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Title: KOH3333 PERUBAHAN


1
KOH3333 PERUBAHAN KOMUNIKASI (Unit
4-6) rosli8_at_pd.jaring.my
2
Unit 4 Konsep Teori Perubahan Unit 5 Impak
Perubahan terhadap ICT Unit 6 Budaya Korporat
dan Perubahan
3
Unit 4 Konsep Teori Perubahan
4
  • What is "Organizational Change?"
  • Typically, the concept of organizational change
    is in regard to organization-wide change, as
    opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new
    person, modifying a program, etc.
  • Examples of organization-wide change might
    include a change in mission, restructuring
    operations, new technologies, mergers, major
    collaborations, "rightsizing", new programs such
    as Total Quality Management, re-engineering, etc.
  • Some experts refer change as organizational
    transformation. Often this term designates a
    fundamental and radical reorientation in the way
    the organization operates.

5
  • What Provokes "Organizational Change"?
  • Change should not be done for the sake of change
    -- it's a strategy to accomplish some overall
    goal. Usually organizational change is provoked
    by some major outside driving force (e.g.
    substantial cuts in funding, address major new
    markets/clients, need for dramatic increases in
    productivity/services, etc).
  • Typically, organizations must undertake
    organization-wide change to evolve to a different
    level in their life cycle, e.g., going from a
    highly reactive, entrepreneural organization to
    more stable and planned development.
  • Transition involving a new chief executive can
    provoke organization-wide change when his or her
    new and unique personality spread through the
    entire organization.

6
  • Why Organization-Wide Change Difficult to
  • Accomplish?
  • Typically there are strong resistances to change
  • 1. People are afraid of the unknown.
  • 2. Many people think things are already just fine
    and don't
  • understand the need for change.
  • 3. Many are inherently cynical about change,
    particularly from reading about the notion of
    "change" as if it's a mantra.
  • 4. Many doubt there are effective means to
    accomplish major organizational change.
  • 5. There are conflicting goals in the
    organization, e.g., to increase resources to
    accomplish the change yet concurrently cut costs
    to remain viable.
  • 6. Organization-wi change often goes against the
    very
  • values held dear by members in the organization,
    that is, the change may go against how members
    believe things should be done.

7
  • How Organization-Wide Change Best Carried
  • Out? Successful change must
  • 1. Involve top management, including the board
    and chief executive, who initially instigates the
    change by being visionary, persuasive and
    consistent.
  • 2. Be initiated by a change agent who is
    responsible to translate the vision to a
    realistic plan.
  • 3. Involve team-work effort.
  • 4. Be communicated frequently and to all
    organization members.
  • 5. Sustain and involve the modification of
    organization structures, including strategic
    plans, policies and procedures.

8
  • Contd
  • 6. Involve continuous, increased and sustained
    communications and education. For example, the
    leader should meet with all managers and staff to
    explain reasons for the change, how it generally
    will be carried out and where others can go for
    additional information. A plan should be
    developed and communicated. Plans do change.
    That's fine, but communicate that the plan has
    changed and why. Forums should be held for
    organization members to express their ideas for
    the plan. They should be able to express their
    concerns and frustrations as well.

9
  • Strategies for Managing Change
  • 1. Educate the leaders of change, including both
    CEOs and managers.
  • 2. Use a "systems" approach to ensure that all
    aspects of the organization are considered when
    planning and implementing change.
  • 3. Use a team approach that involves many
    stakeholders in the change process.
  • 4. Share power with managers and others to
    encourage the implementation of the change
    efforts.
  • 5. Make plans, but "hold your plans loosely."
    Develop plans, but know that they will have to be
    adapted to change as needs change.

10
Contd
  • Contd
  • 6. Realize that there is a tension between
    establishing readiness for change and the need to
    get people implementing new approaches quickly.
    While getting people intellectually ready for
    change is something to be considered, it should
    not take so much time and effort that people lose
    interest and motivation.
  • 7. Provide considerable amounts of training and
    staff development for those involved. These
    activities can include everything from holding
    QCC (quality control circle) group to
    "on-the-dash" coaching.
  • 8. Choose innovative practices for and with
    managers that are research-based and "office
    friendly." Picking approaches that have been used
    or researched can help the implementation of
    those approaches.
  • 9. Be prepared for "implementation test." It was
    noted that things often get worse temporarily
    before improvement begins to appear.

11
  • Contd
  • 10. Recognize that change happens only through
    people. The emotional effects of change on
    managers need to be considered and understood by
    all involved in the change process. Understanding
    resistance and working with it is key factor to
    change implementation.
  • 11. Help managers and others develop an
    "intellectual understanding" of the new
    practices. While the outcomes are important to
    assess, people also need to understand the
    underlying meanings and functions of the
    practices.
  • 12. Seek out "paradigm shifters" and "idea
    champions" who are interested in making
    substantial changes in practice.
  • 13. Take the long view realize that change takes
    time and should not be forced to occur too
    quickly.

12
  • Some General Guidelines to Organization-Wide
  • Change
  • There are a few other basic guidelines to keep in
    mind
  • 1. Consider using a consultant. Ensure the
    consultant is highly experienced in
    organization-wide change. Ask to see references
    and check the references.
  • 2. Widely communicate the potential need for
    change. Communicate what you're doing about it,
    what was done and how it worked out.
  • 3. Get as much feedback as practical from
    employees, including what they think are the
    problems and what should be done to resolve them.
    If possible, work with a team of employees to
    manage the change.
  • 4. Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the
    sake of change. Know why you're making the
    change. What goal(s) do you hope to accomplish?

13
  • Contd
  • 5. Have someone in charge of the plan.
  • 6. Plan the change. How do you plan to reach the
    goals, what will you need to reach the goals, how
    long might it take and how will you know when
    you've reached your goals or not? Focus on the
    coordination of the departments/programs in your
    organization, not on each part by itself.
  • 7. End up having every employee ultimately
    reporting to one person, if possible, and they
    should know who that person is. Job descriptions
    are often complained about, but they are useful
    in specifying who reports to whom.
  • 8. The process won't be an "aha!" It will take
    longer than you think.

14
Contd
  • Contd
  • 9. Delegate decisions to employees as much as
    possible. This includes granting them the
    authority and responsibility to get the job done.
    As much as possible, let them decide how to do
    the project.
  • 10. Keep perspective. Keep focused on meeting
  • the needs of your customer or clients.
  • 11. Take care of yourself first. Organizational
    change can be highly stressful.
  • 12. Don't seek to control change, but rather to
  • expect it, understand it and manage it.
  • 13. Include closure in the plan. Acknowledge and
  • celebrate your accomplishments.
  • 14. Read some resources about organizational
  • change, including new forms and structures.

15
  • Some of the reasons why senior management
  • do not support change
  • 1. They are short term results oriented and most
    change processes take a long time to achieve
    results.
  • 2. Managers relate best to quantitative financial
    results, while most change processes either
    produce qualitative results or do not translate
    the results to dollars.
  • 3. Many senior managers do not understand the
    critical nature of their role in the change
    process, or what they have to do to visibly
    support the change.
  • 4. Senior managers often see the change process
    as a "project or program" rather than an all
    encompassing and ongoing process.

16
Theory of Change 5 variables that influence
change
efficacy
present discomfort
preferred alternative future
emotional security
internalization of responsibility
17
Present Discomfort
You must have a need for something to be
different.
18
Internalization of Responsibility
You must realize change is your job, and not the
work of others.
19
Emotional Security
This can have different meanings at different
stages of development, but generally includes
safety, identity, attachments, trust in others
etc.
20
Efficacy
You have the power and ability to influence
outcomes.
21
Preferred Alternative Future
You must hope for a different future that is
worth working for.
22
Quoted from The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli,
1515 A.D.
It follows that an acceleration in the rate of
change will result in an increasing need for
re-organization. Re-organization is usually
feared, because it means disturbance of the
status quo, a threat to peoples vested interests
in their jobs, and an upset to established ways
of doing things. For these reasons, needed
re-organization is often deferred, with a
resulting loss in effectiveness and an increase
in costs.
23
Communication Channels
  • The medium is the message.
  • -Marshall McLuhan

24
  • The SMCR Selection Model
  • Are needs of the sender compatible with the
    attributes of the intended message?
  • Are the messages sent compatible with the
    channels used?
  • Are the senders needs compatible with the
    channels used?
  • Are the messages compatible with the receivers
    needs?
  • Are the channels utilized compatible with the
    receivers needs?

25
  • Implications
  • Most effective knowledge-sharing occurs
    face-to-face
  • Some channels focus more attention on the
    message, others on the people
  • Different channels require different skills
  • Writing fosters critical thinking
  • Speed often trumps completeness

26
  • Contd
  • Channel choices affect power relationships
  • Different channels fill particular niches
  • Channel choices send symbolic messages
  • Senders receivers often evaluate channel
    effectiveness in different ways

27
Unit 5 Impak Perubahan terhadap ICT
28
  • IMPAK PERUBAHAN GLOBAL
  • KE ATAS KOMUNIKASI
  • Apa dia Perubahan Global?
  • Berdasarkan perspektif ekonomi, perubahan global
  • atau globalisasi secara ringkas dirujuk sebagai
  • situasi di mana barangan, wang, dan manusia
  • bergerak merentasi sempadan antarabangsa
  • secara bebas tanpa sekatan dan halangan.

29
  • Komunikasi dalam Era Globalisasi?
  • Komunikasi yang berlaku apabila manusia terlibat
  • dalam perundingan global, bekerja dalam syarikat
  • yang mengeksport produk dan perkhidmatan,
  • berinteraksi dengan pelanggan dan klien
  • antarabangsa dalam perkampungan global secara
  • siber atau secara konvensyenal - Tidak ada
    sesiapa
  • yang terkecuali dan tiada siapa yang boleh
  • menghalang proses globalisasi.

30
  • Sejarah Globalisasi?
  • 1. Tamadun nomadic (1.5 juta tahun dulu)
  • 2. Tamadun agrarian (sebelum 8000BC)
  • 3. Tamadun transisi (8000BC-1750AD)
  • 4. Tamadun perindustrian (1750-1971)
  • 5. Tamadun informatic (1971-sekarang) yang
    berasaskan knowledge industries dengan orientasi
    k-economy.

31
  • Ciri Individu Manusia dalam Era Globalisasi?
  • Individu tanpa maklumat tidak boleh melaksanakan
    tanggungjawab Individu yang diberi maklumat
    tidak dapat membantu tetapi mampu menjalankan
    tanggungjawab.

32
  • Ciri Manusia dalam Era Globalisasi
  • (Kes Amerika)
  • Terdapat 1275 associate di seluruh dunia
  • 73 memiliki pendidikan peringkat kolej dan
    universiti
  • Bertutur dalam lebih 15 bahasa
  • Berada di 90 negara yang berlainan

33
  • Asas Komunikasi Keorganisasian dalam Era
    Perubahan Global (Rujukan Komunikasi
    Kemanusiaan)
  • 1. Intrapersonal
  • 2. Interpersonal
  • 3. Kumpulan kecil
  • 4. Keorganisasian
  • 5. Publik
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------
  • 6. Massa (aplikasi ICT)

34
  • Fenomena Komunikasi Keorganisasian
  • dalam Era Perubahan Global
  • Pengantarabangsaan Komunikasi.
  • Terdapat lambakan maklumat.
  • Sumber dan penerima berkomunikasi secara
    interaktif.
  • Penglibatan komunikasi secara silang-fungsi.
  • Maklumat adalah komoditi.

35
  • Sambungan
  • Substance lebih diutamakan berbanding rhetoric.
  • Struktur maklumat bukan dikuasai oleh sumber
    tetapi penerima.
  • Jurang maklumat antara komunikator adalah luas.
  • Wujud komunikasi yang bersifat convergence dan
    divergence.

36
  • Komunikasi Convergence
  • Mesej komunikasi membawa masyarakat ke satu arah.
  • Perlakuan komunikasi membentuk satu corak
    institusional yang seragam.
  • Aplikasi ICT mewujudkan kesamaan tindakan antara
    masyarakat.
  • Penghomegenan sikap, nilai, perlakuan, gaya,
    muzik dan selainnya.

37
  • Komunikasi Divergence
  • Globalisasi modenisasi mentransfomasi maklumat
    kepada masyarakat dalam bentuk yang berlainan.
  • ICT digunapakai bagi tujuan dan matlamat yang
    berbeza di antara budaya.
  • Komponen komunikasi (bahasa, budaya, dll) menjadi
    faktor penghalang kepada convergence.

38
  • Impak Perubahan Global terhadap
  • Komunikasi
  • Ruang komunikasi tiada sempadan.
  • Sumber komunikasi yang kaya dan berpengaruh akan
    memonopoli proses, mesej dan alatan komunikasi.
  • Wujud pendominasian komunikasi.
  • Tahap pengkayaan dan pemerolehan maklumat
    meningkat secara drastik dan mendorong perubahan
    perlakuan.
  • Peningkatan taraf hidup.

39
  • Premis Komunikasi Global
  • Perspektif ekonomi - Unit fundamental ekonomi
    adalah individu dan bukan corporation gt
    ketrampilan komunikasi individu menentukan
    kejayaan.
  • Modenisasi modem isasi.
  • Perkampungan global tanpa sempadan dalam ruang
    siber.

40
  • Ciri Keorganisasian dalam Era
  • Perubahan Global
  • Organisasi bersifat virtual.
  • Organisasi sentiasa berubah gt stail dan jenis
    komunikasi turut berubah.
  • Budaya organisasi mempengaruhi kepelbagaian
    komunikasi.
  • Pekerja organisasi rapat dengan pelanggan dan
    secara signifikan saling berhubungan secara
    elektronik.

41
  • Sambungan
  • Organisasi berkongsi teknologi dan maklumat.
  • Pekerja organisasi dari pelbagai budaya.
  • Pekerja part-time lebih diutamakan.
  • Pekerja bersifat tidak setia.
  • Wujud nilai yang dinamik dalam organisasi.
  • Organisasi lebih mengutamakan servis sebagai
    komoditi utama.

42
  • Elemen yang Mempengaruhi Perubahan
  • Komunikasi Keorganisasian
  • Struktur organisasi
  • Strategi pengurusan
  • Komunikator
  • Persekitaran
  • Proses dan prosedur

43
1. Struktur organisasi Perhubungan antara unit
atau komponen organisasi menentukan fungsi dan
tanggungjawab komunikasi.
  • 2. Strategi pengurusan
  • Matlamat komunikasi organisasi ditentukan oleh
  • tindakan bersistematik dan peruntukan sumber.

44
3. Komunikator Setiap kakitangan yang
bertanggungjawab mengurus maklumat dianggap
sebagai sebahagian produk dan jenama serta
berfungsi sebagai ambassador organisasi.
  • 4. Persekitaran
  • Rekabentuk organisasi mempengaruhi
  • komitmen komunikasi.Dimensi rekabentuk
  • organisasi melibatkan budaya, ruang, masa
  • dan sempadan.

45
  • 5. Proses dan prosedur
  • Proses sosial dalam organisasi yang melibatkan
    pendekatan perundingan, agihan kuasa dan politik
    organisasi mempengaruhi kejayaan komunikasi.
  • Proses operasional yang melibatkan sistem
    maklumat, proses pembuatan, belanjawan dan proses
    kawalan mengelakkan salahfaham komunikasi.

46
  • Kritik terhadap Komunikasi dalam
  • Era Perubahan Global
  • Jurang komunikasi semakin luas antara negara maju
    dengan membangun sumber yang bermaklumat dengan
    penerima yang kurang maklumat.
  • Wujud penjajahan maklumat oleh negara kaya
    terhadap negara miskin melalui proses
    pengintegrasian dan perkongsian yang dianggap
    sebagai non-colonial.

47
  • Pendekatan Integrasi Non-Kolonial
  • Pengambilalihan tanggungjawab penstrukturan
    pembangunan ICT oleh pakar (dari negara maju
    kaya?) melalui perkongsian teknologi dalam semua
    aspek pembangunan menggunakan platform latihan,
    pendidikan, kerjasama dan sebagainya.

48
  • Halangan Komunikasi Keorganisasian
  • terhadap Perubahan Global
  • Halangan organisasi - dalaman.
  • Perunding yang berbeza beroperasi di negara
    yang berbeza - konflik kepentingan.
  • Halangan budaya.
  • Halangan bahasa.
  • Isu keselamatan.

49
  • Strategi Pemerkasaan Komunikasi
  • Era Globalisasi
  • Perkongsian maklumat/mesej secara adil bagi
    peningkatan ilmu secara sejagat.
  • Pengurangan monopoli komunikasi.
  • Komunikasi berfungsi sebagai katalis untuk
    mewujudkan rasa hormat dan kepercayaan untuk
    berkongsi ilmu.
  • Ketrampilan komunikasi individu menjadi asas
    ketrampilan organisasi.

50
  • Halangan akan Datang
  • Kepelbagaian fahaman politik dan ideologi.
  • Penglobalisasian enteprais domestik.
  • Ekspektasi pengguna yang meningkat.
  • Infrastruktur komunikasi yang lemah.

51
  • Premis akan Datang
  • ?Transfomasi rangkaian komunikasi mengurangkan
    kos komunikasi, tetapi sebaliknya meningkatkan
    amaun maklumat.
  • ?Jarak komunikasi tidak menjadi penentu
    keberkesanan komunikasi.
  • Kesimpulan
  • Komunikasi adalah keperluan sejadi
  • manusia. Perubahan global adalah suatu
  • insiden. Komunikasi dalam era globalisasi
  • adalah suatu permulaan.

52
Agenda Perubahan Pengurusan Malaysia dalam Era
Digital/Siber 1. Kronologi Tamaddun
Manusia 2. Fenomena Era Maklumat 3. Persediaan
Menghadapi Ledakan Maklumat 4. Pengenalan Kepada
Kerajaan Elektronik 5. Projek-projek
Perintis 6. Faedah dan Cabaran 7. Rumusan
53
  • Kronologi Tamaddun Manusia
  • Zaman Batu
  • Zaman Pembaharuan
  • Zaman Industri
  • Zaman Era Maklumat

54
  • Persediaan Ke Arah Era
  • Maklumat
  • KESEDARAN
  • PENGETAHUAN
  • INTERAKSI

55
  • The Haves and The Have-Nots
  • Haves Kaya Maklumat
  • The Have-Nots Miskin Maklumat
  • Pada masa hadapan ini sesiapa yang tidak
  • memahami komputer akan menghadapi
  • kesulitan sama dengan orang yang tidak pandai
  • membaca pada masa ini

56
  • Ciri-ciri Komputer
  • KELAJUAN/Speed
  • BOLEH DI PERCAYAI/Reliable
  • SIMPANAN/Storage Capability
  • PRODUKTIVITI/Productivity
  • MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN/Decision Making
  • JIMAT/Cost Reduction

57
  • Kegunaan Komputer
  • Grafik
  • Perdagangan
  • Tenaga
  • Pengangkutan
  • Penulisan
  • Perbankan
  • Pertanian
  • Pendidikan

58
  • Sambungan
  • Kegunaan Peribadi
  • Perubatan
  • Robotik
  • Sains
  • Latihan
  • Komunikasi
  • Kerajaan

59
KORIDOR RAYA MULTIMEDIA (MSC)
  • Multimedia Utopia
  • Kawasan seluas 750 km persegi di selatan Kuala
    Lumpur
  • Sebuah kawasan percambahan ide dalam bidang
    pengurusan, penyelidikan, pembuatan dan
    penyebaran maklumat serta produk berunsurkan
    multimedia
  • Infrastruktur fizikal yang bertaraf dunia serta
    rangkaian multimedia 2.5 10 GB

MSC boundary
KLCC
PETALING JAYA
KL Tower
Country heights
CYBERJAYA
PUTRAJAYA
AIRPORT CITY
KLIA
60
APLIKASI PERDANA MSC
3. Kelompok Penyelidikan Pembangunan
2. Kad Pintar Pelbagai Guna
4. Kerajaan Elektronik
5. Jaringan Pengilangan Dunia
1. Sekolah Bestari
E-Perniagaan 6. Pemasaran Tanpa Sempadan
7. Teleperubatan
61
VISI KERAJAAN ELEKTRONIK
Kerajaan Dengan Orang Ramai/Perniagaan
  • Kemudahan Akses
  • Kualiti perkhidmatan
  • Pelbagai saluran penyampaian perkhidmatan

KESELAMATAN
PIAWAIAN
Antara Agensi
Dalaman Agensi
  • Aliran maklumat yang licin
  • Pangkalan data berdasarkan amalan terbaik
  • Peningkatan keupayaan menganalisis maklumat
  • Penambahbaikkan
  • Proses
  • Pembangunan sumber manusia

PERUNDANGAN
62
DEFINISI DAN OBJEKTIF KERAJAAN ELEKTRONIK
  • Objektif
  • 1.Menyediakan perkhidmatan yang cekap dan
    berkualiti secara elektronik
  • 2.Menyelaraskan proses-proses kerja dalaman bagi
    meningkatkan kualiti, menjimatkan kos dan
    meningkatkan produktiviti
  • 3.Mengukuhkan keselamatan maklumat serta menjamin
    privasi
  • 4.Meningkatkan penglibatan orang awam dalam
    Kerajaan
  • 5.Mewujudkan Kerajaan yang telus dan akauntabel

Definisi Pentadbiran secara elektronik yang
merombak semula proses-proses kerja dalaman,
mengubah corak perkhidmatan yang diberikan dan
menghubungkan agensi-agensi Kerajaan melalui
teknologi maklumat dan multimedia bagi mewujudkan
persepakatan antara anggota-anggota Kerajaan,
syarikat swasta dan orang awam ke arah
pembangunan negara
63
SKOP KERAJAAN ELEKTRONIK

Kerajaan
Perniagaan
Rakyat
64
PROJEK-PROJEK PERINTIS
eSERVICES Pendaftaran Pemandu dan Kenderaan,
Perkhidmatan Pelesenan dan Saman, Bayaran Bil
Utiliti dan Maklumat Kesihatan Secara On-Line
GOE Persekitaran Pejabat Generik
EP Perolehan Elektronik
HRMIS Sistem Maklumat Pengurusan Sumber Manusia
ELX Bursa Buruh Elektronik
PMS Sistem Pemantauan Projek
65
eServices
Homes/ Business Premises
Public Places (kiosks)
Payment Consortium
Private Sector Services
Web TV
IVR/ Phone
Fax
PC
Financial Network
SP2
SP1
SP3
Approved Site
GP
Utility Bill Payment
Other Government Services
EGNet
Road Transport Dept
GMPC
66
eSERVICES
Kementerian Kesihatan
Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan
Pendaftaran Pemandu Kenderaan, Perkhidmatan
Pelesenan dan Saman (termasuk penjadualan dan
pengambilan Ujian Memandu)
Maklumat Kesihatan Secara On-line
Pendaftaran Pemandu dan Kenderaan, Perkhidmatan
Pelesenan dan Saman, Bayaran Bil Utiliti dan
Maklumat Kesihatan Secara On-Line
Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM)
Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB)
Bayaran Bil Utiliti
Bayaran Bil Utiliti
67
eProcurement
BUYING AND SELLING VIA THE NET
Phase 1
Supplier Registration/ Central Contract
Phase 2
Direct Purchase, Quotation, Tendering
68
ePEROLEHAN
Proses Perolehan Kerajaan bagi barangan dan
perkhidmatan secara on-line
Keluar Pesanan Pembelian
Pemilihan Produk
Pilih Pembekal
Bayar Pesanan
Tunai Pesanan
  • Pengesanan pesanan
  • Pengakuan Penghantaran
  • Invois
  • Pemadanan pembayaran
  • Penghubungan Lejar
  • Pembayaran E
  • Katalog Elektronik
  • Perolehan E
  • Pengesahan E
  • Kawalan Peruntukan
  • Serahan Elektronik
  • Penerimaan Pesanan Pembelian

Kontrak Pusat, Pembelian Terus, Sebutharga dan
Tender
Pengurusan Pembekal
Pengurusan Agensi
Pengurusan Produk
  • Pengurusan Profil Agensi
  • Pengurusan Profil Pengguna
  • Pengurusan Profil Pembekal
  • Pengurusan Profil Pengguna
  • Pengurusan Kontrak
  • Pengurusan Produk dan Katalog

69
PERSEKITARAN PEJABAT ELEKTRONIK
An electronic office environment to enhance
productivity through better information
management, communications and collaboration
  • Check electronic mail, meeting schedule, and
    filtered news
  • Accessing documents online
  • Assigning tasks electronically

70
SISTEM MAKLUMAT PENGURUSAN SUMBER MANUSIA
Menyediakan fungsi pengurusan sumber manusia
sepenuhnya kepada Kerajaan untuk membangun dan
mengurus sumber manusia
Perancangan Sumber Manusia
Pengambilan
Penempatan
Pengesahan Jawatan
Fungsi Operasi
Taraf Pencen
Latihan
Pengurusan Gaji
Kebajikan Pekerja
Kenaikan Pangkat
Pesaraan
TERAS
Fungsi Pengurusan
71
SISTEM PEMANTAUAN PROJEK
Mewujudkan persekitaran usahasama bagi mengurus
projek-projek pembangunan dengan lebih baik
Keupayaan membuat analisa impak sosial, simulasi
dan ramalan (Fasa 2)
Maklumat boleh diperolehi pada bila-bila masa
Penyediaan maklumat yang konsisten dan menepati
masa
PMS
Kemudahan menyediakan laporan mengikut keperluan
Mempunyai ciri dan fungsi grafik dan multimedia
Penghantaran maklumat serta merta
Penyeragaman kod-kod projek
1223-055681-1706
72
BURSA BURUH ELEKTRONIK
Pusat setempat bagi memperolehi maklumat pasaran
buruh dan pemadanan pencari kerja dengan
kekosongan pekerjaan
  • Menyatukan statistik prospektif pekerjaan

Kaunseling
PERKHIDMATAN ADUAN DAN KAUNSELING
LMD
Pendaftaran Pencari Kerja
Labour Market Database
PENCARI KERJA
Data
Sistem Job Clearing
Pendaftaran Kekosongan
PERKHIDMATAN KAUNTER PENDAFTARAN
  • Mengemaskini pendaftaran prospektif majikan
    dengan kekosongan
  • Mengemaskini pendaftaran pencari kerja/pemohon
  • Mengagihkan permohonan pencari kerja/pemohon dan
    maklumat kekosongan
  • Melaksanakan pemadanan pekerjaan
  • Mengagihkan pemadanan pekerjaan

Maklumat Calon
MAJIKAN
PERKHIDMATAN PEMADANAN KERJA DAN TEMUDUGA
Pemberitahuan Penempatan
PENEMPATAN
73
eSPKB
Cross-EG
  • eSPKB Sistem Perancangan Kawalan Belanjawan
    Elektronik
  • - Integrasi antara aplikasi EG
    dengan sistem JAN

ePerolehan
AGO/SAD
BAS
SPKB
Server
PMS
EFT
E-Services
Bank
PTJ
HRMIS
SPKB users
74
PERKHIDMATAN AWAM YANG LEBIH DINAMIK
Penyampaian Perkhidmatan Kerajaan kepada
keperluan Rakyat
?Menerusi pelbagai saluran 24 jam sehari,
7 hari seminggu tanpa mengira lokasi.
?Menggunakan pendekatan pelbagai
perkhidmatan melalui satu saluran
penyampaian atau single window
75
sambungan PERKHIDMATAN AWAM YANG LEBIH DINAMIK
  • Mewujudkan sebuah organisasi dengan
  • Kakitangan Perkhidmatan Awam yang berpengetahuan
    dan kaya maklumat
  • Pekerja yang celik IT
  • Proses-proses yang teratur dan terkemas

76
PERKONGSIAN INFRASTRUKTUR
  • Infrastruktur IT yang dikongsi bersama
    penggunaanya seperti
  • Rangkaian
  • Pengurusan perkakasan/perisian
  • (Enterprise Management)
  • Pusat Data (Data Centre)
  • Pusat Pemulihan Bencana
  • Meja Bantuan

TUJUAN
  • Mengurangkan duplikasi sumber-sumber berikut
  • Infrastruktur
  • Tenaga Kerja
  • Kos

77
PERKONGSIAN PINTAR
  • Mengalakkan kerjasama melalui
  • Perkongsian Pintar
  • Penglibatan sektor swasta dalam projek EG
  • Penglibatan institusi tempatan dan luaran

78
PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI TERKINI
  • Seiring dengan
  • perkembangan IT
  • global
  • Melalui penggunaan teknologi komunikasi, IT dan
    multimedia yang bersesuaian dan terkini

79
KEBAIKAN KEPADA NEGARA
  • Good Governance
  • Menghasilkan pemerintahan yang lebih terbuka,
    telus serta meningkatkan kebertanggungjawaban
  • Potensi tinggi terhadap menyumbang kepada ekonomi
    negara melalui k-ekonomi dan e-ekonomi

80
MENCAPAI WAWASAN 2020
Potensi KDNK per kapita dalam AS (000) tahun
1992
16
Potensi melalui pendekatan IT
14
12
10
Sasaran wawasan 2020
8
6
Jangkaan berasaskan pendekatan industri
4
2
0
1992
1996
2000
2004
2008
2020
2012
2016
Source EPU IMF World Bank McKinsey analysis
81
ISU DAN CABARAN
  • Penyelarasan Usaha-Usaha Pembangunan IT
  • Integrasi dan Interoperabiliti
  • Pengeluaran produk IT bertaraf dunia
  • Pengurusan teknologi yang pelbagai dan usang
  • Keselamatan dan Kerahsiaan

STRATEGI
KERAJAAN ELEKTRONIK
MANUSIA
TEKNOLOGI
  • Liat menerima perubahan
  • Kepakaran IT
  • Pemindahan Teknologi
  • Perekayasaan Proses

PROSES
82
STRATEGI
  • Penyelarasan usaha-usaha pembangunan
  • ICT
  • Agenda IT Negara (NITA)
  • MSC
  • Jawatankuasa-jawatankuasa yang berkaitan (NITC,
    JITIK,MTN, SITC, dan sebagainya)
  • Integrasi dan Interoperabiliti
  • Integrasi merentasi aplikasi dan sistem sedia ada
  • Pelaksanaan polisi dan standard ICT

83
TEKNOLOGI
  • Pengeluaran produk IT bertaraf dunia
  • Teknologi terkini
  • Keupayaan konsortium
  • Keberkesanan kos

Pengurusan teknologi yang pelbagai dan usang
Keselamatan dan Kerahsiaan
84
PROSES
  • Perekayasaan Proses Urusan
  • (Business Process Engineering)
  • Di setiap peringkat dalam organisasi

85
MANUSIA
  • Liat Menerima Perubahan
  • Memerlukan anjakan paradigma
  • Perlu mengurus perubahan
  • Kepakaran ICT
  • Kekurangan kepakaran dalam bidang ICT
  • Campuran kompetensi dan kepakaran
  • Latihan
  • Pemindahan Teknologi (TOT)
  • Kurang usaha TOT dalam bidang operasi,
    penyelenggaraan dan pengubahsuaian

86
RUMUSAN
  • Kakitangan Perkhidmatan Awam perlu bersedia
    menerima perubahan ICT

87
How to Communicate Change Effectively?
Timing
Messages
Safety Valves
Channels
Effectiveness
Tactics
Strategy
Audience Analysis
Contextual Analysis
88
A. Contextual Analysis
  • 1. Key Issues
  • - Culture
  • - Non-complex manageable
  • - Advantageous over past practices
  • - Benefits observable
  • - Key relationships
  • - Employee reactions

89
  • Contd
  • 2. Principles
  • -Need to thoroughly understand org. context
  • -Need to assess type of change
  • -Need to understand implications of the change
  • -Need to anticipate possible resistance points
  • -Need to sustain focused flexibility

90
Assessing Type of Change
Receivers Perspective
Senders Perspective
91
B. Audience Analysis
  • 1. Issues
  • -Major groups
  • -How impacted
  • -Resistance points
  • -Communication preferences
  • -Lions

92
  • Contd
  • 2. Principles
  • - What is persuasive to one group may not be
    persuasive to another
  • - What is a specific point of resistance to one
    group may not be to another
  • - Influence is unequally distributed

93
C. Strategy
  • 1. Issues
  • - Unifying vision
  • - Communication objectives for all groups
  • - Unique objectives for specific groups

94
  • Contd
  • 2. Principles
  • - Persuasion is a process
  • - Spend communication resources wisely
  • Need
  • Remedy
  • Disadvantages
  • - Allocate resources according to AA

95
D. Tactics
  • Principles
  • _at_Use richer channels for more non-routine changes
  • _at_Link messages to pre-existing thought patterns
  • _at_Always discuss upside downside
  • _at_Balance managing expectations dissent
  • Issues
  • Channels
  • Messages
  • Timing

96
Contd
  • Principles
  • _at_ Legitimize employee concerns
  • _at_ Look for continuous improvement ideas
  • _at_ Match peoples skills with task
  • Issues
  • Safety Valves
  • Monitor
  • Who

97
Unit 6 Budaya Korporat Perubahan
98
Corporate Culture (Definition)
  • Consists of a set of symbols, ceremonies, and
    myths that communicate the underlying values and
    beliefs of that organization to its employees.
  • Corporate Culture
  • Limits range of movement
  • Makes movement possible
  • Does NOT cause movement

99
The Necessity of Culture
  • Range of possible beliefs
  • Transforming power into strength
  • Provides an efficient coordination mechanism
  • May be unreflective and disorderly

100
Basic principles
  • Employees are at once the consequence, creators,
    and carriers of culture
  • Cultural values are reflected in a variety of
    ways (overt subtle)
  • Culture changes but it does so slowly
  • Cultural values are necessarily few, because
    values inevitably conflict

101
Communicating the Culture
  • Objectives
  • - Commitment to organizational goals
  • - Move from the objective to the subjective
  • Use the culturation process
  • Link values to behaviors
  • Manage information appropriately
  • Develop the right symbols ceremonies
  • Tell the right stories

102
I-We-Them-It principle
  • I treatment of individuals
  • We treatment of the group
  • Them treatment of the customer
  • It how the company feels about what it does

103
Stated Unstated Culture
  • Stated Culture - The ideal state
  • Unstated Culture - The actual state
  • They are always disconnected.
  • The critical question is how disconnected the
    stated and unstated culture really are.

Stated
Unstated
104
Change Readiness Wheel (from Shannon Coman in
collaboration with Tim Dickenson at Immunex) How
to use the Change Readiness Wheel
  • Use the Change Readiness Wheel to help assess
    your organizations readiness for a change that
    you are considering.
  • If you decide to go forward with the change, use
    it to help plan interventions that will prepare
    for successful implementation.

105
Contd
  • _at_In each concentric ring of the circle, list one
    of the stakeholder groups who will be involved
    with the change.
  • _at_Assess each groups readiness for change in each
    area, or slice (as described on the next page) of
    the wheel.

106
Contd
  • Use (R) RED-not ready, needs lots of work (Y)
    YELLOW-needs some work (G) GREEN-ready.
  • Look at this wheel to indicate where you need to
    work to prepare for a smooth implementation of
    the change.
  • On the following slide page, the Stakeholder
    Awareness and Involvement table is another tool
    that can be used to assess each stakeholder
    groups readiness for change, and progress toward
    full involvement.

107
Project Name -- Phase
Vision Clarity and Value Proposition
Organizational Culture and Structure
Y
G
G
Plan for Ongoing Support and Management
Y
G
Y
R
Sponsorship
G
G
R
G
Y
R
R
Y
R
End Users
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
R
Y
Project Leadership and Accountability
Y
Y
Y
G
Project Team
Y
Historical Success in Implementing System
Changes
G
Y
Steering Committee
Y
G
Executives
Competency in this area
Resistance
108
Stakeholder Awareness and Involvement
X Where They Are Today O Where They Need to
Be Today Z Where They Need to Be By Rollout
109
Change Readiness Definitions
  • Vision Clarity/Value Proposition
  • How clear is the stated direction and goal for
    the project?
  • What is the desired future state, and what is the
    desired outcome?
  • Is the value of the project to the business
    clear?
  • Sponsorship
  • Are the necessary resources being allocated to
    the project?
  • Do project leaders have the authority and
    decision-making ability to successfully lead and
    implement?
  • Do they have support from all areas participating
    in the change?

110
Contd
  • Project Leadership/Accountability
  • Is there a clearly identified leader of the
    project?
  • Is the direction clear?
  • Are the goals and measures for success clearly
    stated?
  • Is someone clearly accountable for the success of
    the project?
  • Resistance
  • 1. What resistance is observed, both explicitly
    and implicitly, to the change?
  • Competency in this area
  • 1. How competent are those involved in the
    project with the new skill tool, or
    implementation methodology?

111
Contd
  • Historical Success
  • How successful have we been with past big system
    changes?
  • Plan for Ongoing
  • 1. Is there a plan for ongoing leadership and
    support of this change?
  • Organizational Culture/Structure
  • Will the organizations culture and structure
    support the change?
  • What challenges need to be addressed?
  • How significant is the change?

112
Interdepartmental Communication (The inherent
nature of departmentalization)
  • Definition ? separation
  • Functional
  • Physical
  • Budgetary
  • Authoritatively

113
Problems with Departmentalization
  • Uncoordinated decisions
  • Unnecessary conflict
  • Lack of understanding
  • Overlapping responsibilities
  • Poor performance
  • Time delays/wasted time

114
Contributing factors to IDC
  • Language
  • Priority differences
  • Few direct rewards/punishments
  • Category dissimilarity
  • Nonverbal
  • Addition/multiplication problem

115
Resolution Principles
  • Must be mutual
  • Requires continual effort
  • Create sensitivity not edicts
  • Seek structural changes
  • Build company context (values)

116
Short term projects
  • Job switching
  • Company wide seminars
  • Co-authored articles
  • New product presentations
  • Brainstorming sessions
  • Show Tell
  • Quizzes

117
Long-term Projects
  • Job rotation
  • Redesign accounting procedures
  • Company wide gatherings
  • Change office design
  • Communication policy
  • Matrix organization

118
Dangers of IDC
  • Time
  • Expense
  • Overload
  • Lack of decisiveness
  • Over consultation
  • Groupthink

119
Benefits of IDC
  • Avoid misunderstandings
  • Avoid antagonisms
  • More creativity/innovation
  • Learning organization
  • Increase employee commitment

120
Managing Data, Information Knowledge, Action
  • Business isnt complicated. The complications
    arise when people are cut off from information
    they need.
  • John F. Welch, CEO of GE

121
Myths
  • More data is better.
  • Information is a commodity
  • Information is knowledge.

122
D-I-K-A Model
  • Concepts
  • - Data Representations of reality
  • - Information Data which provides relevant
    clues or news
  • - Knowledge The framework or schema for
    organizing the relationships between pieces of
    information.
  • - Action The deeds or decisions made based on
    knowledge

123
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124
Contd
  • Relationships
  • Skills
  • - Data gathering
  • - Information managing
  • - Knowledge managing
  • - Action

125
Variations on the model
  • D-I-K loop
  • K-A loop
  • I-A loop
  • Others

126
Managing the D-I Relationship
  • Like a watch
  • - Timely
  • - Accurate
  • - Relevant
  • Determine what employees really need to know
  • Increase efficiency of transmission
  • Pay attention to the form of information

127
Contd
  • Be alert of communication chains
  • Generate both soft hard data
  • Recognize manage all the information networks

128
Managing the I-K Relationship
  • Consider the sources credibility
  • Be aware of how the hierarchy affects the flow
    availability of information
  • Acknowledge what you dont know
  • Reconcile the tension between the facts and
    theory
  • Organize the same info. differently

129
Managing the K-A relationship
  • 50 of organization decisions never get fully
    implemented
  • Create strategic knowledge-sharing communities
  • Reevaluate the role of reports

130
Applying the D-I-K-A Model
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