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Chapter 7 Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and organization

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Title: Chapter 7 Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and organization


1
Chapter 7 Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and
organization
  • Ms. K. Cox, Zoology

2
Classification page 97
  • A.We have identified about 1.4 million species on
    earth three-fourths of these species are
    animals.
  • 1. Each species is given a genus and species name
    according to the taxonomic system based on the
    work of Karl von Linnè.
  • 2. The binomial (genus and species names)
    nomenclature is universal, and follows rules from
    the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

3
  • 3. Closely related species are placed in the same
    genus closely related genera are placed in the
    same family, and so on.
  • 4.Taxon is a general term used to represent a
    group of animals at any level of the
    classification scheme.
  • B. To decide how closely related one taxon is to
    another, biologists compare the characters or
    traits present across groups.
  • 1.The traits used may be morphological- physcial
    features (fur,no fur, brown eyes, green eyes,
    scales)
  • or
  • 2. molecular- DNA or genes that they have in
    common
  • (exact genes they have in common, for example
    Down Syndrome is caused by 2 copies of chromosome
    21)

4
  • C. Classification of organisms into higher level
    taxa has changed recently.
  • 1. A 5 kingdom scheme based on cellular
    properties and mode of nutrition was designed by
    Whittaker in1969 Monera, Protista, Plantae,
    Fungi, and Animalia. Bacteria were placed in the
    kingdom Monera

5
Changes
  • 2. But new rRNA studies (rRNA changes very
    slowly, so it offers conserved characters for the
    phylogeny of ancient groups) indicate that
    bacteria is a polyphyletic group.
  • 3. Bacteria now belong in two groups Archaea and
    Eubacteria. These two groups replace the previous
    Kingdom Monera.

6
  • 4. Living things are commonyly grouped into a 3
    domain, 6 kingdom system.
  • (This is new) Domains Archaea, Eubacteria,
    Eukarya

7
6 Kingdoms
5 Kingdoms
Domains Archaea, Eubacteria, Eukarya
1. Monera 2. Protista 3. Plantae 4. Fungi 5.
Animalia
  • 1. Plantae
  • 2. Animalia
  • 3. Protista
  • 4. Fungi
  • 5. Archaebacteria
  • 6. Eubacteria

8
  • 5. The new taxonomy system.
  • Domain-3 groups
  • Kingdom-6 groups
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

9
  • D. Systematics is the arrangement of organisms
    based on evolutionary relationships indicated by
    shared characters.
  • 1. The groups formed in modern systematics are
    designed to be monophyletic polyphyletic groups
    are avoided.
  • 2. Monophyletic groups include all organisms that
    have arisen from a single ancestral taxon
  • 3. polyphyletic groups are artificial groupings
    whose members have arisen from separate
    ancestors.

10
  • E. There are 3 main schools of systematics that
    differ in their goals and approaches
  • 1. Evolutionary systematics is a traditional
    approach which looks for similar characters and
    homologies to group organisms into taxa.
  • 2. Numerical taxonomy is based on a quantitative
    analysis of characters to determine taxa and does
    not attempt to distinguish between shared states
    due to common ancestry and shared states due to
    convergence.
  • 3. Phylogenetic systematics (cladists) analyzes
    both symplesiomorphies (shared ancestral
    characters) and synapomorphies (shared derived
    characters) to determine cladograms.

11
Invertebrate or Vertebrate
What are Invertebrates? Invertebrates are a broad
collection of animal groups (they do not belong
to a single subphylum like the vertebrates) all
of which lack a backbone. Some (not all) of the
animal groups that are invertebrates
include -Sponges (Phylum Porifera) -Jellyfish,
hydras, sea anemones, corals (Phylum
Cnidaria) -Comb jellies (Phylum
Ctenophora) -Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) -M
olluscs (Phylum Mollusca) -Arthropods (Phylum
Arthropoda) -Segmented worms (Phylum
Annelida) -Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata)
12
Vertebrate
  • bilateral symmetry
  • body segmentation
  • endoskeleton (bony or cartilaginous) (they have a
    backbone)
  • pharyngeal pouches (present during some stage of
    development)
  • complete digestive system
  • ventral heart
  • closed blood system
  • tail (at some stage of development)

The animal classes that are vertebrates
include Jawless fish (Class Agnatha) Armored
fish (Class Placodermi) - extinct Cartilaginous
fish (Class Chondrichthyes) Bony fish (Class
Osteichthyes) Amphibians (Class
Amphibia) Reptiles (Class Reptilia) Birds (Class
Aves) Mammals (Class Mammalia)
13
F. Symmetry
  • 1. The basic body plans of animals may be
    analyzed to illustrate evolutionary trends. The
    first consideration is body symmetry
  • Animals may be asymmetrical, as in many protists
    and sponges such animals lack complex sensory
    and locomotory functions.

14
2. 3 Types of Symmetry
  • A. asymmetry
  • B. bilateral symmetry
  • C. radial symmetry

15
3. asymmetry
  • The arrangement of body parts without a central
    axis or point.
  • (such animals lack complex sensory and locomotory
    functions)

16
Illustration of difference between symmetrical
and asymmetrical.
17
Tube Sponge (Callyspongia vaginalis)
The Tube Sponge is one of the most common
varieties of sea sponge to be found on the reef.
It is distinguished by its long tube-shaped
growths, and ranges in color from purple to blue,
gray, and gray-green. Filtered water is ejected
through the large openings on the ends. This is
one of the few reef invertebrates that is blue in
color.
18
Sponges
19
4. bilateral symmetry
  • The arrangement of body parts such that a single
    plane passing between the upper and lower
    surfaces and divides the animal into a right and
    left mirror image.(most things fall into this
    category)

20
Hippopotamus
Hippos are herbivores and their diet consists
mainly of grass and some water plants.  Hippos do
most of their eating during the night, while
during the day hippos spend most of their time
basking in the sun on a sandbar or floating
lazily in the water with just their ears, eyes,
and nostrils, and perhaps their back and top of
the head, exposed.  The name hippopotamus comes
from the Greek "hippos," meaning horse.  Hippos
were once called "river horses," even though they
are more closely related to pigs than horses. Big
male hippos can tip the scales at over three
tons.
21
The Common Dog
22
5. radial symmetry
  • The arrangement of body parts such that any plane
    passing through the oral-aboral axis divided the
    animal into mirror images.

23
Cnidarian
Cnidarians are radially symmetrical. This means
that their gastrovascular cavity, tentacles, and
mouth are aligned such that if you were to draw
an imaginary line through the center of their
body, from the top of their tentacles through the
base of their body, you could then turn the
animal about that axis and it would look roughly
the same at each angle in the turn. Another way
to look at this is that cnidarians are
cylindrical and have a top and bottom but no left
or right side.
24
Echinodermata (e.x. starfish)
Sea stars or starfish are marine invertebrates
belonging to phylum Echinodermata, class
Asteroidea. The names sea star and starfish are
also used for the closely related brittle stars,
which make up the class Ophiuroidea. They exhibit
a superficially radial symmetry, typically with
five or more "arms" which radiate from an
indistinct disk (pentaradial symmetry). In fact,
their evolutionary ancestors are believed to have
had bilateral symmetry, and sea stars do have
some remnant of this body structure.
25
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26
Stopped here on Friday Feb 11
27
G. Unicellular Level of
Organization page 105
  • 1. The second consideration is the level of
    cellular organization
  • A. The single celled organisms, or those formed
    from aggregates of single cells, exhibit the
    cytoplasmic level of organization these cells
    have very little interdependence and do not form
    tissues.

28
  • Diploblastic Organization.
  • These organisms, like the cnidarians, have two
    tissues layers formed from the embryonic ectoderm
    and endoderm. The cell layers are
    interdependent.
  • Triploblastic Organization.
  • These organisms have 3 tissue layers derived from
    the embryonic ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

29
Body Cavity
  • 1.The third consideration is the presence of a
    body cavity (not the gut cavity, but a cavity
    external to the gut)
  • 2.The body cavity Functions
  • A. provide more room for organ development
  • B. Provide more surface area for diffusion
  • C. provide an area for storage
  • D. often act as hydrostatic skeletons
  • E. provide a vehicle for eliminating wastes and
    for reproduction
  • F. Facilitate increased body size.

30
Possibilities in the Triploblastic Organization
  • 1. Triploblastic Acoelomate Pattern
  • A. see page 106, Figure 7.11 A. Draw this example
    in your notes.
  • B. Description thin ectoderm, thick mesoderm,
    and thin endoderm, with small opening in the
    middle called a gut. The mesoderm touches the
    endoderm.
  • C. Examples of flat worms, tapeworm. (chapter 10)

31
-Continued- Possibilities in the Triploblastic
Organization
  • 2. Triploblastic Pseudocoelomate Pattern
  • A. see page 106, Figure 7.11 B. Draw this example
    in your notes.
  • B. Description thin ectoderm, thin mesoderm,
    thin endoderm, as an extra space between the
    Mesoderm and the Endoderm called the
    Pseudocoelom.
  • C. Examples roundworm, filarial worm- causes
    elephantiasis see page 174 (chapter 11)

32
Continued- Possibilities in the
Triploblastic Organization
  • 3. Triploblastic Coelomate Pattern
  • A. See page 106, Figure 7.11 C. Draw this example
    in your notes.
  • B. Description Thin Ectoderm, thicker mesoderm
    that has space to the left and the right. The
    mesoderm butts up directly to the Endoderm. In
    the center there is a small opening.
  • C. Example Nemertea (ribbon worms)
  • ,

33
Stopped here on feb 14
34
Higher Animal Taxonomy
  • 1. Animalia are considered monophyletic. Due to
    cellular organization.
  • 2. The Cambrian Explosion- about 0.6 billion
    years ago an evolutionary explosion occurred
    which resulted in the origin of all modern phyla.
    (phyla many groups)
  • 3. Three main groups or braches in the animal
    kingdom.
  • A. Mesozoa
  • B. Parazoa (sponges)

35
Continued
  • C. Eumetazoa- divided into further groups based
    on body symmetry.
  • 1. Radiata
  • 2. Bilateria
  • A. Protostomia (Platyhelminthes, Nematoda,
    Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda)
  • 1. Trochophore larva see page 108 figure 7.12 D.
    draw an example in your notes.
  • B. Deuterostomia-(Echinodermata, hemichordata,
    chordata)
  • 1. Dipleurula larva see page 108 figure 7.12 H.
    Draw an example in your notes.

36
Continued
  • 4. Scientists use Comparative embryology.
    (Definition the observation that embryological
    events may be similar because of shared
    ancestry.)
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