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Introduction to Engineering Design

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Title: Concepts in Engineering Design Author: sho Last modified by: Srinivas Created Date: 7/26/2007 9:26:16 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Engineering Design


1
Introduction to Engineering Design
  • Bo Hu
  • John Nieber

2
Foundational Questions
  • What is an engineer?
  • What is engineering design?
  • Difference between engineering analysis and
    engineering design
  • What is the difference between product and
    process design?
  • What is the context of the design process?
  • Engineering design vs. design in other academic
    disciplines?
  • Why design?

3
  • What is engineering?
  • the purposive adaptation of means to reach a
    pre-conceived end E.T. Layton, Jr.
  • Technological activity to solve problems

4
Human creativity
Engineering as a Thinking-Making Activity
  • The use of technology to make products and
    systems for societal benefit.

5
Historical Questions
  • What role of engineers in history?
  • Irrigation and farming equipment, dam projects,
    water and wind mills building construction,
  • the Pyramids, the Great Wall, Leonardos
    contraptions, the printing press, the Wright
    brothers aircraft, fermented beverages, nuclear
    power, the Space Shuttle, Tacoma Narrows Bridge,
    electric appliances, petroleum products,
    pharmaceuticals.
  • When did the engineering disciplines begin?
  • 3000 BC Civil
  • 1000 BC Military
  • AD 1700 Mechanical
  • AD 1800 Materials
  • Agricultural
  • Electrical
  • AD 1900 Chemical
  • Aerospace
  • AD 1950 Computer, Nuclear, Biochemical
  • Biomedical

Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2005)
6
Product Realization Process (PRP)
  • Engineering design
  • Industrial design
  • Production planning
  • Manufacturing
  • Distribution
  • Sales
  • Marketing
  • Service
  • Disposal
  • Environmental assessment
  • Stakeholder involvement
  • Engineering design
  • Construction planning
  • Construction
  • Effectiveness monitoring, control, and maintenance

7
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8
Problem solution
Engineering as Problem Solving
  • Problem identification
  • Synthesis
  • Analysis
  • Application
  • Comprehension
  • Solution

Orderly stepwise approach
Qualitative/general ? quantitative/detailed
Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2005)
9
Process of Engineering
Math
Think
Think
Politics
Analysis
Sketch
Sketch
Physics
Law
Make
Make
Chemistry
Show
Show
Ethics
Biology
Use
Use
Environmental
Economy
10
Process of Engineering
Ferguson, E. S. , (1992)
11
  • What is a product or process?
  • Object produced, substance, material,
    arrangement, service, step sequence, manufactured
    good, transformation of something, system,
    organization.
  • Example 1 Water bottle made of biodegradable
    plastic
  • Example 2 Biorefinery for ethanol production
    from biomass
  • Example 3 Bio-repellant coatings
  • Example 4 Flood control structures
  • Example 5 Contaminant/pollutant removal
    systems
  • Example 6 Structures for wildlife
    migration

12
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13
Examples in bio-based products
  • Materials and Chemicals
  • - Wood
  • - Wood-based
  • - Paper
  • - Biodiesel fuel
  • - Bio-based plastics
  • - Biodegradable plastics (e.g. drink bottles)
  • - Ethanol (bio-based)
  • -
  • -

14
Examples in bioprocessing
  • Utilization of living cells or their components
    to obtain desired products
  • - Ethanol fermentation from corn
  • - Antibody production via fungal fermentation
  • - Anaerobic digestion to treat wastewater
  • - Biodegradable plastics (e.g. PLA) production
    from corn
  • - Enzymatic hydrolysis to produce sugar from
    cellulose
  • -
  • -

15
What is engineering design?
  • Engineering design is the set of decision-making
    processes and activities used determine the form
    of an object given the functions desired by the
    customer. (Gov of MA)
  • Engineering design is the process of devising a
    system, component, or process to meet desired
    needs. It is a decision-making process (often
    iterative), in which the basic science and
    mathematics and engineering sciences are applied
    to convert resources optimally to meet a stated
    objective. Among the fundamental elements of the
    design process are the establishment of
    objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis,
    construction, testing and evaluation. (ABET)

16
Context of Design
Historical Precedents
Cosmological
Global
Government
Regional
Non-profit NGOs
State
Military
City
Biology
Industry
Ward
Chemistry
Commercial
House
Physics
Person
Mathematics
Family
Bodypart
Organ
Cell
Organelle
Molecular
Ideal Society Projections
Atomic
17
Product Design
  • New products are critical for corporate
    prosperity
  • Approximately 33 of revenues come from products
    that did not sell 5 years ago
  • Successful new products are profitable
  • Median achieve 33 ROI or better
  • Median have payback of 2 years or less
  • Median achieve market share of 35
  • Significant RD expenditures and investment

18
Manufacturing of Chemical Products
19
Process Engineering Design
20
Environmental Design
  • Changing human needs mean the need for the design
    of new infrastructures
  • Design with a focus on natural processes
  • Designs should mimic nature i.e.,
    self-adaptive, self-sustaining, and resilient

21
Engineering Design vs Engineering Analysis
  • Engineering analysis Predicted behavior is the
    solution to an analysis problem
  • Formulating
  • Solving
  • Checking
  • Engineering design
  • Formulating
  • Generating
  • Analyzing
  • Evaluating

22
Design Step
23
Process of Engineering
Map
SSL (2004)
24
Process of Engineering (cont.)
Map
SSL (2004)
25
Issues in design
Utility and cost Single and multi-functionality Ba
tch or mass production Patents Aesthetics Integri
ty of product (wholeness) Whole life-cycle
planning Health effects and safety Recycling and
disposal End of product life and replacement
issues Failure modes Effects on society
26
Ethical issues design
  • Philosophical and practical ethics
  • Codes of Ethics
  • - Health and welfare of humans and nature
  • - Informing client/employers of consequences
  • - Statements and information in truthful manner
  • - Treating people fairly (avoiding conflict of
    interest)
  • - Limits of professional competence
  • - Building professional reputations according to
    merits
  • - Continuing professional development
  • - Issues with intellectual property.
  • Issues
  • Life systems preservation
  • Maintenance of quality of life
  • Maintaining high standards of personal and
    professional conduct
  • Managing intra-professional customs, identifiers,
    habits, and limits.

SSL (2004)
27
Economic analysis
  • What is the relevance of economic analysis to
    design?
  • Economic assumption Measure of value is
    monetary
  • Process cost in context of the company
  • Reporting costs, financial status, and
    transactions.
  • Value today, value tomorrow.
  • Material cost, labour cost, indirect cost
  • Manufacturing cost, storage cost, transport cost
  • Product cost scaling and correction factors

28
Statistical analysis
  • What relevance is statistics to design?
  • Statistical focus The one and the many
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Measures of variation
  • Probability
  • Uncertainty analysis
  • Linear regression
  • Six sigma quality concept
  • Optimization and development of designs
  • Statistics in process control for quality

29
AspenTech HYSYS Modeling Code
  • Menu driven, Mouse driven.
  • Flowsheets, Modular units.
  • Mixers, Reactors, Flash separators,
    Distillation units, Heat exchangers.
  • Reaction databases.
  • Chemical property calculations.
  • Species, Mass, Momentum, Heat Balances.
  • Equipment Sizing.
  • Economic calculations.
  • Optimization.

30
CAD, MAPWindow/ArcGIS, WAM, HEC-RAS
  • CAD develop engineering drawings
  • MAPWindow/ArcGIS work with mapping systems for
    various geographical analyses
  • WAM one of many models for watershed
    assessments
  • HEC-RAS a model for water flow in open channels

31
Minnesota context
  • Products from Minnesota
  • Sources Inventing Tomorrow Magazine

32
Minnesota context
  • Environmental analysis and design
  • Assessment of impaired waters water quality
  • Wetland loss mitigation
  • Stormwater control and mitigation
  • Drainage of lands for food production and
    development
  • Liquid and solid waste treatment

33
References
  • deCamp, L. Sprague, (1963) The Ancient Engineers,
    Bantam books
  • Ferguson, E. S. , (1992) Engineering and the
    Minds Eye, MIT Press, Cambridge.
  • Cussler, E.L., Moggridge, G.D. (2001) Chemical
    Product Design, MIT Press, Cambridge
  • Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2008) Concepts
    in Engineering, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill.
  • also Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2005)
    Concepts in Engineering, McGraw-Hill.
  • Kangas, P.C., Ecological Engineering, Principles
    and Practice, Lewis Publishers, 2004
  • Ogot, M. G. Okudan-Kremer, Engineering design a
    practical guide, Togo Press, LLC. 2004, 544
    pages.
  • Seider, W. D., Seader, J. D., Lewin, D. R. (2004)
    Product and Process Design Principles, Second
    Edition, Wiley.
  • Smith, R. (2005) Chemical Process, Wiley.

34
Assignment 1 Bioproducts and bioprocessing
students
  • Search through issues of Inventing Tomorrow for
    articles on product and process design. Read and
    make notes, especially those related to bio-based
    products and processes. List your favorite three
    examples and explain their design process, for
    example what is the problem? What are the
    alternative solutions? Why they choose the one
    and how do they do that?
  • Find library resources related to chemical and
    physical properties. find the flash point of
    ethyl alcohol and propylene
  • - CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
  • - Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook.
  • Find (free) websites which catalog Material
    Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and find an entry for
    isopropyl alcohol and propylene. Also check
    other safety data archives esp. governmental.

35
Assignment 1 EEE students
  • Search through issues of Transactions of the
    American Society of Agricultural and Biological
    Engineers , Applied Engineering in Agriculture
    , and Journal of Ecological Engineering for
    articles on the design of systems for water
    quality improvement, flood control, etc. Read the
    abstracts for these articles and make notes. List
    your favorite three examples.
  • Find website resources related to chemical and
    physical properties of soils, geological
    materials, and water.
  • Go to the MnDNR website to find out about the
    waters of the state. Find out how many lakes and
    miles of rivers/streams we have in Minnesota. How
    much is the mean annual precipitation, and how
    much of the water flows out of the state? How
    many of the waters of the state are known to be
    impaired (see MPCA website, http//www.pca.state.m
    n.us/water/tmdl/index.html)
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