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Bioinformatics

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Bioinformatics Original definition (1979 by Paulien Hogeweg): application of information technology and computer science to the field of molecular biology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bioinformatics


1
Bioinformatics
  • Original definition (1979 by Paulien Hogeweg)
  • application of information technology and
    computer science to the field of molecular
    biology
  • Using information technology, designing novel
    algorithms and methods of analyses
    (computational biology)
  • Establishing innovative software and databases of
    information, allowing open access to the records
    held within them
    (bioinformatics)

2
Bioinformatics is interdisciplinary
Mathematics Statistics Computer Science
Biomedicine
Molecular Biology Structural Biology
Bioinformatics
Biophysics
Ethical, legal and social implications
Evolution
Patrice Koehl
3
Genomics genes give rise to proteins
  • The 25,000 genes of the human genome encode gt
    100,000 polypeptides
  • Not all of the DNA in a genome encodes protein
  • microbes 90 coding gene
  • human 3 coding gene
  • About ½ of the non-coding DNA in humans is
    conserved (functionally important)

4
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Genotype
Replication
DNA
Transcription
RNA
Translation
Protein
Phenotype
Patrice Koehl
5
DNA structure
6
RNA structure
7
Protein structure
8
mRNA synthesis
The mRNA is formed by adding nucleotide that are
complementary to the template strand
Patrice Koehl
9
Translation mRNA -gt protein
10
TRANSLATION
  • The process of reading the mRNA sequence and
    creating the protein
  • is called translation
  • Protein are made of amino acids (20 different,
    9 essentials)
  • 3 bases or nucleotides make one codon
  • Each codon specifies one amino acid genetic
    code

Patrice Koehl
11
3-letter Codon -gt amino acid
12
Translation initiation
Patrice Koehl
13
Translation initiation
tRNA
Patrice Koehl
14
Translation elongation
tRNA
Patrice Koehl
15
Translation elongation
Patrice Koehl
16
Translation elongation
Patrice Koehl
17
Translation elongation
Patrice Koehl
18
Translation termination
Patrice Koehl
19
Translation termination
Protein
Patrice Koehl
20
DNA -gt RNA -gt Proteins
  • Proteins are central to life
  • Cellular structure, communications, etc.
  • Medical, drug development
  • Failure -gt disease (ex missing, misfolding)
  • The key to protein function is structure

21
Proteins
immunoglobulin
collagen
22
Huntingtons amyloid structure
23
Animations
  • Transcription and Translation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vYnmxwqiv7j8fea
    turerelated
  • Eukariotic Transcription
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vP6Nyce-4oG4feature
    related
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