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Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone layer

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ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone layer We Can Prepare for the Harmful Effects of Climate Change Reduce greenhouse gas emissions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone layer


1
Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone
layer
  • ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE

2
The Atmosphere
  • Is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the earth
  • Extends thousands of km above the surface
  • The reason there is life on Earth we are
    protected from most of the suns radiation
  • Allows some light to reach the surface, supplying
    energy and allowing photosynthesis (O2 and CO2)
  • 78 nitrogen, 21 oxygen, 1 water vapor, argon,
    carbon dioxide, neon, helium, and other gases

3
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS CHANGED THE ATMOSPHERE
  • The early atmosphere contained little oxygen.
  • Bacteria appeared about 4 bya and evolved the
    ability to perform photosynthesis
  • 6CO2 6H2O sun energy ? C6H12O6 6O2

4
The 4 Layers
5
Troposphere
  • 7580 of the earths air mass
  • Closest to the earth's surface
  • 0-11 km above sea level
  • Chemical composition of air
  • Nitrogen 78
  • Oxygen 21
  • H20, CO2, trace amounts of others (Ar)
  • Weather, climate and all life forms exist here
  • As altitude increases, temperature decreases

6
Stratosphere
  • 11-50 km (6-30 miles) above Earth's surface
  • Similar composition to the troposphere, with 2
    exceptions
  • Much less water (1/1000)
  • O3, ozone layer
  • As altitude increases, temperature increases
  • Air motion is horizontal
  • Airplanes fly here

7
Mesosphere
  • 50-80 km (30-50 miles)
  • Middle atmosphere Air thin, pressure low,
  • Need oxygen to live in this region. Air quite
    cold -90C (-130F) near the top of mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • 80-500 km (50-310 miles)
  • Very few atoms and molecules in this region.
  • Intense UV breaks O2 and N2 bonds
  • International Space Station is here

8
Greenhouse Effect
  • Greenhouse effect the trapping of infrared
    radiation from the sun by gases in earths
    atmosphere which warms the planet
  • Raises earths temp to an average of 59 F.
    Without the greenhouse effect,

    the average temp
    would be 0F.

9
GREENHOUSE GASES
  • CARBON DIOXIDE
  • METHANE
  • NITROUS OXIDE
  • CFCs
  • WATER VAPOR

10
Bill Nye
11
Greenhouse Gases
  • CO2 most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG)
  • Sources burning fossil fuels, deforestation
  • Ice cores have shown that CO2 increasing in
    atmosphere 35 higher than pre-Industrial Rev.
  • Ocean acts as sink, absorbing large amounts.
  • Vegetation acts as a sink (until it dies or is
    cut down)
  • 1 kg burned fossil fuels 3 kg CO2

12
Vostok Ice Core
  • Deepest drilling of ice took place.
  • The ice removed was nearly a half a million years
    old.
  • Graph CO2 levels going back to over 400,000
    years before present.
  • The (kyr BP) means kilo1,000 years Before
    Present.
  • CO2 rises and falls about every 100,000 years.
  • At present we are at a high point again.

13
Global Warming/climate change
  • Global warming increase in Earths average
    surface temp. caused by an increase in greenhouse
    gases
  • runaway greenhouse effect
  • Earths average temperature has risen 1 F in
    last 100 years.
  • Some argue natural fluctuation however,
    corresponds w/ rising greenhouse gases

14
CO2 - Did you know
  • Burning 1 gallon of gasoline produces 9 kg of
    carbon dioxide?
  • Using one kWh of electricity from a coal-fired
    generating plant produces 1 kg of carbon dioxide?
  • Burning 100 cubic feet of natural gas produces
    5.5 kg of carbon dioxide?
  • 1 kg 2.2 pounds So 1 gallon produces almost 20
    pounds of CO2

15
The Jones Family
  • Complete the worksheet to see how the Jones
    family contributes to greenhouse gas emissions.

16
(No Transcript)
17
CO2 Emissions
  • Countries
  • Largest emitters China (6534 million metric
    tons) US (5833) Russia (1729)
    India (1495) Japan (1214)
  • Per Capita
  • Australia - 20.8 tons (437, country)
  • US- 19.8 tons
  • China 4.91
  • India 1.31

18
Other Greenhouse Gases
  • Methane (CH4) 21 times more warming effect than
    CO2 and increasing at 8 times the rate.
  • Methane production is faster than broken down
  • Main sources are wetlands, rice fields, fossil
    fuels, livestock, and landfills
  • Remains in the air about 12 years

19
Greenhouse Gases
  • Nitrous oxides slow to breakdown (120 yrs)
  • Sources are fossil fuels, fertilizers,
    deforestation
  • CFCs slow breakdown absorb 10,000 X more
    infrared than CO2 (100 years)
  • Sources are foams, aerosols, refrigerants,
    solvents, air conditioners
  • Water vapor Warmed by CO2,
    the atmosphere is
    thus able to
  • absorb more water vapor. And
  • that water vapor, in turn, causes
  • further warmingit amplifies
    the effects of carbon
    dioxide.

20
  • Global average temperatures - surface
    temperatures collected from land and ocean-based
    stations .
  • Compiled by the Climatic Research Unit of the
    University of East Anglia and the Hadley Centre
    of the UK Meteorological Office.

21
Predicted Results Of Global Warming
  • Weather patterns will change - more hurricanes,
    typhoons, flooding and droughts
  • Agriculture weather patterns will move farther
    north, shifting farmland
  • Sea Levels - polar regions warm, icebergs melt,
    sea levels rise. Warming water also expands.
    Coastal areas may flood
  • http//news.discovery.com/videos/global-warming-vi
    deos/
  • (Walrus, tiger, Alaska)

22
Melting of Alaskas Muir Glacier between 1948
and 2004
23
Predicted Results Of Global Warming
  • Human health will be affected
  • more infectious diseases.
  • Diseases that normally occur near equator will
    move northward. Diseases spread by mosquitoes and
    other insects due to warmer/wetter climates.

24
Predicted Results Of Global Warming
  • Plant and animal species may migrate to maintain
    their preferred habitats
  • Not all plants can adapt- cannot disperse their
    seeds adequately
  • Certain birds/fishes may migrate
  • Not all can adapt- ponds will dry up,
    land-locked
    fish cannot seek colder
    rivers
  • Those that cannot adapt/migrate
    may experience regional
    extinction

  • Blue winged teal

25
WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER????
  • 1. List 4 greenhouse gases.
  • 2. Without the greenhouse effect, Earths
    temperature would be ____F instead of ____F.
  • 3. Write the layers of the atmosphere starting
    with the one closest to Earth.
  • 4. In which layer is the ozone layer?
  • 5. In which layer does weather occur?

26
  • 6. What is the most common greenhouse gas?
  • 7. Which ghg comes from landfills, cows and
    wetlands?
  • 8. List 2 sinks for carbon dioxide- this means
    what 2 things store large amounts of CO2
  • 9. Which country emits the most CO2?
  • 10. List 4 possible results of global warming.

27
  • Teachers domain- global warming

28
Albedo Global Warming(albedo ability of a
surface to reflect light)
  • Rising global temperatures cause greater
    evaporation of water vapor into the atmosphere
  • Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas, so an
    increase in water vapor might produce more
    warming.
  • OR
  • More water vapor might cause more clouds to form,
    increasing Earth's overall albedo, reflecting
    incoming sunlight back into space.
  • This would provide a net cooling effect.
  • Might possibly induce a period of "global
    cooling"

29
Projected Effects of Global Warming and the
Resulting Changes in Global Climate
30
Global Cooling
  • Global cooling natural
  • Planetary albedo low, thick clouds reflect
    sunlight, prevent warming
  • Volcanoes dust reflect radiation
  • Sulfate aerosols from pollutants, create haze,
    reflecting sunlight

31
Cap and Trade System
  • The goal To steadily reduce carbon dioxide and
    other greenhouse gas emissions economy-wide in a
    cost-effective manner.
  • The cap Each large-scale emitter, or company,
    will have a limit on the amount of greenhouse gas
    that it can emit.
  • The trade It will be cheaper or easier for some
    companies to reduce their emissions below their
    required limit than others. These more efficient
    companies, who emit less than their allowance,
    can sell their extra permits to companies that
    are not able to make reductions as easily.

32
  • Output solutions
  • Massive global tree planting how many?
  • Wangari Maathai
  • Great Wall of Trees China and Africa
  • Plant fast-growing perennials on degraded land
  • Capturing and storing CO2

33
Fifteen Ways to Cut CO2 Emissions
34
We Can Prepare for the Harmful Effects of Climate
Change
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions as much as
    possible
  • Move people from low-lying coastal areas
  • Limit coastal building
  • Remove hazardous material storage tanks away from
    the coast
  • Genetically engineer crops more tolerant to
    drought
  • Stockpile 15 years of key foods
  • Waste less water
  • Connect wildlife reserves with corridors

35
REVIEW
  • 1. Name the 5 greenhouse gases.
  • 2. What is the main greenhouse gas?
  • 3. Why is the greenhouse effect good for our
    planet? Why is it harmful?
  • 4. Name 3 sources of CO2 and CH4.
  • 5. Name 2 sinks for CO2.
  • 6. List 5 effects of global warming.
  • 7. List 5 things you can do to reduce global
    warming.
  • 8. How can we prepare for global warming?
  • 9. Name 3 sources of global cooling.

36
  • VIDEO NOVA WHATS UP WITH THE WEATHER

37
THE OZONE LAYER
  • O3
  • Located in the stratosphere
  • Absorbs most of the UV light from the sun
  • UV light can cause genetic damage to living
    organisms- can cause skin cancer, faster aging,
    and cataracts, can kill one-celled organisms
    (phytoplankton) that live in the surface of the
    ocean, and interfere with photosynthesis,
    resulting in lower crop yields
  • The ozone in the stratosphere acts as a sunscreen
    for Earth and its inhabitants.

38
OZONE EATERS
  • CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) used in
    refrigerants, air conditioners, styrofoam and
    propellants because they are chemically stable-
    they do not break down into other substances or
    combine with other substances.
  • They are unreactive, odorless, nonflammable,
    nontoxic, noncorrosive and inexpensive to make.
  • BUT, they do break apart in the stratosphere.

39
CFCs
  • CFCs that are released in the troposphere can
    take 10-20 years to float into the stratosphere.
  • One single chlorine atom can destroy 10,000
    ozone molecules and remain in the stratosphere
    65-385 years!

40
STOPPING THE OZONE EATERS75-85 of the ozone
loss was from CFCs and other ozone depleting
chemicals
  • CFC containing products have been banned, and the
    ozone hole is getting smaller.
  • CFCs remain active for more than 30 years, so it
    will take decades for the layer to recover.
    THE NUMBER 1 SOURCE OF CFCs IS LEAKING AIR
    CONDITIONERS!

41
CFCs
  • A greenhouse gas AND an ozone-depleting chemical.

42
  • video clip
  • www.teachersdomain.org/asset/ttv10_vid_ozone/s
    from Teachers Domain
  • http//http//www.teachersdomain.org/asset/phy03_v
    id_greenhouse2/
  • http//www.teachersdomain.org/asset/ttv10_vid_aero
    sols/

43
REVIEW
  • 1. In what layer of the earths atmosphere is the
    ozone layer?
  • 2. Why is the ozone layer beneficial?
  • 3. What is the main chemical that affects the
    ozone layer?
  • 4. Why was this chemical used in so many
    products?
  • 6. What is the main source of CFC emissions?

44
  • You fill your tank with 13 gallons of gas. How
    much CO2 will be produced by burning this amount
    of CO2?
  • 13 gallons X 20 poundsCO2 260 pounds

    1 gallon
  • How much CO2 is produced if you use 150 kWh of
    electricity in a month?
  • 150 kWh x 2 pounds 300 pounds CO2
    1 kWh

45
  • The average amount of CO2 per capita produced in
    America is 19.8 tons, which is 39, 600 pounds!
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