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Unit 4: Learning and Cognitive Processes

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Unit 4: Learning and Cognitive Processes Ch 9: Learning: Principles and Applications Ch 10: Memory and Thought Ch 11: Thinking and Language Ch 12: Motivation and Emotion – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 4: Learning and Cognitive Processes


1
Unit 4 Learning and Cognitive Processes
  • Ch 9 Learning Principles and Applications
  • Ch 10 Memory and Thought
  • Ch 11 Thinking and Language
  • Ch 12 Motivation and Emotion

2
Ch 9 Learning Principles and Applications
  • Classical conditioning
  • A learning procedure in which associations are
    made b/w a _________ stimulus a ___________
    stimulus.
  • A persons or animals old response becomes
    attached to a _________.
  • Its a type of _________. This type of learning
    is a relatively permanent change in a behavioral
    tendency that results from ___________.
  • Discovered by ______________ accidentally.

3
  • Pavlovs experiment
  • Pavlov began by ringing a ________ then quickly
    placing some meat on a dogs tongue. He used a
    tuning fork b/c it was a neutral stimulus (a
    stimulus that ________________ any part of the
    unconditioned response).
  • After only doing this a few times, the dog
    started _______ as soon as it heard the sound,
    even if _______ was placed in its mouth.
  • This showed that a neutral stimulus can cause a
    formerly _________ __________.

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  • The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is an event that
    elicits a certain _________________ typically w/o
    previous training (the food).
  • The unconditioned response (UCR) is an organisms
    natural reaction to a stimulus ______
    (salivating at the food).
  • The conditioned stimulus (CS) is a
    ________________ that elicits a given response
    _______________ _______ in which it has been
    paired w/ an unconditioned stimulus (the tuning
    fork).
  • The conditioned response (CR) is the
    _______________ to a conditioned stimulus
    (salivating at the tuning fork).

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  • General principles of classical conditioning
  • Helps animals humans ______________
    _______________ to avoid danger.
  • Acquisition of a classically conditioned response
    usually _______________. Pavlov found that
    classical conditioning was most effective when
    the CS was presented ____________ the UCS (tuning
    fork before food).
  • Generalization occurs when an animal responds to
    a __________ similar to the original CS w/o prior
    training w/ the 2nd stimulus. Pavlov conditioned
    a dog to salivate at the sight of a circle
    found that it would salivate at the sight of an
    _______ also.
  • Discrimination is the ability to respond
    differently to similar but ________________.
    Pavlov was able to teach the dog to only respond
    to the ___________________.
  • Generalization discrimination are part of your
    everyday life both ____________.

9
  • 4. Extinction is the _________________ of a CR
    when the CS is repeatedly presented w/o the UCS.
    Eventually the dog quit salivating after hearing
    the tuning fork when Pavlov repeatedly ________
    it food afterwards.
  • __________________ may occur after a rest period
    when the CS causes a CR but is not followed by a
    UCS. However the CR doesnt come back at its
    ____________. After a while Pavlov used the
    tuning fork w/o giving the dog food found
    that the dog did salivate but not as much.
  • _________ could be an example.

10
  • Little Albert
  • John B. Watson Rosalie Rayner used conditioning
    on 11 mo. old Albert. They taught him to _______.
    At 1st he happily played w/ the rats, but then
    they would strike a steel bar w/ a hammer when
    rats were nearby. Eventually, Albert began to
    fear the rats even when the __________ _______.
  • What was the UCS?
  • _____________________ _____________________.
  • What was the UCR?
  • _____________________.
  • What was the CS?
  • _____________________.
  • What was the CR?
  • _____________________.

11
  • Taste aversions
  • Summary of classical conditioning
  • If you eat ___________ then become sick, you
    will probably blame the illness on what you ate
    will likely ________ if confronted w/ it again.
  • Its a type of _______________.
  • It helps animals humans _____ what is going to
    happen. So it can provide information that is
    helpful to ________.
  • Can be helpful for __________ or finding food.
  • Its an example of a behaviorist theory.
    Behaviorism is the study of trying to understand
    behavior in terms of relationships b/w observable
    _______ observable ________. Behaviorists are
    only concerned w/ what can be _______.

12
End Section 1
13
  • Operant conditioning
  • Learning in which a certain action is
    ______________________, resulting in
    corresponding increases or decreases in
    occurrence.
  • In other words, its learning from the
    ________________________.
  • The term operant comes from the subject operating
    on his/her ______________.
  • Unlike classical conditioning it studies how
    _________________ is affected by its
    consequences.
  • ____________ is the psychologist most closely
    associated w/ operant conditioning.
  • Believed that a persons behavior is influenced
    by his/her ________ of rewards punishments.

14
  • Skinners experiment on rats
  • Skinner trained rats to respond to lights
    sounds in a special enclosure called a
    _______________.
  • Rats were placed in the box every time they
    walked towards the bar, food was dropped in the
    cage. Eventually the rat would ____________ in
    that direction when they were hungry. At that
    point, Skinner would only drop food in the box if
    they pressed the bar. The rat learned to press
    the bar _______________________.

15
  • Reinforcement
  • The food that appeared in the cage in Skinners
    rat experiment was a _________. Reinforcement is
    a stimulus or event that the likelihood that a
    __________________.
  • Ex training a dog to sit by giving it treats.
  • Reinforcers for humans often include social
    approval, ________, extra privileges.
  • Positive reinforcement occurs when an
    animal/human is given something _________.
    Something is __________.
  • Negative reinforcement occurs when an
    animal/human has something ____________ _______.
    Something is _______________.
  • Involves taking something away or preventing
    something from happening.
  • Escape conditioning involves training an
    animal/human to ______________ an unpleasant
    stimulus.
  • Avoidance conditioning involves training an
    animal/human to prevent an unpleasant stimulus
    ________________________.

16
  • A primary reinforcer is one that satisfies a
    ______________ such as hunger, thirst, sleep,
    clothing, etc...
  • A secondary reinforcer is one that has been
    paired w/ a primary reinforcer through
    classical conditioning has ____________
    reinforcement.
  • is the __________ for a secondary reinforcer.

17
  • Schedules of reinforcement
  • ______________ of reinforcement is an important
    factor in operant conditioning.
  • Behavior reinforced __________________ is on a
    continuous schedule of reinforcement.
  • When positive reinforcement occurs only
    sometimes, its on a ___________________.
  • These responses are established slower but
    usually ___________ once learned. 4 types
  • 1. Fixed-ratio schedule specific of
    ______________ is required before reinforcement
    can be obtained.
  • 2. Variable-ratio schedule - _____________ of
    responses are required before reinforcement can
    be obtained.
  • 3. Fixed-interval schedule specific
    ____________ must pass before a response will
    obtain reinforcement.
  • 4. Variable-interval schedule ______ amounts of
    time must pass before a response will obtain
    reinforcement.

______ constant, unchanging ______
changes ___ of times an action
occurs ________ passage of time
18
  • Techniques in operant conditioning
  • Shaping - a technique in which the desired
    behavior is ______ by 1st rewarding any act
    similar to that behavior then requiring
    ever-closer approximations to the desired
    behavior before __________ __________.
  • Used for teaching _____________.
  • Chaining a response chain is a _______
    _____________ that follow one another in sequence
    w/ each reaction producing the signal for the
    next.
  • Behaviors are combined into _______________.
    Usually _____ ____ must be mastered before you
    can complete the response patterns.
  • Ex. washing your hair, driving, etc

19
  • Aversive control
  • The process of influencing behavior by means of
    _____________________.
  • Unlike reinforcement, ___________ involves
    a particular behavior.
  • _______________ occurs when an animal/human is
    given something it doesnt want.
  • _______________ occurs when an animal/human has
    something it wants removed.
  • Punishment can have __________ ____________ like
    rage, aggression, fear. Also, people learn to
    ______ the person delivering the punishment.

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  • Contrasting classical operant conditioning

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
Always a _______ _______ (UCS) that elicits the desired response. No ___________ ________ learner must 1st respond, then behavior is ___________.
UCS doesnt depend upon learners ___________. _____________ depends upon learners behavior.
Learner ________ to its environment. Learner ________ ________ on its environment.
______________ ______________
End Section 2
22
  • Social learning
  • A process of _________________ by observing
    imitating the behavior of others. There are 2
    types
  • 1. Cognitive learning focuses on how
    information is _______, processed, _________.
    It may result from observation or imitation.
  • A cognitive map is a _____________ of spatial
    relationships or relationships b/w events.
  • Latent learning is the alteration of a behavioral
    tendency that is not demonstrated by an
    ____________, observable change in behavior.
  • Learned helplessness is a condition in which
    _________________________ _____________,
    resulting in the belief that the situation is
    uncontrollable.
  • - Some believe learned helplessness is a
    major cause of ____________.

23
  • 2. Modeling is learning by _________ others
    behaviors.
  • It involves ___________ imitation.
  • There are 3 potential effects
  • 1. the chance that well do the
    _________ (we already knew the behaviors,
    but were just learning how to apply
    them).
  • 2. Observational learning imitation of a
    ____________.
  • 3. _____________ If you see someone
    doing something that you think is ____, but
    nothing happens to them, youll be more
    likely to do the same thing in the future.
  • - This can help lessen/cure ________.

24
  • Behavior modification
  • The systematic application of learning principles
    (classical conditioning, operant conditioning,
    social learning) to change peoples __________
    ______________.
  • Ways to modify behavior include (but are not
    limited to)
  • ___________-assisted instruction.
  • Token economies conditioning in which desirable
    behavior is reinforced w/ _________________,
    which can be accumulated exchanged for valued
    rewards.
  • _________________
  • Set up your own ____________ of rewards
    punishments.
  • Best way to start is to _________ of the
    behavior.
  • - How often is it occurring?
  • - What triggers it?
  • Read p.266 Improving Your Study Habits

End Section 3
25
Ch 10 Memory and Thought
  • Memory
  • The storage retrieval of what has been learned
    or ________________.
  • The process of memory
  • Encoding the transforming of information so the
    _________________ can process it.
  • - You use your ________ to encode
    memories.
  • 2. Storage the process by which information is
    ____________ over a period of time.
  • - Can be stored for a ___________ or
    longer.
  • 3. Retrieval occurs when information is brought
    to the mind __________________.
  • 3 types
  • _________
  • Short-term
  • ___________

26
  • Sensory memory
  • Very brief memory storage immediately following
    initial ___________________.
  • Your senses (ex. sight or hearing) are able to
    hold an input for a ____________________ before
    it disappears.
  • Serves 3 functions
  • Prevents you from being ____________.
  • Gives you time to decide if information is
    ____________ ____________ to.
  • Allows for continuity _________ in your world.

27
  • Short-term memory
  • Memory that is ___________________ in capacity
    to about __________ items by the subjects active
    rehearsal.
  • Doesnt necessarily involve __________
    ____________.
  • Maintenance rehearsal is a system for remembering
    that involves repeating information to oneself
    w/o attempting to _________________ in it.
  • Ex. Repeating a telephone
  • Duration lasts a bit less than _____ __________
    w/o rehearsal.
  • Usually we can only remember 7 unrelated items
    (plus or minus ______).
  • Chunking is the process of _________________ to
    make it easier to remember them.

28
  • The Primary Recency Effect refers to the fact
    that we are better able to recall information
    presented at the ________________________.
  • Primacy you had more time to ___________________
    .
  • Recency the __________ are still in short-term
    memory.

29
  • Long-term memory
  • The storage of information over _________
    _________________.
  • Stored according to ___________ or features.
  • The capacity appears to be _________.
  • Starts as sensory, goes to short-term, then
    becomes long-term (___________ __________).
  • Ways of ___________ long-term memory
  • Semantic memory is our knowledge of _________
    (including its words, rules, meanings).
    Episodic memory is our memory of
    ________________.
  • OR
  • Declarative memory involves both
    ____________________ memory it is knowledge that
    can be called forth consciously used as you
    need it. Procedural memory is memory of _____
    ______ that does not require conscious
    recollection (ex. riding a bike).

End Section 1
30
  • Retrieving information
  • The ability to retrieve memories is based upon
    how we ____________________.
  • Psychologists dont yet know how memories are
    organized though.
  • There are different methods of retrieval
  • ___________
  • _______
  • __________

31
  • Recognition
  • Is the process of memory retrieval in which a
    person identifies an object, idea, or situation
    as one he/she _______________ ____________________
    _.
  • Ex. You might not remember your best friend in
    kindergarten but could _________________ of
    him/her.
  • This ability suggests that much ____
    ________________ in memory than one might think.
  • Information stored in _______ __________ can be
    more easily retrieved.

32
  • Recall
  • Is the process of memory retrieval in which a
    person reconstructs _____________________________.
  • Involves more than searching for finding
    information. It involves your knowledge,
    attitudes, ___________.
  • These influence what how we _____________.
  • Reconstructive processes is the alteration of a
    recalled memory that may be ___________depending
    on an individuals experiences, attitudes, or
    inferences.
  • Sometimes events get _________ in memories.
  • Its why 2 people might remember the same event
    ____________.
  • Confabulation is a memory mistake in which we
    remember information that ____________ in order
    to fill in _______________.
  • Our schemas (our ways of mentally organizing
    things) influence how we _________________.
  • Few adults have a photographic memory, but about
    __ of children do.
  • Youre more likely to remember things if youre
    in the same _____________ /or _____________ that
    you were in when the event occurred.

33
  • Relearning
  • Recognition recall are part of declarative
    memory. But relearning is part of declarative
    ____________ memory.
  • Ex. You learned a poem as a child then forget
    it. Years later you can memorize the same poem
    w/ ______ _________ than someone w/ similar
    abilities to yours.

34
  • Forgetting
  • Information that once entered long-term memory
    but is _____________________ is said to be
    forgotten.
  • Forgetting may involve decay, interference, or
    repression.
  • Decay is the ___________ of memory over time.
  • Interference is when a memory is blocked or
    erased by _________________________.
  • Proactive interference is when an _______________
    blocks you from remembering related new
    information.
  • Retroactive interference is when a _____________
    or new information blocks you from remembering
    information learned earlier.
  • Repression occurs when a person
    _____________________________ of an embarrassing
    or frightening experience.

35
  • Amnesia
  • A ______________ that may occur after a blow to
    the head, brain damage, ______, or severe
    psychological stress.
  • Infant amnesia is the relative lack of early
    declarative memories. Most memories from
    ________________________________.
  • Theories for infant amnesia
  • Freud thought it occurred b/c the memories were
    _________ due to the emotional traumas of
    infancy.
  • Some think its b/c infants dont yet
    ___________________.
  • Others believe its b/c the hippocampus (part of
    the brain which helps w/ long-term memory) hasnt
    ____________.

36
  • Improving memory
  • Repetition, or _____________________ is good for
    short-term memory, but what about long-term?
  • Elaborative rehearsal is ___________________ to
    material that is already known.
  • Ex. Perhaps as a child you had trouble spelling
    the word together. Then you notice that its
    just the 3 words to get her combined can
    now spell it easily.
  • A good way to protect memory is to __________.
    Keep rehearsing even after __________________.
  • Avoid studying ___________________ together.
  • _____________ your learning.
  • Mnemonic devices are techniques for using
    _____________ to memorize retrieve information.
  • Involve some ________, but that may be part of
    the reason they work.

End Section 2
37
Ch 11 Thinking and Language
  • Thinking
  • (Try it sometime ?)
  • The changing reorganizing of information stored
    in memory to ________________________.
  • Enables humans to put together any combination of
    words from memory create sentences
    ______________ __________.
  • The process of thinking depends on several
    devices or ____________ images, symbols,
    concepts, prototypes, rules.

38
  • Units of thought
  • An image is a visual, mental representation of an
    _________________.
  • Most _________________ of thought.
  • Its often not an __________ usually only
    contains highlights of the original.
  • A symbol is an ________ unit of thought of a
    sound, object, or design that represents an
    object or quality.
  • Most common symbol is _____. Others include
    punctuation, numbers, letters.
  • A concept is a label for a class of objects or
    events that have at least 1 attribute in common.
    - ________
  • Allow us to ____ large amounts of information.
  • A prototype is a representative ______ of a
    concept.
  • Ex. When you hear the word car, you think of a
    Toyota Camry.
  • A rule is a _____________________ b/w concepts.
  • Ex. You cant be in 2 places at once. 224.
    The sun rises in the east sets in the west.

39
  • Kinds of thinking
  • Directed or convergent thinking is a systematic
    ________ attempt to reach a specific goal or
    answer (like the solution to a math problem).
  • Deliberate _____________.
  • Nondirected or divergent thinking is a _____
    ______ of thoughts w/ no particular plan
    depends more on _________.
  • Usually rich w/ _________ fantasies.
  • Can provide unexpected insights into a persons
    goals beliefs.
  • Metacognition is the awareness of ones own
    cognitive processes (_________________).
  • Thinking about your strategy might make you
    re-evaluate it come up w/ a _________________.

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  • Problem solving
  • One of the main functions of directed thinking is
    to __________________.
  • Strategies for solving problems include
  • Breaking down a large problem into
    ________________.
  • ______________ from your goal to the beginning.
  • _______________ options to reach goal.
  • We tend to use the ______________ that worked in
    the past.
  • An algorithm is a ______________________ for
    solving a problem.
  • They can be time-consuming.
  • Heuristics are __________________ or rules of
    thumb that simplify a problem.
  • Can lead to _____ solutions, but may be bad ones.

42
  • A mental set is a habitual strategy or _______
    _____________________.
  • Can lead to rigidity (an inability to look at
    other _________).
  • Functional fixedness is the inability to imagine
    _____________ for familiar objects.
  • Less likely to occur w/ ______ problems.
  • To overcome this, you must look for new ways of
    solving problems get _______!

43
  • Creativity
  • The capacity to use information /or abilities in
    a _____________________.
  • Characteristics of creative thinking
  • Flexibility the ability to overcome __________
  • Recombination the rearranging of the elements
    of a problem to arrive at an ________________.
  • Insight the apparent sudden realization of the
    _______________ _____________.
  • Occurs when you step away from a problem for
    awhile but still think about it on an
    ____________________.
  • The aha experience.

End Section 1
44
  • Language
  • The expression of ideas through symbols sounds
    that are arranged ___________________.
  • Lets us communicate facts _______.
  • It allows us to tell each other about the
    __________ _____________.
  • Consists of 3 elements - phonemes, morphemes,
    syntax.
  • Phonemes are ___________ it may be a single
    letter like t or a combination of letters like
    sh. There are about ____ recognizable sounds,
    but not all sounds are used in any languages.
  • Morphemes are the smallest ___________ it may
    be a letter, word, prefix, or suffix.
  • Syntax are _______________ that govern how words
    can be combined to form meaningful phrases
    sentences. The rules of language differ in
    ___________________.
  • Semantics is the study of _________________.
    You learn to determine a words meaning based in
    part on its context.

45
  • Language development
  • B.F. Skinner believed that children learned
    language through ________________.
  • Adults would smile nod at _______ sounds/words.
  • Critics argue that children _________ language
    before they speak believe that children learn
    the rules of language before they receive any
    ___________.
  • Some psychologists believe children use
    ______________ (observation imitation).
  • Noam Chomsky believed that reinforcement social
    learning both played a part in language
    development but theorized that infants inherit a
    _____________ that enables them to learn grammar.

46
  • How language develops
  • There are 4 steps in every language/culture
  • 1. _______ (around 4 mo.) infants are learning
    to control their vocal cords to make, change,
    repeat, imitate the sounds of their parents.
  • 2. ________________ (around 1st yr.).
  • 3. ________________ (around end of 2nd yr.).
  • 4. ____________________ (2-3 yrs.).

47
  • Gender cultural differences in language
  • People use language to communicate their
    _________ express their ideas.
  • Some believe that our language affects our
    _____________________ of the physical world.
    This is known as linguistic relativity.
  • Also some believe that our language affects our
    _________________.
  • Some words create _________ _____________ (ex
    congressman, chairman, ballerina, etc).
  • We tend to automatically use ___________________
    for certain jobs (ex. teachers tend to be she
    doctors tend to be he).

End Section 2
48
Ch 12 Motivation and Emotion
  • Motivation
  • An internal state that activates behavior
    directs it _______________.
  • Causes us to act certain ways at _____________.
  • B/c motivation cant be _______________,
    psychologists infer motivation from goal-directed
    behavior.
  • In other words, they determine what your
    motivation is by looking at what you are
    __________________.
  • There are 4 theories about motivation
  • ________
  • Drive-reduction
  • ________
  • Cognitive

49
  • Instinct Theory
  • Its been proposed that humans are motivated by a
    variety of _______.
  • Instincts are natural or ________ _________ of an
    organism to make a specific response to certain
    stimuli w/o involving _________.
  • Innate tendencies that __________________.
  • Occur in almost the same way among all members of
    a _______.
  • Human instincts include things like parental
    love, sociability, sympathy, curiosity,
    __________, etc
  • A flaw in the instinct theory is that instincts
    dont explain behavior they just ___________.

50
  • Drive-Reduction Theory
  • A need is a biological or psychological
    _______________________________.
  • A need produces a _______.
  • A drive is an ______________ that can change over
    time orients an individual toward a specific
    goal(s).
  • It motivates an organism toward a _____.
  • Ex. Hunger drives us to eat fatigue drives us
    to rest.
  • Psychologist Clark Hull traced motivation back to
    basic __________ needs. He believed when an
    organism is deprived of something it needs or
    wants, it becomes _____ agitated. It strives
    to maintain homeostasis (the tendency of all
    organisms to maintain a ________________).
  • The organism will engage in _______ behavior
    until it does something that relieves the ______.
    It will then ______ that behavior next time that
    drive is felt.

51
________ _________
Drive- Reduction Theory
__________
____
________ _______
______
52
  • Hull believed that all human motives are
    extensions of __________________. Ex. the need
    for social approval could be __________ through
    having a smiling parent fulfill your needs as an
    infant.
  • BUT in Harry Harlows experiment, baby monkeys
    would often attach themselves to a cloth
    surrogate monkey w/o food instead of a wood
    wire monkey w/ food, showing the
    _____________________ __________.
  • Overlooked that some experiences are just
    _____________________.
  • Dont reduce biological drives, but serve as
    __________ or goals.
  • Also, we sometimes engage in behavior that
    the __________________ (ex. riding on a roller
    coaster).
  • Read p.318 A Balance for Living

53
  • Incentive Theory
  • Stresses the role of the _________ in motivating
    behavior.
  • Believe that _____________ are directed toward a
    goal or incentive (an external stimulus,
    reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior).
  • Drives _____ us to reduce needs, but incentives
    _____ us to obtain them.
  • Ex. Hunger drives us toward the kitchen, but the
    sandwich is the incentive.
  • The _____ the drive, the ______ the incentive
    must be.

54
  • Cognitive Theory
  • Supporters believe that we ____________ _______
    at certain times as a result of extrinsic
    intrinsic motivation.
  • Extrinsic motivation refers to engaging in
    activities that either reduce _______________ or
    help us obtain __________________.
  • Intrinsic motivation refers to engaging in
    activities b/c those activities are
    ________________ or b/c they fulfill our beliefs
    or expectations.
  • We often ___________________ b/c of extrinsic
    intrinsic motivations.
  • The over-justification effect occurs when people
    are given more ________________ than necessary to
    perform a task their _________ motivation .

55
End Section 1
56
  • Biological motives
  • These are needs that are _____________ _________
    physical well-being.
  • The ______________ is designed so that dramatic
    variations in blood sugar, water, oxygen, salt,
    or essential vitamins lead to changes in behavior
    designed to ________ _____________________.
  • Ex. Your body temperature drops you are cold,
    you shiver put on more clothes. If your body
    temperature rises you are hot, you sweat
    remove some clothes.
  • Some biological needs include food, water,
    oxygen, sleep, __________________.

57
  • Hunger
  • Your body requires food to grow, to repair
    itself, to ______________.
  • The lateral hypothalamus is the part of the
    hypothalamus that produces _______________.
  • More active in ______ temperatures.
  • The ventromedial hypothalamus is the part of the
    hypothalamus that sends signals that tell you to
    ________________.
  • More active in ______ temperatures.
  • Your blood sugar (or glucose) refers to the
    amount of _________ available in the blood. If
    these levels drop, you get hungry.
  • There are other factors besides the biological
    that influence hunger. These are known as
    ______________ hunger factors.
  • Include smells appearance of food, watching
    others eat, ________________, boredom, stress,
    habit, etc

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  • Obesity
  • More more evidence is showing that a persons
    weight is controlled by ________ __________.
  • There is a _________________ that may predispose
    some people to be obese.
  • An overweight person is ___ over his/her ideal
    body weight.
  • An obese person is ___ over his/her ideal body
    weight.
  • Studies have shown that obese people are more
    likely to respond to __________ (for reasons
    other than ________).

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  • Social motives
  • These are needs that are learned from our
    __________ w/ other people.
  • The _________________ concerns the desire to set
    challenging goals to persist in trying to reach
    those goals despite the __________.
  • Studies have shown that ___________ are not
    always the most interesting they arent usually
    _________________. They are also less likely to
    value intimacy in a relationship. They often
    prefer to associate w/ experts who will help them
    achieve, instead of w/ more ___________.

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  • Some people are motivated not to achieve, but b/c
    they have a ________________.
  • These people tend to _____________ tasks prefer
    easy ones that they are confident they can
    _____________.
  • They often find _________ to explain their poor
    performances to maintain a _______________.
    However, this prevents them from taking
    _____________ for their own actions.
  • Some people ___________ b/c it may mean that they
    are a _______ in some other way. For ex, a woman
    may feel as if she is too successful in a
    traditionally male-dominated profession, than she
    is a failure as a woman.

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  • Maslows hierarchy of needs
  • Abraham Maslow created an order of needs that he
    believed _______________.
  • He proposed that after we satisfy the needs at
    the bottom of the triangle, we ___________ to the
    next level, but if one of our lower needs ceases
    to be satisfied, we may ____________ the
    hierarchy.
  • Fundamental needs are biological drives that must
    be satisfied to ___________.
  • Psychological needs are the urge to belong, to
    give receive love, to acquire _________.
  • Like fundamental needs, these can
    only be filled by an ___________.
  • Self-actualization needs are the pursuit of
    knowledge beauty or whatever else is required
    for the realization of ones ____________________.
  • Not everyone reaches the ______________.
  • Some debate his belief that there is an
    ___________ ________.

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  • Emotions
  • Are a set of _____________ to stimuli involving
    subjective feelings, physiological arousal,
    _____________________.
  • Provoked by real or _______________ or events
    that have high significance to the individual.
  • They help us ____________ communicate what is
    going on inside of us.
  • Result from 4 occurrences
  • You must interpret some ___________.
  • You have a subjective ____________.
  • You experience _____________ responses.
  • You display an _____________________.
  • All emotions have 3 parts
  • ________ arousal of the person/how the body
    responds to the emotion.
  • ________ outward expression of emotion.
  • _______ how we think about or interpret a
    situation.

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  • Emotional intelligence is the ability to
    perceive, imagine, understand emotions to use
    that information in _________ _________.
  • It helps us gauge the situation determine an
    _______________.
  • Studies have shown that certain basic facial
    expressions are innate part of our
    ___________________.
  • Emotions are ___________, but the expression of
    them is _____ by learning how to express them.
    We are taught how when it is __________ to
    display certain emotions.

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  • Theories of emotions
  • We associate feelings w/ a sudden or
    in energy, muscle tension relaxation,
    sensations in the _____________________.
  • Physiological theorists like William James argue
    that we dont feel emotions b/c of a stimulus,
    but that we feel emotions b/c of the ________
    __________________ to a stimulus.
  • So ________ dont cause bodily changes, instead,
    bodily changes cause _________.
  • Similarly, the Facial Feedback Theory states that
    our conscious experience of emotion results from
    the ________ _______ we receive from the _______
    in our faces.
  • Critics argue that bodily reactions
    _______________, but dont cause them.

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  • Cognitivists argue that ______________ thinking
    work together to produce emotions.
  • What you feel depends on how you
    _______________________.
  • Perception arousal interact to create
    ____________.
  • When people cant explain their physical
    reactions, they take cues from their
    ____________.
  • Researchers believe that _______ may play an
    important role in our ______ as humans in our
    ability to achieve goals b/c they spur us into
    _________.
  • Emotions physical changes are _________.

End Section 3
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