Culture Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Culture Theory PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5908a8-YzQzY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Culture Theory

Description:

Culture Theory May 2008 Chapter 2 * Social Amplification of Risk Transfer of Information Social Response Mechanism SARF Risk Benefit Analysis Bell-Wether Events ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:242
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 97
Provided by: NNS9
Learn more at: http://dbarber59.files.wordpress.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Culture Theory


1
Culture Theory
  • May 2008

Chapter 2
2
Culture Theory (CT)Chapter 2
  • Impact on Safety
  • Risk View
  • Interaction with other Groups
  • World View

3
Cultural Theory
  • Mary Douglas
  • Anthropologist
  • Observation of Societies
  • Threats
  • Social Structures
  • Ways of Life
  • Attitudes

4
Culture
  • Studied Life and Cultural Biases
  • Functional Explanation
  • Social Biases
  • Argued two principle axes
  • Grid and Group

5
(No Transcript)
6
Risk by Culture
7
(No Transcript)
8
Corporate Views
9
Views
10
Cultural Theory
  • Group Degree of division between insiders and
    outsiders
  • Grid (Regulation) Rules that relate one
    individual to another

Regulation
Group
11
Examples
  • Strong Grid /Strong Group (High)
  • Individuals Regulated for the sake of the group.
  • Heirarchist

12
Views of Nature
  • Fragile
  • Robust
  • Capricious (Erratic, impulsive, unpredictable)

13
Strong Grid, Strong Group
  • Roles are subscribed gender and birth
  • Positional Rules
  • Groups are within larger groups

Bernstein Two family Examples Modern
Japanese British Middle-class Family
14
Hierarchist
  • Social Sectors Classes, castes, age groups
  • Specialized Roles
  • Larger and lasts longer
  • Less internal conflict
  • Well defined rules
  • Experts
  • Reliance on rules

Regulation
Tolerant within limits
Group
15
Individuals
  • Group (Low) Grid/Regulation (Low)
  • Individuals than group
  • Lack of group mentality
  • Social classes negotiable
  • Transaction and transfer freely
  • Political laws to regulate individuals
  • Trial and error

16
Egalitarian
  • High Group, Low Grid
  • Strong bond
  • Voluntary Associations
  • Good of Group before individual
  • Sensitive to high consequence risk
  • Nature Fragile
  • Small change will bring crashing down

17
Isolationist (fatalist)
  • High Reg, Low group
  • Feel isolated
  • Nature as random
  • Little they can do
  • No respect for other groups

18
Hermit (Autonomous)
  • Medium/Medium
  • Withdraws from social interaction
  • Autonomous
  • Often ignored

19
Nature Views
Random!
Tolerant within limits
Fragile
Stable
20
Risk
  • Different Levels of Risk Views
  • Risk Adverse
  • Risk Procedures (Regulation)
  • Risk Takers
  • Risk Acceptors

21
Risk
  • Culture Theory can be used to predict risk
    responses
  • Risk Issues
  • Grid Coordinates

22
Risk
Risk Procedures
Risk Taker
23
Nature
Robust
24
View points
Fatalist
Share Adverse
25
No respect
Accept authority
Glorify risk/acceptance
High
Risk adverse
Fatalist
High bond
Robust
ISO.
Hier.
Deride safety culture
Nature capricious
No respect for other groups
thoughts elude other groups
Regulation
Hermit
Nature
Reject hier. knowledge
Risk
Nature Robust
Trend setters
Egal.
Indiv.
Competition
Nature Fragile
Low
Risk Takers
Weak leadership
Low
High
Group
Risk Adversion
26
Grid
  • Coarse Grained
  • Static
  • Rests on hidden assumptions
  • No Accounting for change

27
Grid Exercise
Mountain Utilities wants to construct a 300
Megawatt Reactor in Gentle Valley to supply the
electrical needs of the community. This community
of people has Grown to over 400,000 strong. Up
to this point, the community has relied on other
Power generating systems for their needs. If
this was a hierarchal community, what would you
expect would be their expectations? Concerns?
Worries?
28
Grid Exercise 2
The thriving metropolis of Getter Done is made up
mostly of Engineers And PhDs. They have worked
together for near 20 years in all kinds of
Endeavors. An overseas company in conjunction
with the NASA want to Establish a new antimatter
storage and transfer system to support a new
space Craft. The facility will store 100 cubic
meters (100 m3) of antimatter in pods Constructed
of polyduranium. The leak rate of the tank is
expected To be only lt0.0002 kg/day. How will the
community respond?
29
Cultural Theory Grid
  • Uses
  • Predict Risk Behavior?
  • Individual Behavior?
  • How they are in cultural roles

30
Our Organizations
  • Location on the Grid
  • Definitions what does that mean?
  • Discussion.

31
Other Characteristics
  • Individual Characteristics
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Political Ideology
  • Personality Type

32
Biases
  • Superiority of any Group?
  • Limitations of the Groups
  • Accuracy of the Group
  • Each as a one view?

33
One View
HH
Servants
Military
Japan
India
Communal
U.S?
Sect Leaders
34
Example
35
(No Transcript)
36
Canadian Website
  • Safety Management Systems
  • Models
  • Related to Grid?
  • View on Risk?

37
Risk Models
Complexity
2 4 6 8 10 12
14 16 18 20
Space
Nuclear Energy
Marine Transport
Coupling
Abandon
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Dams
Restrict
DNA Research
Tolerate Improve
Mining
Flying
38
Zero Risk Model
39
Nanotechnology
  • Carcinogenic Effects
  • Long Term effects Unknown
  • Quantum Dots
  • Single-wall Nanotubes
  • MSDSs
  • Focus on materials not product

40
Safety Health Aspects of Nanotechnology
From EPA White Paper on Nanotechnology
41
Safety Health Aspects of Nanotechnology
Where are We?
  • ESH Coverage

3rd Gen 4th Gen
Nanotechnology 2nd Generation
2015
2006
2001
2003
42
Safety Culture Theories
43
ISO 9001
44
Risk Matrix
45
Basic Hazard Management
46
Relationships
  • Related to Grid
  • Accountability High /High
  • Training High
  • Threat - View of nature and risk

47
Bow-Tie
48
System Risk
49
Thompson Wildavsky Grid
50
Culture and Socialization
51
Risk Management Policy
52
Risk
  • Cyclone at Myanmar
  • 100,000 Dead

53
Risk
Chilean Volcano
54
Application of CT
What is the response of each Culture?
55
Application of CT
56
Application of CT
57
Application of CT
58
Understanding CT
  • Management Policy
  • Signage
  • Training
  • Communication

59
Application
60
Class Exercise, Grid
  • Where is your organization?

61
Break!
62
Social Amplification of Risk
63
Amplification
  • Risk
  • Actual Risk
  • Perceived Risk
  • Residual Risk
  • Risk Abatement

64
Amplification
65
Risk Analysis
  • Risk Linear?

66
Social Amplification of Risk
  • Transfer of Information
  • Social Response Mechanism

67
SARF
  • Risk Benefit Analysis

68
Bell-Wether Events
  • Three Mile Island
  • Changed attitudes
  • Stricter Regulation
  • Public opposition (any technology)

69
Effects
  • Move away (Globally) from Nuclear Power
  • Increased public concern on complex systems.
  • Public opposition to Nuclear power

70
Amplification Results in
  • Economic - Move away from nuc power.
  • Judicial (New laws, regulations)
  • Social - Anti-nuclear groups

71
Other Events?
bhopal
Columbia
Piper Alpha
72
Other Effects
  • Attenuation of Risk
  • Radon
  • Smoking
  • Carcinogens

73
Social Amplification of Risk
  • Media?
  • News/Books?
  • Special Interest Groups?

74
SARF
Increased
Increased
Event
Risk
Decrease
Decrease
Filter 1
Filter 2
Elements?
Chapter 2, section 2.3.2
75
SARF
Communication
Increased
Risk
Increased
Event
Risk
Risk
Filter 1 Politics
Filter 2 Media
76
SARF
  • Transfer of information about Risk
  • Social Response mechanism

COMMUNICATION!
77
SARF
  • Ripple Effect
  • True Risk?
  • Media
  • Politics

78
Four Risk Pathways
  • Heuristics and Values - Simplify
  • Group Relationships influence responses
  • Signal value recognize high value
  • Stigmatization Create aversion

79
CT and Risk
Risk
Interpret Formulate Validate
80
High Signal Values
  • Outcome of the risk activity/operation
  • Public Reaction a measure of signal

81
Signals
  • Radiation
  • Cancer
  • Fire

82
Debates
  • Provides information
  • Can cause Public Concern!

83
Seven Categories
  • Biocidal hazards
  • Persistent delay hazards
  • Rare Catastrophes
  • Life-threatening Common
  • Global Diffuse
  • Rad hazards

84
Basic Risk Perception Model
  • BRPM, 2001
  • Focuses on psychometric dimensions
  • Attitude, fear, worry, risk sensitivity, trust
  • Lifestyles, and world views.

85
Illustrative Interventions
  • Motorists and seat-belts
  • Likelihood of accidents
  • Consequence killed or injured in crash

86
Risk Takers
  • Individual Differences
  • Thrill seekers
  • Sensation Seeking
  • (age, gender)

87
Political Approach to Risk
  • Social Life
  • Conflicting Goals
  • Values,
  • Chronic fear

88
Politics
  • Policy risks

89
Risk Resolution
  • Risk Resolution versus Risk Management
  • Regulation
  • Restriction
  • Control
  • Government Program

90
Regulation
European Commission Questionnaire on Directive
96/82/EC on the Control of Major Accident Hazards
involving dangerous substances (SEVESO II) 2000
2002 United Kingdom Response
91
View of Risk
  • Risk Management is about
  • Power
  • Conflicts of interest
  • Political Influence
  • Page 49, Text

92
Social-Emotional Risk
  • Risk hazard outrage
  • Cognitive side of Fear!

93
Risk and Technology
  • Modern Technology - Ritual Sacrifice

94
Three Acts
  • 1. Sudden Bhopal
  • 2. Science response Thalidomide
  • 3. Political Ozone depletion, global warming

95
Adaptation and Risk Management
  • Cost-Benefit analysis
  • Behavior Adaption approach
  • Risk Management Approach

96
Rewarding/Incentives
  • Management Vigor Continuous reminders
  • Reward the bottom line.
  • Reward attractiveness
  • Progress safety credits
  • List on Page 56
About PowerShow.com