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e-Learning: Concepts, Usage and Tools

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Title: e-Learning: Concepts, Usage and Tools Author: Martin Molhanec Last modified by + Created Date: 6/13/2006 9:08:11 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: e-Learning: Concepts, Usage and Tools


1
e-Learning Concepts, Usage and Tools
  • Martin Molhanec

2
Abstract
  • What is e-Learning?
  • Concept of e-Learning.
  • Usage of e-Learning.
  • Tools for e-learning.

3
Resources
  • Malo, R., Motycka, A. eLearning solution at
    Mendel University in Brno. E3 Event, Roma 2003
  • Marcel de Leeuwe
  • http//www.e-learningsite.com/elearning/indelea.ht
    m
  • William Horton Consulting, Inc.
  • http//www.horton.com/html/whcstandardshandouts.as
    p
  • Advanced Distributed Learning
  • http//www.adlnet.gov/Scorm/

4
E-learning, Web-based learning
  • E-learning is mostly associated with activities
    involving computers and interactive networks
    simultaneously. The computer does not need to be
    the central element of the activity or provide
    learning content. However, the computer and the
    network must hold a significant involvement in
    the learning activity.
  • Web-based learning is associated with learning
    materials delivered in a Web browser, including
    when the materials are packaged on CD-ROM or
    other media. disk.

5
Online learning, Distance learning
  • Online learning is associated with content
    readily accessible on a computer. The content may
    be on the Web or the Internet, or simply
    installed on a CD-ROM or the computer hard disk.
  • Distance learning involves interaction at a
    distance between instructor and learners, and
    enables timely instructor reaction to learners.
    Simply posting or broadcasting learning materials
    to learners is not distance learning. Instructors
    must be involved in receiving feedback from
    learners.

6
Synchronous learning
  • Within synchronous learning learning and
    teaching takes place in real time (same time)
    while the trainer and learners are physically
    separated from each other (place shift).
  • Examples include
  • listening to a live radio broadcast
  • watching live a television broadcast
  • audio/video conferencing
  • Internet telephony
  • online lectures
  • two-way live satellite broadcast

7
Asynchronous learning
  • Characteristic for asynchronous learning is the
    fact that that the trainer prepares the
    courseware material before the course takes
    place. The learner is free to decide when he
    wants to study the courseware
  • Examples include
  • self paced courses taken via Internet or CD-Rom
  • videotaped classes
  • stored audio/video Web presentations or seminars
  • recorded audio tapes
  • Q A mentoring
  • reading e-mail messages

8
Examples of asynchronous and synchronous learning
ASYNCHRONOUS LEARNING SYNCHRONOUS LEARNING
Fax Telephone
E-mail Screen Sharing
Knowledge Base Chat
Newsgroups Desktop Conferencing
Computer Based Training Online seminar
Quick Reference Guide  
9
Communication
  • Different ways
  • Within communication we distinguish different
    directions/ways to communicate
  • one to one
  • one to many
  • many to one
  • many to many

10
One to one
  • Situation
  • Learner to learner
  • Learner to trainer
  • Trainer to learner
  • Examples
  • chat private chat in a chat room or the instant
    messenger
  • e-mail send mail to a colleague or ask a
    question to a trainer
  • screen sharing sharing Microsoft Word,
    collaborate on a Word document

11
One to many
  • Situation
  • Trainer to learners
  • Learner to learners
  • Examples
  • chat trainer is explaining content to learners
  • video conference trainer is explaining content
    to learners via web broadcast
  • screen sharing using the net for giving learners
    a tour through PowerPoint slides or web pages
  • newsgroups posting a question in a newsgroup or
    discussion forum
  • e-seminar lecture or presentation over the
    internet

12
Many to one
  • Situation
  • Learners to trainer
  • Learners to learner
  • Examples
  • chat ask or discuss real-time questions or
    issues to a learning desk
  • newsgroup react on a posted message in a
    discussion forum

13
Many to many
  • Situation
  • Learners to learners
  • Learners to learners and trainers
  • Examples
  • chat discussion where learners can exchange
    learning experiences or just talk or a discussion
    led by trainers where students solve a case by
    collaboration through discussion
  • two-way video conferencing virtual classroom
    situation where trainer explains and learners
    react or meeting where subjects can be discussed
  • telephone conferencing

14
e-Learning elements
  • Text
  • Picture/Image
  • Animation
  • Audio
  • Video

15
Text
  • The alphabet, words, sentences, paragraphs. Text
    processing refers to the ability to manipulate
    words, lines, and pages.
  • Size
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
  • Font
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
    The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy
    dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
  • Color
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy
    dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

16
Text
  • The alphabet, words, sentences, paragraphs. Text
    processing refers to the ability to manipulate
    words, lines, and pages.
  • Size
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
  • Font
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
    The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy
    dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
  • Color
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy
    dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

17
Pictures/images
  • A picture or image is data represented in a
    two-dimensional scene. A digital image is
    composed of pixels arranged in a rectangular
    array with a certain height and width. Each pixel
    may consist of one or more bits of information,
    representing the brightness of the image at that
    point and possibly including color information
    encoded as RGB triples.

18
Pictures/images
  • A picture or image is data represented in a
    two-dimensional scene. A digital image is
    composed of pixels arranged in a rectangular
    array with a certain height and width. Each pixel
    may consist of one or more bits of information,
    representing the brightness of the image at that
    point and possibly including color information
    encoded as RGB triples.

19
Animations
  • An animation is a simulation of movement created
    by displaying a series of pictures, or frames.A
    cartoon on television is one example of
    animation.
  • Animation on computers is one of the chief
    ingredients of multimedia presentations.
  • Animations can be made with special techniques
    like Flash or with image applications like
    Photoshop and Fireworks and exported as animated
    GIF.

20
Animations
  • An animation is a simulation of movement created
    by displaying a series of pictures, or frames.A
    cartoon on television is one example of
    animation.
  • Animation on computers is one of the chief
    ingredients of multimedia presentations.
  • Animations can be made with special techniques
    like Flash or with image applications like
    Photoshop and Fireworks and exported as animated
    GIF.

21
Audio
  • Audio is sound within the acoustic range
    available to humans. On a computer an audio file
    is a record of captured sound that can be played
    back.
  • Audio files are usually compressed for storage
    purposes or faster transmission. In order for
    users to receive sound in real-time for a
    multimedia effect, sound must be delivered as
    streaming sound. The advantage of streaming
    (instead of downloaded sounds) is that there is
    no waiting (or very little) from the time you
    click the mouse until you hear the sound. Well
    known formats are wave (.wav) , midi (.mid),
    MPEG, audio layer 3 (.mp3).

22
Audio
  • Audio is sound within the acoustic range
    available to humans. On a computer an audio file
    is a record of captured sound that can be played
    back.
  • Audio files are usually compressed for storage
    purposes or faster transmission. In order for
    users to receive sound in real-time for a
    multimedia effect, sound must be delivered as
    streaming sound. The advantage of streaming
    (instead of downloaded sounds) is that there is
    no waiting (or very little) from the time you
    click the mouse until you hear the sound. Well
    known formats are wave (.wav) , midi (.mid),
    MPEG, audio layer 3 (.mp3).

23
Video
  • Video refers to displaying still images, in such
    a high speed that our mind interpreters the
    sequence of images as a movement. You can compare
    it with animation. The difference is the use of
    real images (pictures) and most of the time the
    number of frames per second is higher with video
    then with animations. The higher the number of
    frames per second, the more our eyes are
    interpreting the sequential as real 'movement'.

24
Video
  • Video refers to displaying still images, in such
    a high speed that our mind interpreters the
    sequence of images as a movement. You can compare
    it with animation. The difference is the use of
    real images (pictures) and most of the time the
    number of frames per second is higher with video
    then with animations. The higher the number of
    frames per second, the more our eyes are
    interpreting the sequential as real 'movement'.

25
Creating eLearning documents I.
  • Basic elements of own study text
  • paragraphs
  • tables
  • pictures
  • lists
  • others objects (sound, video, )
  • Main parts of eLearning document
  • title
  • basic information about document
  • motivation, prerequisites, instructions, goals,
  • chapters and sections
  • test
  • glossary
  • literature

26
Creating eLearning documents II.
  • Basic elements of chapters
  • goals of the chapter
  • sections and subsections
  • summary
  • index of terms
  • information sources
  • question for thinking
  • examples and results
  • recommended elements
  • eLearning documents are too long for manual
    creating
  • set of elements which are necessary

27
Learning Management System (LMS)
  • Learning management system is software that
    deploys, manages, tracks and reports on
    interaction between learner content and between
    learner instructor. In particular, LMS performs
    student registration, tracks learner progress,
    records test scores, and indicates course
    completions and finally it allows trainers to
    assess the performance of their learners.
  • Main features of an LMS
  • Registration - enroll and administer learners
    online for web-based, instructor-led, and all
    other learning activities.
  • Scheduling - schedule courses and define
    curricula to address individual and
    organizational learning needs. Also off-line
    resources can be included (classrooms, books,
    coaches etc.).
  • Delivery - deliver online courses and assessments
    or schedule instructor-led courses.
  • Tracking - track the progress of the learners and
    create reports.
  • Communication - communicate by chat, discussion
    forum, mail, screensharing and e-seminars.
  • Testing - test and assess competency, learning
    styles and student commitment.

28
General requirements for LMS system
  • Support of different possibilities of learning.
  • Integration of solution in the context of IS
    firm.
  • Wide administration range.
  • Compatibility with standards.
  • The support of the applications of the other
    suppliers.
  • Possibility of using new technologies so called
    mobile communication.
  • An access thanks web client.
  • Other functions.

29
Users and parts of LMS
  • Two basic types of user
  • students
  • teachers
  • LMS consists of three basic types application
  • applications for learning (documents, examples)
  • testing applications (test, checking of tests)
  • support applications (notepad, discussion forum,
    chat)

30
Student interface - functions
  • Teaching part
  • teaching materials
  • solved examples
  • lists of questions
  • glossaries
  • auto tests
  • List of tasks and projects
  • assignments and evaluations
  • Communication tools
  • message board
  • chat
  • discussion forum
  • Other tools
  • notepad
  • links
  • download section

31
Teacher interface - functions
  • Creating study materials and sources for studies
  • own study materials
  • glossaries, lists of terms, solved problems
  • exercises, summaries
  • links, recommended sources, ...
  • Creating tests
  • online test with automatic evaluation
  • offline printed test
  • Communication tools
  • Assignments of projects and tasks to students

32
Web tools
33
E-learning creation tools
34
Collaboration tools
35
Media tools and converters
36
Management systems
37
Standards organizations
38
Packaging standard
39
AICC
40
AICC (Aviation Industry CBT Committee)
  • The AICC (Aviation Industry CBT Committee)
    develops guidelines for the aviation industry in
    the development, delivery, and evaluation of CBT
    and related training technologies.
  • The objectives of the AICC are to
  • assist airplane operators in development of
    guidelines that promote the economic and
    effective implementation of computer-based
    training (CBT)
  • develop guidelines to enable interoperability
  • provide an open forum for the discussion of CBT
    and other training technologies
  • Although AICC primarily attends to the aviation
    industry, over 13 years focus on the
    specifications required to meet this industry's
    needs has led to a very well developed
    specifications for learning and particularly for
    computer managed instruction. As a result, a wide
    range of learning consortiums and accredited
    standards groups are in the process of adopting
    and adapting the AICC guidelines to their own
    industries.

41
IMS
42
IMS (Instructional Management System) Global
Learning Consortium
  • The IMS (Instructional Management System) Global
    Learning Consortium is developing and promoting
    open specifications (no standards) for
    facilitating online distributed learning
    activities such as locating and using educational
    content, tracking learner progress, reporting
    learner performance, and exchanging student
    records between administrative systems.
  • IMS has two key goals
  • defining the technical standards for
    interoperability of applications and services in
    distributed learning
  • supporting the incorporation of IMS
    specifications into products and services
    worldwide. IMS promotes widespread adoption of
    specifications that will allow distributed
    learning environments and content from multiple
    authors to work together.

43
Communications standards
44
Metadata standards
45
IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee
(LTSC)
  • One of the most important accredited standards
    bodies is IEEE Learning Technology Standards
    Committee (LTSC). This committee consist of over
    20 working groups who are covering a large
    far-reaching topics including learning object
    metadata, student profiles, course sequencing,
    computer managed instruction, competency
    definitions, localization, and content packaging.
    The mission of IEEE LTSC working groups is to
    develop technical Standards, Recommended
    Practices, and Guides for software components,
    tools, technologies and design methods that
    facilitate the development, deployment,
    maintenance and interoperation of computer
    implementations of education and training
    components and systems.

46
Quality standards
47
International Standards Organization (ISO)
  • The IEEE LTSC has also recently initiated the
    move of this work to the full International
    Standards Organization (ISO) standards by
    establishing ISO Joint Technical Committee 1
    (JTC1) Sub Committee 36 (SC36) on Learning
    Technology. SC36 Develops International Standards
    in the areas of Learning, Education, and
    Training.
  • ISO is a worldwide federation of national
    standards bodies from some 130 countries, one
    from each country. The mission of ISO is to
    promote the development of standardization and
    related activities in the world with a view to
    facilitating the international exchange of goods
    and services, and to developing cooperation in
    the spheres of intellectual, scientific,
    technological and economic activity. ISO's work
    results in international agreements, which are
    published as International Standards.

48
Design standards
49
Accessibility standards
50
Learning object
51
SCORM 2004
  • SCORM is a collection of standards and
    specifications adapted from multiple sources to
    provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning
    capabilities that enable interoperability,
    accessibility and reusability of Web-based
    learning content.
  • One of the primary forces behind changes to SCORM
    has been the evolution of the underlying
    specifications and standards in SCORM 2004
  • IEEE Data Model For Content Object Communication
  • IEEE ECMAScript Application Programming Interface
    for Content to Runtime Services Communication
  • IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM)
  • IEEE Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema
    Binding for Learning Object Metadata Data Model
  • IMS Content Packaging
  • IMS Simple Sequencing.

52
Resume
  • E-Learning
  • It is not a cup of web pages! It is a complex
    learning environment!
  • We need a possibility professionally to create
    our learning materials.
  • We need a professional LMS system, which is
    compliment with all e-learning relevant
    standards.
  • We need a money and peoples!
  • And lot of optimism ?
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