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Demand Driven Vocational Training; Certification


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Title: Demand Driven Vocational Training; Certification

  • Demand Driven Vocational Training
    Certification Recognition of Skills
  • Situation Analysis India
  • Presentation by Y.P. Sharma
  • Director
  • DGET
  • Ministry of Labour Employment
  • http//

Main Focus
  • Situation Analysis India
  • Labour Market Oriented Vocational Training
  • Skill Upgradation Vertical Mobility
  • Benchmarking of Skills Recognition for Skill

Situation Analysis- India Vocational Education
(VE) Vocational Training (VT)
  • Internationally, the terms Vocational Education
  • and Vocational Training are used
  • or the use of combined term- Vocational
    Education and Training (VET).
  • In Indian Context- education and training
  • have been traditionally separated.

  • Vocational Education (VE) Vocational Training
    (VT) in India
  • Vocational Education refers to vocational
    courses being offered in schools for Grades 11
    and 12 students under a Centrally Sponsored
    Scheme 'Vocationalization of Secondary
    Education. Ministry of Human Resource
    Development (MHRD ) has overall responsibility.
  • Vocational Training is offered through separate
    training institutes set up for the purpose
    .Ministry of Labour Employment has over all
    responsibility .


National Vocational Training System(NVTS) Manageme
nt Structure National State Level
  • Vocational Training is a concurrent subject
  • DGET is the nodal department for formulating
    policies, laying down standards, curriculum
    development, affiliation of institutes/ courses,
    trade testing and certification.
  • Two tripartite bodies, viz. The Central
    Apprenticeship Council (CAC) and the National
    Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) advise
    Central Government on various aspects of VT
  • Corresponding State Councils advise the State
    Governments in respect of vocational training at
    State level.
  • The State Governments are responsible for
    implementation of Vocational Training Programmes
    at the State level .


National Vocational Training System
(NVTS) Management Structure National State Level
  • State Government Departments deliver
    vocational training through -
  • Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs)- under the
    administrative and financial control of the
    respective State Government .
  • Industrial Training Centers (ITCs)- privately
    funded and managed (some get support from State


National Vocational Training System(NVTS) Vocatio
nal Training for school leavers
  • Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS)
  • Vocational Training is offered through more that
    5000 institutes (ITIs/ITCs) in 107 trades for
    student with 8th to 12th class pass duration
    6 months to 3 years .
  • ITI Graduates after completion of training and
    qualifying the Trade Test are awarded National
    Trade Certificate (NTC) and perceived as
    semi-skilled workers
  • Apprenticeship Training Scheme (ATS )
  • Shop floor training is offered through 20,700
    establishments in 153 trade for student with 8th
    to 12th class qualification and ITI Certificate
    holders duration 6 months to 4 years .
  • Trainees after qualifying the Trade Test are
    awarded National Apprenticeship Certificate (NAC)
    and perceived as skilled workers

National Vocational Training Scheme
  • In-service Training
  • Long term , Short term tailor made courses are
    offered at specialized institutes set up by
    Govt. of India at selected ITI s .
  • Women Training
  • 25 seats reserved in general ITI s.
  • One National and 10 Regional Institutes for
    women offering Basic, Advanced Instructor
    Training .
  • Women ITIs/Wings - 837 with 47,000 seats

Routes to Skills Progression for School leavers
  • ITI graduates may enter as Trade Apprentices
    and qualify as skilled workers.
  • Vertical mobility for ITI graduates -
    provision for lateral entry in second year have
    been kept in Diploma Courses offered at
    Polytechnics .
  • Vocational Education graduates may enter as
    Technician Apprentices under Apprenticeship
    Training Scheme .


Routes to Skills Progression for workers
  • Industrial workers upgrade their skills through
    short term training programmes offered at DGET
    field Institutes and selected ITIs in
    specialized areas.
  • These trained workers are perceived to be highly
  • Various Ministries at Central and State level
    are also providing specialized training to
    workers as per the requirement.

National Skill Standards(NSS) and their importance
  • NSS are set up primarily to specify the minimum
    skill and knowledge requirements that the workers
    are expected to possess in specific occupational
    areas .
  • Used as a tool for unifying all training
    programmes, training standards, training material
  • A National skill testing and certification system
    can be establish.
  • Acceptable means of assessing the competency of
    skilled manpower.
  • Mobility and opportunities in terms of employment
    and promotion with in the country and abroad.
  • NSS for 107 trades under CTS 153 trades for
    ATS are developed and in force.

Demand Driven Vocation Training- present scenario
  • New trades are introduced regularly to ensure
    that skilled man power is available in employable
    emerging areas .
  • Unpopular trades not relevant to the market needs
    are deleted .
  • Periodic review updation of course curricula
    involving experts from Industry.

Demand Driven Vocational Training- present
scenario Centres of Excellence (Coe)
  • 500 ITIs (100 from domestic and 400 with
    World Bank assistance) are being upgraded into
    Centre of Excellence . The highlights of the COEs
  • flexible multi-entry/ multi-exit, multi-skilling
    modular courses as per the needs of
  • active participation of Industry at every stage
    for development of COE viz from assessment of
    training needs , development of Curricula,
    selection of trainees to testing of trainees and
    assisting in placement of ITI graduates


National system of Testing Certification
Testing and Certification (Skills acquired
through formal training )
  • A well established trade testing certification
    system in the country.
  • 28 All India Trade Tests held annually for
    different levels.
  • Trainees of ITIs/ITCs and trade Apprentice in
    companies are subjected to trade tests at the
    national Level .
  • Written and Practical test , Question Papers are
    prepared involving trade experts from Industry
  • Test papers moderation by academicians.
  • National Trade Certificate and National
    App.Certificate are awarded under the aegis of
    NCVT to ITI Graduates and Trade Apprentices


National Vocational Training System
(NVTS) Recognition- employability perspective
  • Certificates awarded under CTS and ATS are
    recognized qualification for employment under
    States and Central Government deptts /
    Undertakings .
  • National Certification has credibility both with
    in the country abroad .
  • Industrial workers after skill upgradation are
    awarded certificates at the institute level,
    which is recognized by sponsoring organization. .

National Skill Competition - need to participate
in World Skill
  • Skill Competition for Craftsmen -- 13 trades
    once a year
  • Skill Competition for Apprentices 15 trades -
    twice a year -local, regional All India Level
  •      Awards
  • Best Craftsmen , Best Apprentices - Merit
    certificates Cash price.
  • Best State Certificate of Merit running
  • Best Establishment - Certificate of Honour from
    the Honble President of India running trophy
  • Work Skills Competitions conducted jointly by
    DGET CII once a year in nine trades for
    its member industries .
  • .

World Skills Competition - Participation
  • No Participation at international level .
  • India decided to become member of World Skill
    participate in Worldskills Competition .
  • Work skill competition jointly conducted by DGET
    CII are being modified in line with Worldskills
    competitions .
  • Experienced gained would be useful for
    reorienting the training programme offered in the
    country to make it world class.

Vocational Training in Informal Sector
  • In India , a large number of workers have
    acquired skills in an informal manner
  • Family tradition/ occupation or by virtue of
    being in employment in a particular trade for a
    long time.
  • The skills acquired are in varying areas of
  • The size of the informal economy in India is
    large and about 93 of the total work force is
    engaged in the informal economy.
  • Lack of testing certification of their levels
    of skill
  • attainment results in stagnation without
    any scope for elevation.


Testing and Certification Initiatives for
recognizing informal learning
  • Need for introducing system for Testing
    Certification of skills acquired informally
  • Initiative for Testing and Certification of
    skills of workers who have not undergone any
    formal institution training was taken up.
  • Implemented through 3 approved agencies/bodies
    and 17 State Governments
  • Competency based skill standards have been
    developed for 47 skill areas mainly for
    construction sector .


New strategies Skill Development for informal
  • To provide skill training to, economically weaker
    section less educated persons - a new
    framework for skill development is being
    evolved. Competency oriented employable skill
    training will be offered on modular basis.
  • The scheme envisaged to train and certify 1
    million persons in five years in employable
    skills .
  • Thereafter 1 million people will be trained every
    year .
  • These acquired qualifications will be expressed
    in terms of learning outcomes. For skill
    progression of this target group a national
    qualification frame work is being evolved.

ILO recommendation 195 on frame work for
recognition and certification of skills adopted
by the ILO conference at ninety second session
Geneva,17th June,2004
  • Measures should be adopted , in consultation with
    the social partners and using a national
    qualification framework, to promote the
    development, implementation and financing of a
    transparent mechanism for the assessment ,
    certification and recognition of skills including
    prior learning and previous experience,
    irrespective of the countries where they were
    acquired and whether acquired formally or
    informally .
  • Such as assessment methodology should be
    objective, non discriminatory and linked to
  • The national framework should include a credible
    system of certification which will ensure that
    skills are portable and recognized across sectors
    industries , enterprises and educational
  • Special provisions should be designed to ensure
    recognition and certification of skills and
    qualifications for migrant workers.

Skill mobility
  • Globalization of trade and employment has brought
    in a qualitative change world over.
  • Mass movement of people across the national
  • Manpower has become a potent force as a good
    source of foreign exchange earning and
    regeneration of economic growth .
  • People are also migrating with a view to
    upgrading their skills.
  • India has a vast reservoir of skilled,
    semi-skilled and unskilled manpower .
  • India being young country, larger number of
    Indians can emigrate to other countries for work
    if they are given proper training, counseling and

Skill mobility Issues
  • Development of National Qualification framework
    including certification which will ensure that
    skills are portable and recognized across
    boundaries .
  • Mutual recognization of Qualification framework
    and harmonization of skill standards .
  • Obstacle free mobility of workers .
  • Raising skill levels of Indian workers .

Skill mobility Approach
  • Development of National Qualification
  • A Nationally agreed framework that would guide
    and reflect the agreement of stake holders
    required to be developed.
  • Such Framework will act as a bridge between
    different national systems of acquiring skills
    and facilitate transparency, mobility and
    progression of different levels of skilled people
    working in and outside the country.

  • 1/4

Skill mobility Approach
  • Mutual recognition of Qualification and
    harmonization of skill standards
  • Projection of employable areas and development
    of acceptable skills standards
  • Cooperation agreement with partner countries for
    a coherent framework of qualification.
  • Mechanism to acquire skill needed and get it
    certified by appropriate authority.

  • 2/4

Skill mobility approach
  • Obstacle/ barrier free mobility of workers
  • Mutual recognition of qualifications .
  • Avoid discrimination while evaluating the foreign
    countries qualification .
  • ( In practice national qualifications are
    considered superior)
  • Build up mutual trust and confidence through
    regular contacts
  • Easy/ fast track visa to workers having
    recognized qualification

  • 3/4

Skill mobility approach
  • Raising skill levels of workers
  • Measures to upgrade Skill standards of workers
    with active participation of stake holders .
  • Measures could include having skills competition
    amongst partner countries .

  • 4/4

  • Skill Capital of the World
  • Re-orientation of the training courses to
    produce workforce of world standards
  • Benchmarking of skills acquired informally
    for Skill mobility of the workforce.