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Grid Computing

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Title: Grid Computing


1
Grid Computing
  • The 21st Century Paradigm for Service-Oriented
    Utility Computing

2
Overview
  1. What is Grid?
  2. Grid Projects Applications
  3. Grid Technologies
  4. Globus
  5. CompGrid

3
What is Grid?
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Definition
  • A type of parallel and distributed system that
    enables the sharing, selection, aggregation of
    geographically distributed resources
  • Computers PCs, workstations, clusters,
    supercomputers, laptops, notebooks, mobile
    devices, PDA, etc
  • Software e.g., ASPs renting expensive special
    purpose applications on demand
  • Catalogued data and databases e.g. transparent
    access to human genome database
  • Special devices/instruments e.g., radio
    telescope SETI_at_Home searching for life in
    galaxy.
  • People/collaborators.
  • depending on their availability, capability,
    cost, and user QoS requirements
  • for solving large-scale problems/applications.
  • thus enabling the creation of virtual
    organization (VOs)

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  • Distributed supercomputing support
  • High-throughput computing support
  • On-demand computing support
  • Data-intensive computing support
  • Collaborative computing support
  • Multimedia computing support
  • ....

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Resources assets, capabilities, and knowledge
  • Capabilities (e.g. application codes, analysis
    tools)
  • Compute Grids (PC cycles, commodity clusters,
    HPC)
  • Data Grids
  • Experimental Instruments
  • Knowledge Services
  • Virtual Organisations
  • Utility Services

10
Grids main idea
  • To treat CPU cycles and software like
    commodities.
  • Enable the coordinated use of geographically
    distributed resources in the absence of central
    control and existing trust relationships.
  • Computing power is produced much like utilities
    such as power and water are produced for
    consumers.
  • Users will have access to power on demand
  • When the Network is as fast as the computers
    internal links, the machine disintegrates across
    the Net into a set of special purpose appliances
    Gilder Technology Report June 2000

11
Computational Grids andElectric Power Grids
  • Power Grid analogy
  • Power producers machines, software, networks,
    storage systems
  • Power consumers user applications
  • Applications draw power from the Grid the way
    appliances draw electricity from the power
    utility.
  • Seamless, High-performance, Ubiquitous,
    Dependable
  • Why the Computational Grid is like the Electric
    Power Grid
  • Electric power is ubiquitous
  • Dont need to know the source of the power
    (transformer, generator) or the power company
    that serves it
  • Why the Computational Grid is different from the
    Electric Power Grid
  • Wider spectrum of performance
  • Wider spectrum of services
  • Access governed by more complicated issues
    Security, Performance

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Distributed Computing
  • Concept has been around for two decades
  • Basic idea run scheduler across systems
  • to runs processes on least- used systems first
  • Maximize utilization
  • Minimize turnaround time
  • Have to load executables and input files to
    selected resource
  • Shared file system
  • File transfers upon resource selection

16
Examples of DistributedComputing
  • Workstation farms, Condor flocks, etc.
  • Generally share file system
  • SETI_at_home project, Entropia, etc.
  • Only one source code copies correct binary
    code and input data to each system
  • Napster, Gnutella file/data sharing
  • NetSolve
  • Runs numerical kernel on any of multiple
    independent systems, much like a Grid solution

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Internet Computing Projects
Area of interest Projects
Science SETI_at_Home, eOn, Cimateprediction.com, Distributed Particle Accelerator Design, Analytical Spectroscopy Research, Evolutionary Research
Life Science Folding_at_Home, Genome_at_Home, FightAIDS_at_Home, Folderol, Distributed Folding, Find-a-Drug, Drig Design Optimization Lab, Community TSC
Cryptography Distributed.net, ECCp-109
Mathematics PCP_at_Home, ZetaGrid, ECMNET, GRISK, Proth/Wilson/Weiferich/Mersenne Prime Search, Factoriztions of Cyclotomic Numbers
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Why cluster and grid computing
  • Clusters and grids increasingly interesting
  • more workstations
  • higher performance per workstation
  • faster interconnecting networks
  • price/performance competitive with MPP
  • enormous unused capacity
  • cyclic availability

27
Differences parallel/clusters/grids
  • Clusters are inherently inhomogeneous
  • intrinsic differences in performance, memory,
    bandwidth
  • dynamically changing background load
  • ownership of nodes
  • Grids add
  • differences in administration
  • disjoint file systems
  • security etc.

28
P2P, cluster, Internet computing vs. grid
computing
  • Peer-to-peer networks (eg Kazaa) fall within the
    definition of grid computing (the resource shared
    is the storage capacity of each node)
  • P2P Working Group part of Global Grid Forum
  • A cluster is a resource that can be shared- a
    grid is a cluster of clusters
  • Internet computing a VO is assembled for a
    particular project and disbanded once the project
    is complete -the shared resource is the Internet
    connected desktop

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Why go Grid?
  • Hot subject
  • Try it, experience it to learn the potential
  • Will enable true ubiquitous computing in future
  • Today, proven in some areas intraGrids
  • But still long way to World Wide Grid
  • State of art techniques, tools are difficult
  • Short term goals? Use another technology
  • Does your system have Grid characteristics?
  • Distributed users, large scale and heterogeneous
    resources, across domains

38
Why?
  • Grids enable much more than apps running on
    multiple computers
  • virtual operating system provides global
    workspace/address space via a single login
  • automatically manages files, data, accounts,
    and security issues
  • connects other resources (archival data
    facilities, instruments, devices) and people
    (collaborative environments)
  • Inevitable (at least in HPC)
  • leverages computational power of all available
    systems
  • manages resources as a single system--easier
    for users
  • provides most flexible resource selection and
    management, load sharing
  • researchers desire to solve bigger problems
    will always outpace performance increases of
    single systems just as multiple processors are
    needed, multiple multiprocessors will be deemed
    so

39
Why?
  • Resources have different functions, but multiple
    classes resources are necessary for most
    interesting problems.
  • Power of any single resource is small compared to
    aggregations of resources
  • Network connectivity is increasing rapidly in
    bandwidth and availability
  • Large problems require teamwork and computation

40
What do users want ?
  • Grid Consumers
  • Execute jobs for solving varying problem size and
    complexity
  • Benefit by selecting and aggregating resources
    wisely
  • Tradeoff timeframe and cost
  • Grid Providers
  • Contribute (idle) resource for executing
    consumer jobs
  • Benefit by maximizing resource utilisation
  • Tradeoff local requirements market opportunity

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Grid projects applications
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Proiecte (din CompGrid)
  • 1996 Ian Foster, Steven Tuecke si Carl Kesselman
    de la ANLSUA, infrastructurii de interconectare
    a celor mai importante centre de calcul de inalta
    performanta, proiectul I-WAY.
  • 1998 comunitatii de utilizatori internationali
    si de standarde in grid, Global Grid Forum.
  • RO 2002 si 2003 cateva proiecte in domeniul grid
    prin programul InfoSoc
  • EU-FP5 2000/2001 EuroGrid, DataGrid si Damien
    (infrastructura,middleware Geant Unicore).
  • EU-FP5 2001/2002 middleware, aplicatii GridLab
    platforma de testare, CrossGrid
    interoperabilitate griduri, simulari, EGSO
    astro-fizica, GRIA industrial, DataTag
    platforma transatlantica, GRIP -
    interoperabilitate.
  • EU-FP5 2002/2003 aplicatii Avo astro-fizica,
    FlowGrid - simulare, OpenMolGrid molecular,
    GRACE cautare, COG ontologii, MOSES web
    semantic, BioGrid bilogic, GEMSS medical,
    SeLeNe e-learning, MamoGrid medical, EGEE
    securitate, NOMAD descoperire de servicii
    (aprox 20 proiecte)
  • EU-FP6 2003/2004, Grid for complex problem
    solving
  • proiecte nationale UK - e-Science (80 proiecte)
    incluzand GridPP, Comb-e-Grid, AstroGrid, MyGrid,
    GEODISC, DAME, DiscoveryNet, RealityGrid,
    OGSA-DA Franta, la INRIA, ruleaza o serie de
    proiecte Algorille management de resurse pe
    grid, Apache planificare multicriteriala, Grand
    desktop grid, Oasis grid de increder, Paris
    simulari numerice, Remap servere in retea,
    Sardies monitorizare, MPICH-V MPI pentru
    grid. In alte tari Japonia Grid Data Farm,
    ITBL, Olanda VLAM, DutchGrid, Italia INFN
    Grid, Irelanda EireGrid, Polonia
    PIONIERGrid, Ungaria DemoGrid, JiniGrid,
    Australian SimGrid, Economy Grid., WWG
  • USA NASA Information Power Grid, DOE Science
    Grid, NSF National Virtual Observatory, NSF
    GriPhyN, DOE Particle Physics Data Grid, NSF DTF
    TeraGrid, DOE ASCI DISCOM Grid, DOE Earth Systems
    Grid, DOE FusionGrid, NEESGrid, NIH BIRN, NSF
    iVDGL.
  • IBM a realizat un Grid Toolkit bazat pe Globus,
    iar Sun, un One-Grid-Engine.

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Maturation of Grid Computing
  • Research focus moving from building of basic
    infrastructure and application demonstrations to
  • Middleware
  • Usable production environments
  • Application performance
  • Scalability -gt Globalization
  • Development, research, and integration happening
    outside of the original infrastructure groups
  • Grids becoming a first-class tool for scientific
    communities
  • GriPhyN (Physics), BIRN (Neuroscience), NVO
    (Astronomy),
  • Widespread interest from government in developing
    computational Grid platforms in US
  • NSFs Cyberinfrastructure
  • NASAs Information Power Grid
  • DOEs Science Grid

47
Grid Applications
  • Distributed HPC (Supercomputing)
  • Computational science.
  • High-Capacity/Throughput Computing
  • Large scale simulation/chip design parameter
    studies.
  • Content Sharing (free or paid)
  • Sharing digital contents among peers (e.g.,
    Napster)
  • Remote software access/renting services
  • Application service provides (ASPs) Web
    services.
  • Data-intensive computing
  • Drug Design, Particle Physics, Stock
    Prediction...
  • On-demand, realtime computing
  • Medical instrumentation Mission Critical.
  • Collaborative Computing
  • Collaborative design, Data exploration,
    education.
  • Service Oriented Computing (SOC)
  • Towards economic-based Utility Computing New
    paradigm, new applications, new industries, and
    new business.

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Grid Projects
  • Australia
  • Nimrod-G
  • Gridbus
  • GridSim
  • Virtual Lab
  • DISCWorld
  • GrangeNet
  • ..new coming up
  • Europe
  • UNICORE
  • Cactus
  • UK eScience
  • EU Data Grid
  • EuroGrid
  • MetaMPI
  • XtremeWeb
  • and many more.
  • India
  • I-Grid
  • USA
  • Globus
  • Legion
  • OGSA
  • Sun Grid Engine
  • AppLeS
  • NASA IPG
  • Condor-G
  • Jxta
  • NetSolve
  • AccessGrid
  • and many more...
  • Cycle Stealing .com Initiatives
  • Distributed.net
  • SETI_at_Home, .
  • Entropia, UD, Parabon,.
  • Public Forums
  • Global Grid Forum
  • Australian Grid Forum

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NASAs IPG
  • Vision for the Information Power Grid is to
    promote a revolution in how NASA addresses
    large-scale science and engineering problems by
    providing persistent infrastructure for
  • highly capable computing and data management
    services that, on-demand, will locate and
    coschedule the multi-Center resources needed to
    address large-scale and/or widely distributed
    problems
  • the ancillary services that are needed to
    support the workflow management frameworks that
    coordinate the processes of distributed science
    and engineering problems

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US Grid Projects
  • NASA Information Power Grid
  • DOE Science Grid
  • NSF National Virtual Observatory
  • NSF GriPhyN
  • DOE Particle Physics Data Grid
  • NSF DTF TeraGrid
  • DOE ASCI DISCOM Grid
  • DOE Earth Systems Grid
  • DOE FusionGrid
  • NEESGrid
  • NIH BIRN
  • NSF iVDGL

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EU GridProjects
  • DataGrid (CERN, ..)
  • EuroGrid (Unicore)
  • DataTag (TTT)
  • Astrophysical Virtual Observatory
  • GRIP (Globus/Unicore)
  • GRIA (Industrial applications)
  • GridLab (Cactus Toolkit)
  • CrossGrid (Infrastructure Components)
  • EGSO (Solar Physics)

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National Grid Projects
  • UK e-Science Grid
  • Japan Grid Data Farm, ITBL
  • Netherlands VLAM, DutchGrid
  • Germany UNICORE, Grid proposal
  • France Grid funding approved
  • Italy INFN Grid
  • Eire Grid-Ireland
  • Poland PIONIER Grid
  • Switzerland - Grid proposal
  • Hungary DemoGrid, Grid proposal
  • ApGrid AsiaPacific Grid proposal

57
UK e-Science Initiative
  • 75M is for Grid Applications in all areas of
    science and engineering
  • 10M for Supercomputer upgrade
  • 35M Core Program to encourage development of
    generic industrial strength Grid middleware
  • Grid Starter Kit Version 1.0 available for
    distribution from July 2001
  • Particle Physics and Astronomy (PPARC)
  • GridPP
  • links to EU DataGrid, CERN LHC Computing
    Project, US GriPhyN and PPDataGrid Projects, and
    iVDGL Global Grid Project
  • AstroGrid
  • links to EU AVO and US NVO projects
  • Engineering and Physical Sciences (EPSRC)
  • Comb-e-ChemStructure-Property Mapping
  • DAME Distributed Aircraft Maintenance
    Environment
  • Reality Grid A Tool for InvestigatingCondensed
    Matter and Materials
  • My Grid Personalised Extensible Environments for
    Data Intensive in silicoExperiments in Biology
  • GEODISE Grid Enabled Optimisation and Design
    Search for Engineering
  • Discovery Net High Throughput Sensing
    Applications
  • Biology, Medical and Environmental Science
    Dynamic Brain Atlas, Biodiversity, Chemical
    Structures, Mouse Genes, Robotic Astronomy.
    Collaborative Visualisation, Climateprediction.com
    , Medical Imaging/VR

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Globus Press Release12th November 2001
  • 12 Companies adopt Globus Toolkit as
  • Standard Grid Technology Platform
  • 5 new US companies
  • - Compaq, Cray, SGI, Sun, Veridian
  • 3 new Japanese vendors
  • - Fujitsu, Hitachi, NEC
  • 3 US companies increasing commitment
  • - IBM, Microsoft, Entropia
  • Platform will provide commercial version

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TENT Developed at the German Aerospace Center,
  • TENT is an integration and simulation environment
    for numerical simulation applications.
  • TENT is an open and extensible framework for tool
    integration and workflow management.
  • Implementation uses the Globus Toolkit 2.x

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Ecce, developed at PNL(Extensible Computational
ChemistryEnvironment)
  • http//aspen.ucs.indiana.edu/gce/
    C535EccePNL/c535eccepnl.pdf
  • Operational since 1997, Since 2001 Transition to
    new architecture, based on Web standards (e.g.
    WebDAV) and Grid services
  • Service architecture based Web protocols
  • SOAP/HTTP for component interaction
  • WebDAV for data/metadata management
  • Information Service treats objects opaquely
  • Use of Globus for authentication and Grid job
    management

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Grid Technologies
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Grid Requirements
  • Identity authentication
  • Authorization policy
  • Resource discovery
  • Resource characterization
  • Resource allocation
  • (Co-)reservation, workflow
  • Distributed algorithms
  • Remote data access
  • High-speed data transfer
  • Performance guarantees
  • Monitoring Adaptation
  • Intrusion detection
  • Resource management
  • Accounting payment
  • Fault management
  • System evolution
  • Etc.

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Some Grid Requirements User Perspective
  • Single allocation if any at all
  • Single sign-on authentication to any Grid
    resources authenticates for all others
  • Single compute space one scheduler for all Grid
    resources
  • Single data space can address files and data
    from any Grid resources
  • Single development environment Grid tools and
    libraries that work on all grid resources

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The Security Problem
  • Resources being used may be extremely valuable
    the problems being solved extremely sensitive
  • Resources are often located in distinct
    administrative domains
  • Each resource may have own policies
    procedures
  • The set of resources used by a single
    computation may be large, dynamic, and/or
    unpredictable
  • Not just client/server
  • It must be broadly available applicable
  • Standard, well-tested, well-understood
    protocols
  • Integration with wide variety of tools

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The Resource ManagementProblem
  • Enabling secure, controlled remote access to
    computational resources and management of remote
    computation
  • Authentication and authorization
  • Resource discovery characterization
  • Reservation and allocation
  • Computation monitoring and control

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Some Grid Usage Models
  • Distributed computing job scheduling on Grid
    resources with secure, automated data transfer
  • Workflow synchronized scheduling and automated
    data transfer from one system to next in pipeline
    (e.g. compute- viz, storage)
  • Coupled codes, with pieces running on different
    systems simultaneously
  • Meta- applications parallel apps spanning
    multiple systems
  • Some models are similar to models already being
    used, but are much simpler due to
  • single sign-on
  • automatic process scheduling
  • automated data transfers
  • But Grids can encompass new resources likes
    sensors and instruments, so new usage models will
    arise

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Grid-based Computation Challenges
  • Locate suitable computers
  • Authenticate with appropriate sites
  • Allocate resources on those computers
  • Initiate computation on those computers
  • Configure those computations
  • Select appropriate communication methods
  • Compute with suitable algorithms
  • Access data files, return output
  • Respond appropriately to resource changes

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Leading Grid Middleware Developments
  • Globus Toolkit (mainly developed at ANL and USC)
  • Service-oriented toolkit from the Globus
    project,to be used in Grid applications, not
    targeted at end-user
  • Services for resource selection and allocation,
  • authentication, file system access and file
    transfer,
  • Largest user-base in projects worldwide
  • Open-source software, commercial support by IBM
    and Platform Computing

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Leading Grid Middleware Developments
  • UNICORE (European development)
  • Originally developed as a standard gateway for
    job submission to supercomputers at HPC centers
  • Comfortable GUI for job definition and monitoring
    (abstracted from system peculiarities)
  • Extended to a Grid job environment, including
    similar services as provided by the Globus
    Toolkit
  • Hierarchical job structure, dependencies between
    tasks at different sites, automatic file transfer
  • GRIP project Integration of Globus into UNICORE,
    (task submission into Globus Grid)
  • Open-source software, commercial support by
    Pallas

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Leading Grid Middleware Developments
  • LEGION (Univ. of Virginia)
  • Combines distributed resources into a single
    virtual computer, OS for a distributed machine
  • Legion shell providing services such as naming,
    file system, security, process generation,
    inter-process comm., I/O, resource management
  • Open-source software, commercial support by Avaki

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Examples of GridProgramming Technologies
  • MPICH-G2 Grid-enabled message passing
  • CoG Kits, GridPort Portal construction
  • GDMP, Data Grid Tools, SRB replica management,
    collection management
  • Condor-G simple workflow management
  • Legion object models for Grid computing
  • NetSolve Network enabled solver
  • Cactus Grid-aware numerical solver framework,
    application focus

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Standardization Activities
  • 4Web services (under development at W3C), in
    particular
  • hSimple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • hWeb Service Description Language (WSDL)
  • hWeb Service Inspection Language (WSIL)
  • hWeb Service Flow Language (WSFL, for workflows)
  • 4Open Grid Service Architecture (OGSA, on-going
    at GGF)
  • hMerger of toolkit model (Globus) with
    service-oriented
  • approach of Web services
  • hGlobus 3.0 partial implementation of OGSA
  • 4Semantic Web (W3C)
  • hResource Description Framework (RDF) for
    metadata
  • interoperability, based on XML

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OGSI and OGSA
  • OGSI Open Grid Service Infrastructure
  • Specs from GGF OGSI working group
  • Defines what makes a Grid service
  • Based on Web service
  • Naming, life cycle, state, notification
  • portTypes definitions, WSDL 1.2 draft
  • OGSA Open Grid Service Architecture
  • Specs from GGF OGSA working group
  • Defines a list of fundamental Grid services, and
    how they cooperate
  • Work in progress

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OGSA services
  • Open Grid Service Architecture, being defined by
    GGF OGSA working group
  • In ubiquitous Grid platform, there is common need
    for some essential set of interfaces, behaviors,
    resource models, and bindings
  • OGSA defines the core set of services essential
    for grid, their functionality and
    interrelationships
  • Work in progress. Last draft Oct 3, 2003
  • Core services service interaction, management,
    communication, security
  • Non-core data, program execution, resource
    management

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What is a Grid service
  • Defined by OGSI (GGF working group)
  • Is a Web service with extensions, which are
  • Name (handle GSH, reference GSR)
  • Lifetime management (factories, persistent and
    transient services)
  • State (Service Data)
  • Notification as well as querying
  • WSDL 1.2 draft (gwsdl namespace)
  • Definitions of portTypes

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Globus Toolkit
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Globus Grid Services
  • The Globus toolkit provides a range of basic Grid
    services
  • - Security, information, fault detection,
    communication, resource management, ...
  • These services are simple and orthogonal
  • - Can be used independently, mix and match
  • Programming model independent
  • - For each there are well-defined APIs
  • - Standards are used extensively
  • E.g., LDAP, GSS-API, X.509, ...
  • You dont program in Globus, its a set of tools
    like Unix

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The Globus Alliance
  • Globus Project , since 1996
  • Ian Foster (Argonne National Lab),
  • Carl Kesselman (University of Southern
    Californias Information Science Institute)
  • Develop protocols, middleware and tools for Grid
    computing
  • Globus Alliance, since Sept 2003
  • International scope
  • University of Edinburghs EPCC
  • Swedish Center for Parallel Computers (PDC)
  • Advisory council of Academic Affiliates from
    Asia-Pacific, Europe, US

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Globus Toolkit
  • GT2 (2.4 released in 2002) reference
    implementation of Grid fabric protocols
  • GRAM for job submissions
  • MDS for resource discovery
  • GridFTP for data transfer
  • GSI security
  • GT3 (3.0 released July 2003) redesign
  • OGSI based
  • Grid services, built on SOAP and XML
  • GT3.2 released March 31, 2004

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Globus Toolkit Services
  • Job submission and management (GRAM)
  • Uniform Job Submission
  • Security (GSI)
  • PKI-based Security (Authentication) Service
  • Information services (MDS)
  • LDAP-based Information Service
  • Remote file management (GASS) and transfer
    (GridFTP)
  • Remote Storage Access Service
  • Remote Data Catalogue and Management Tools
  • Support by Globus 2.0 released in 2002
  • Resource selection and allocation (GIIS, GRIS)

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Resource Specification Language
  • Common notation for exchange of information
    between components
  • Syntax similar to MDS/LDAP filters
  • RSL provides two types of information
  • Resource requirements Machine type, number of
    nodes, memory, etc.
  • Job configuration Directory, executable, args,
    environment
  • API provided for manipulating RSL

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Job Submission Interfaces
  • Globus Toolkit includes several command line
    programs for job submission
  • globus-job-run Interactive jobs
  • globus-job-submit Batch/offline jobs
  • globusrun Flexible scripting infrastructure
  • Advanced Grid Job Management Systems
  • General purpose
  • Nimrod-G, Condor-G, etc
  • Application specific
  • Active Sheet Cactus, Web portals

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Meaning of GT3 in the community
  • Most commonly referred project
  • Traditionally de facto standard
  • Acknowledged leadership by academia and industry
    (IBM,)
  • BSD style license allows for commercial usage
  • However, it is only a reference implementation.
    Now standards GGF
  • GT undergoes constant changes
  • With business entering grid, commercial
    implementations may soon catch up

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Alternatives to GT3
  • Protocol level interoperability
  • Grid compliant gt implements OGSI
  • Other OGSI implementations
  • OGSI.NET (U.Virginia)
  • pyGlobus (LBNL)
  • .NET (U.Edinburgh)
  • PERL (U. Manchester)
  • UNICORE (Fujitsu)
  • Commercial OGSI compliant products by
  • Avaki, Platform, Data Synapse,
  • Web service alternative Grid App Framework
    http//www.neresc.ac.uk/ws-gaf

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COMPGRID CALCULE DE INALTA PERFORMANTA IN RETELE
PE ARII EXTINSE
  • Teme si subteme
  • 1.      software matematic
  • a.      software matematic si software comercial
    pentru grid
  • b.      pachete cu licente publice pe grid
  • c.       studii legate de sisteme dinamice
    discrete
  • 2.      calcul paralel si distribuit
  • a.      noi algoritmi paraleli si distribuiti
    pentru rezolvarea problemelor de
  • i. optimizare si calcul evolutiv, probleme
    neliniare
  • ii. procesare de imagini
  • iii. verificare software
  • iv. extragerea informatiei
  • b.      creare si testare de noi prototipuri
    software functionale pe clustere de statii de
    lucru
  • c.       extinderea prototipurilor pentru
    functionare pe griduri de calcul
  • d.      integrarea tehnologiilor web cu
    tehnologiile grid
  • 3.      data-mining
  • 4.      sisteme inteligente
  • a.      modele pentru sisteme expert de rezolvare
    a problemelor matematice in medii distribuite
  • b.      prototipuri software pentru sisteme
    expert constiente de grid
  • c.       modele si prototipuri pentru sisteme
    multi-agenti de negociere pentru resurse

Subteme prioritare 2004 Metodologii si tehnici
pentru calculul de inalta performanta pe arii
extinse 1a,1c,2ai,4a,4d 2005 Software pentru
griduri de calcul

1b,2aiii,2d,3,4c,4d 2006 Aplicatii ale
tehnologiilor grid

2iv,2b,2c,4b,5
99
Useful References
  • Global Grid Forum working meeting
  • HPDC major academic conference
  • Other meetings include IPDPS, CCGrid,
    EuroGlobus, Globus Retreats
  • Book (Morgan Kaufman) www.mkp.com/grids
  • Perspective on Grids The Anatomy of the Grid
    Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations, IJSA,
    2001, www.globus.org/research/papers/anatomy.pdf
  • URLs, especially
  • www.gridcomputing.com, www.gridbus.org,
    www.gridforum.org, www.grids-center.org,
    www.globus.org

100
Ce este gridul?
  • Gridul este o paradigma si o infrastructura care
    permite partajarea, selectia si agregarea unor
    resurse distribuite geografic
  • o  calculatoare (de la PC-uri, sattii de lucru,
    clustere, calculatoare paralele, calculatoare
    portabile, dispozitive mobile, PDA etc),
  • o software (de exemplu utilizarea la cerere a
    unor aplicatii scumpe cu scop special),
  • o    cataloage si baze de date,
  • o     instrumente si dispozitive speciale (de
    exemplu telescoape),
  • o    resurse umane,
  • depinzand de disponibilitatea, facilitatile,
    costurile si cerintele utilizatorilor, pentru
    rezolvarea de aplicatii si probleme pe scara
    larga.
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