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Chapter 12: Digital Society, Ethics and Globalization

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Title: Chapter 12: Digital Society, Ethics and Globalization


1
Chapter 12 Digital Society,Ethics and
Globalization
  • Succeeding with Technology Second Edition

2
Objectives
  • Describe how technology is affecting the
    definition of community, and list some physical
    and mental health dangers associated with
    excessive computer use
  • Describe the negative and positive impact of
    technology on freedom of speech, and list forms
    of speech and expression that are censored on the
    Web

3
Objectives (continued)
  • Explain the ways in which technology is used to
    invade personal privacy, and provide examples of
    laws that protect citizens from privacy invasion
  • List ethical issues related to digital technology
    that confront individuals in personal and
    professional life, businesses, and governments
  • Explain what globalization is, what forces are
    behind it, and how it is affecting the United
    States and other nations

4
Living Online
  • Virtual space
  • An environment that exists in the mind rather
    than in physical space
  • People find virtual space
  • In a daydream
  • In a book
  • In a movie
  • On a cell phone
  • On the Internet

5
Computers and Community
  • Flash mob
  • Group of people who assemble suddenly in a public
    place, do something unusual, and then disperse
  • Participants
  • Given precise instructions on where to meet, how
    to act, and what to say if questioned

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8
Health Issues Keeping a Balance
  • Repetitive stress injury (RSI)
  • Injury such as tendonitis and tennis elbow,
    caused by a repetitive motion
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
  • Aggravation of the pathway for nerves that travel
    through the wrist (the carpal tunnel)
  • Typically caused by long hours at the computer
    keyboard

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10
Health Issues Keeping a Balance (continued)
  • Internet addiction
  • May exist if people are online for long periods
    of time
  • Cannot control their online usage
  • Jeopardize their career or family life from
    excessive Internet usage
  • Lie to family, friends, and coworkers about
    excessive Internet usage
  • Ergonomics
  • Designing and positioning work environment and
    computer equipment in a healthy manner

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12
Freedom of Speech
  • First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
  • Guarantees citizens the right to free speech
  • Internet
  • Used to espouse the views and beliefs of every
    religious and political group
  • Web sites
  • May include points of view that many find
    offensive and even dangerous

13
Challenging the Establishment and Traditional
Institutions
  • Bloggers
  • Are becoming an increasingly important component
    in journalism
  • Proliferation of digital cameras and camera
    phones
  • Has led to many amateur photographers having
    their photos published
  • Consumer-generated media (CGM)
  • Role of the public in capturing and reporting news

14
Laws and Censorship
  • Libel
  • The deliberate act of defamation of character by
    making false statements of fact
  • Censorship
  • Occurs when a government or authority controls
    speech and other forms of expression
  • Content-filtering software
  • Works with Web browser to check each Web site for
    indecent materials

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16
Privacy Issues
  • Being free from intrusion
  • The right to be left alone
  • Freedom from surveillance
  • Control over the information collected and kept
    about ones self

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18
Personal Information Privacy
  • Much of the information gathered about
    individuals
  • Done without their knowledge
  • Internet
  • Acts as a supercharged tool for invisible
    information gathering
  • ChoicePoint collects and combines information
    from
  • The three big credit bureaus
  • Public records of numerous local, state, and
    federal government agencies
  • Telephone records liens deeds and other
    sources

19
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20
Privacy and Government
  • Privacy Act of 1974
  • Primary law controlling what many government
    agencies can and cannot do with information they
    hold
  • PATRIOT Act
  • Gave federal government certain liberties
    regarding access to private information and the
    treatment of suspected terrorists

21
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23
Surveillance Technologies
  • Surveillance
  • The close monitoring of behavior
  • Wiretap requests
  • Increased by 85 percent in the three years
    following the September 11 attacks
  • FBI surveillance
  • Grew from telephone networks to broadband cable
    networks in 2004
  • Extended to VoIP communications in 2005

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25
Video and Audio Surveillance
  • Video cameras in public places
  • Are assisting in capturing criminals who may
    otherwise escape
  • Chicago
  • Has the most advanced video surveillance system
  • High-resolution cameras attached to satellites
    and trained on the earth
  • Are providing us with amazing new mapping
    technologies

26
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28
GPS and RFID Surveillance
  • Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Radio
    Frequency Identification (RFID)
  • Are useful, but can be used to invade privacy
  • Are being used to track ex-cons
  • US privacy laws control who can be monitored
  • Lack of funding limits ability to monitor
  • Three scenarios
  • Full privacy
  • Full trust
  • Full transparency

29
Ethics and Social Responsibility
  • Ethics
  • Deals with what is generally considered right or
    wrong
  • Computer ethics
  • Issues that deal with computer use

30
Personal Ethical Considerations
  • Personal computer ethics
  • The responsible use of computers outside of
    professional environments
  • Feeling of social responsibility
  • May guide a computer user to treat others online
    with respect
  • A persons own sense of morality
  • May keep him/her from becoming involved with Web
    content that has a negative impact

31
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32
Professional Ethical Considerations
  • Associations that have developed a code of
    ethical conduct
  • Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
    (CPSR)
  • Association of Information Technology
    Professionals (AITP)
  • The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
  • The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers (IEEE)
  • The British Computer Society (BCS)

33
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34
Governmental Ethical Considerations
  • The digital divide
  • The social and economic gap between those who
    have access to computers and the Internet and
    those who do not
  • Economic digital divide in the United States
  • Has been shrinking since the turn of the
    millennium
  • Global digital divide
  • Provides a greater social and ethical challenge

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36
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37
Globalization
  • Changes in societies and the world economy
    resulting from dramatically increased
    international trade and cultural exchange
  • Largest contributors to globalization
  • Computers
  • A global telecommunication infrastructure
  • The Internet

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39
Outsourcing
  • Use of an outside company to take over portions
    of the business workload
  • Bangalore
  • Has become known as the Silicon Valley of India
  • Major presence
  • Microsoft, IBM, Texas Instruments, HP, GE, and
    many others

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41
Offshoring
  • Business practice that relocates an entire
    production line to another location, typically in
    another country,
  • Beijing (China)
  • The global center of offshoring
  • When China joined the World Trade Organization
    and agreed to follow international trade laws
  • It opened a floodgate for trade and innovation

42
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43
Business Challenges in Globalization
  • Culture
  • Language
  • Time and distance
  • Infrastructure
  • Currency
  • State, regional, and national laws

44
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45
Conclusion
  • Positive effects of technology on society
  • Finding cures for deadly diseases
  • Eroding the power of totalitarian governments and
    dictators
  • Developing alternate environmentally friendly
    energy source
  • Widespread access to information
  • Is building a more transparent society

46
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47
Summary
  • The Internet
  • Provides an entire virtual world of information,
    people, and groups in which you can literally
    lose yourself
  • The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
  • Guarantees citizens the right to free speech
  • Libel and direct, specific threats
  • Not protected under the First Amendment

48
Summary (continued)
  • Privacy issues that concern most people
  • Being free from intrusion
  • Computer profiling
  • Primary service provided by private information
    service companies such as ChoicePoint
  • The field of ethics
  • Deals with what is generally considered right or
    wrong

49
Summary (continued)
  • Professional computer ethics
  • Involve the ethical issues faced by professionals
    in their use of computer systems as part of their
    jobs
  • Globalization
  • Changes in societies and the world economy
    resulting from dramatically increased
    international trade and cultural exchange
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