    recapture the ship. Forty-one American lives
    were lost in the effort, but the incident
    dispelled impressions of American weakness in
    Southeast Asia.

36
Foreign Policy - Asia, Europe, and Africa
  • Asia Ford continued Nixons goals of friendship
    with China and was the first American President
    to visit Japan.
  • Europe and the Soviet Union In 1975, Ford
    signed the Helsinki Accords, a series of
    agreements on European security. He also
    continued Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
    with the Soviet Union.
  • Africa Fords administration aimed to develop
    relationships with African countries newly
    independent from colonial rule.

37
The Nations Birthday
  • Americas bicentennial, or 200th anniversary,
    provided Americans, discouraged by Watergate,
    Vietnam, and the economy, an opportunity to
    celebrate.
  • Parades, concerts, air shows, political speeches,
    and fireworks took place on and around July 4,
    1976, the 200th anniversary of the signing of the
    Declaration of Independence.

38
The Ford AdministrationAssessment
  • Why did Fords popularity fall soon after his
    term began?
  • (A) Americans did not like having a non-elected
    President.
  • (B) His pardon of Nixon proved to be unpopular.
  • (C) His WIN program became highly effective.
  • (D) He began to develop ties with
    newly-independent nations.
  • Which of these topics was an issue on which Ford
    and Congress disagreed?
  • (A) The level of government spending on economic
    programs
  • (B) Celebration of the bicentennial
  • (C) The signing of the Helsinki Accords
  • (D) The recapture of the Mayaguez

39
The Ford AdministrationAssessment
  • Why did Fords popularity fall soon after his
    term began?
  • (A) Americans did not like having a non-elected
    President.
  • (B) His pardon of Nixon proved to be unpopular.
  • (C) His WIN program became highly effective.
  • (D) He began to develop ties with
    newly-independent nations.
  • Which of these topics was an issue on which Ford
    and Congress disagreed?
  • (A) The level of government spending on economic
    programs
  • (B) Celebration of the bicentennial
  • (C) The signing of the Helsinki Accords
  • (D) The recapture of the Mayaguez

40
The Carter Administration
  • What changes did Jimmy Carter bring to the
    presidency?
  • How did Carter deal with domestic issues?
  • What ideals guided Carters foreign policy?
  • What factors influenced the outcome of the 1980
    election?

41
Carters Presidency
  • Although Gerald Ford had the advantage of being
    the incumbent, or current office holder, he faced
    strong opposition from Republicans inside his own
    party during the 1976 presidential election.
    Democrat James Earl (Jimmy) Carter won the
    election by a narrow margin.
  • Carter had no national political experience and
    lacked an ability to win reluctant politicians
    over to his side. Nevertheless, he was
    well-liked for his informal approach to the
    presidency.
  • As President, Carter appointed more women and
    minorities to his staff than previous
    administrations.

42
Carters Domestic PoliciesEconomic Issues and
Deregulation
  • Economic Issues
  • Carter had inherited an unstable economy in which
    inflation and unemployment continued to grow.
  • In response, Carter cut federal spending, mostly
    on social programs. This cut angered liberal
    Democrats.
  • As bond prices fell and interest rates rose,
    Americans lost confidence in Carter and his
    economic advisors.
  • Deregulation
  • Carter felt that government controls on certain
    industries, put in place in the 1800s and early
    1900s, hurt competition and increased consumer
    costs.
  • His move toward deregulation, the reduction or
    removal of government controls, affected the
    energy, railroad, trucking, and airline
    industries. This move, which continued during
    the next two administrations, also angered many
    Democrats.

43
Energy Issues
  • Energy Issues During Carters Presidency
  • Carters Energy Plan To save on rising oil
    prices, Carter asked Americans to conserve fuel
    in their homes, cars, and businesses. He also
    created a new Cabinet department, the Department
    of Energy.
  • Response to Carters Energy Plan States that
    produced oil and gas fiercely opposed Carters
    conservation plans. The National Energy Act,
    passed in 1978, incorporated many of Carters
    directives.
  • Alternative Energy Sources and Three Mile Island
    One of Carters goals was to seek alternative
    energy sources. A partial meltdown of a nuclear
    reactor at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg,
    Pennsylvania, eroded peoples confidence in
    nuclear power.

44
Civil Rights Issues
  • Carters concern for moral values influenced his
    civil rights actions. Soon after taking office,
    he granted amnesty, or a general pardon, to those
    who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.
  • Many of Carters staff appointments won the
    approval of African Americans. However, many
    African Americans were disappointed by his weak
    support for social programs.
  • Affirmative action policies, which aimed to make
    up for past discrimination against women and
    minorities, were a controversial issue during
    Carters presidency. In the landmark case
    Regents of the University of California v. Bakke,
    the Supreme Court ruled that race could be a
    factor in school admissions but that numerical
    quotas could not be used.

45
Carters Foreign Policy
  • Camp David Accords
  • In 1978, Carter brought Egyptian President Anwar
    el-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem
    Begin together for negotiations at Camp David.
  • The resulting framework for Middle East peace,
    known as the Camp David Accords, was an important
    step toward peace in the Middle East. Under its
    terms, Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai
    Peninsula, and Egypt became the first Arab
    country to recognize Israel officially.
  • Soviet-American Relations
  • Although détente was at a high point when Carter
    took office, by the end of his term it was
    effectively dead.
  • Soviets were angered by Carters support of
    Soviet dissidents, writers and other activists
    who criticized the actions of their government.
  • Although a second round of Strategic Arms
    Limitation Talks (SALT II) was begun, the
    resulting treaty was never ratified. Still, both
    nations followed its terms.

46
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
  • Late in 1979, the Soviet Union invaded
    neighboring Afghanistan to bolster a
    Soviet-supported government there. Carter called
    the invasion a clear threat to the peace and
    took steps to show American disapproval of the
    Soviet aggression.
  • As one of these steps, Carter imposed a boycott
    on the 1980 summer Olympic Games to be held in
    Moscow. Sixty other nations eventually joined
    the boycott.

47
The Iran Hostage Crisis
  • In January 1979, revolution broke out in Iran,
    replacing its pro-American shah, Mohammed Reza
    Shah Pahlevi, with Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, an
    anti-Western leader.
  • When Carter allowed the displaced shah to enter
    the United States for medical treatment, angry
    Khomeini followers seized the American embassy in
    Tehran, Irans capital. Fifty-two Americans were
    taken hostage and moved from place to place over
    the course of 444 days.
  • Carters failed attempts to secure the hostages
    freedom decreased his popularity and made his
    chances for reelection appear slim.

48
The 1980 Election
  • By the end of Carters term, his administration
    had lost the confidence of many Americans.
    Although Carter ran for reelection, the nation
    instead chose conservative Republican candidate
    Ronald Reagan by a landslide.
  • In early 1981, following months of secret talks,
    Iran agreed to release the hostages. President
    Reagan sent Carter to greet the hostages as they
    arrived at a U.S. military base in West Germany.

49
The Carter AdministrationAssessment
  • Why was Carter in favor of deregulation?
  • (A) His energy conservation plan called for it.
  • (B) He believed that deregulation would improve
    affirmative action.
  • (C) He felt that government controls raised
    consumer costs.
  • (D) Many liberal Democrats were in favor of it.
  • Which of the following marked an end to
    American-Soviet détente?
  • (A) The signing of the Camp David Accords
  • (B) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the
    resulting widespread boycott of the Olympic Games
  • (C) The Iranian seizure of the American embassy
    in Tehran
  • (D) The ratification of the SALT II treaty

50
The Carter AdministrationAssessment
  • Why was Carter in favor of deregulation?
  • (A) His energy conservation plan called for it.
  • (B) He believed that deregulation would improve
    affirmative action.
  • (C) He felt that government controls raised
    consumer costs.
  • (D) Many liberal Democrats were in favor of it.
  • Which of the following marked an end to
    American-Soviet détente?
  • (A) The signing of the Camp David Accords
  • (B) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the
    resulting widespread boycott of the Olympic Games
  • (C) The Iranian seizure of the American embassy
    in Tehran
  • (D) The ratification of the SALT II treaty
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