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Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing

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Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing 1865-1893 Gilded Age in American History Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner Record economic and population growth ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing


1
Immigration and Urbanization America is growing
  • 1865-1893

2
Gilded Age in American History
  • Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner
  • Record economic and population growth after the
    Civil War
  • US economy grew at fastest rate in American
    history
  • New inventions
  • Titans of industry-gtaides America becoming an
    industrial center
  • Required more workers-gt turned to immigrant labor
  • Ended with Panic of 1893 and ushering in of the
    Progressive Era

3
Why Come to America?
  • Immigrants- somebody who leaves their home
    country to live in another country
  • Key Idea America could offer them something
  • they could not have access to in their home
    country.
  • American Dream
  • Economic opportunities
  • Job, food, modern technology, etc.
  • Unrest in home country
  • Violence, famine, religion etc.
  • Family already in America
  • Birds of Passage
  • Low cost of coming to America -gt steam ship

4
Immigration by Area Europe
  • 1870-1920 20 million Europeans
  • Before 1890-gtWest and Northern Europe
  • After 1890 -gt Central and Eastern Europe
  • What led to such an increase in number of
    immigrants coming from Europe?

5
Immigration by Area Europe
  • Ellis Island
  • An immigration station in New York Harbor
  • Not every immigrant was admitted (disease,
    criminal records, money/job)
  • 17 million immigrants passed through
  • Closed in 1954, now a museum
  • Clip on Ellis Island

6
Ellis Island circa 1900s
7
Ellis Island Museum Present Day
8
Immigration by Area Asia
  • 1851-1883 about 300,000 Chinese immigrated
  • Gold and railroads
  • By 1920 more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the
    West Coast (California mainly)
  • Due to annexation of Hawaii which had many
    Japanese laborers b/c of Dole fruits.

9
Immigration by Area Asia
  • Angel Island
  • An immigration station in San Francisco Bay
  • 1910-1940-gt 50,000 Chinese
  • Treatment harsh and often detained

10
Angel Island circa 1916
11
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12
Interrogation
13
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14
A Day in the Life of a New Immigrant
  • Imagine you go to a foreign country and have to
    provide for the following on your own!
  • Language barrier
  • Living arrangements
  • Jobs/money
  • Food, clothing, basic items

15
Idea of Nativism
  • Nativists- supported American born people, mainly
    against immigrants
  • believed that immigrants brought European
    radicalism with them to America
  • blamed the newcomers for instigating the labor
    unrest that characterized much of the period.
  • Immigrants hold on to beliefs/customs. Against
    idea of melting pot
  • Social Darwinism with races
  • Eugenics Europeans the greatest race

16
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17
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18
Nativist Groups
  • American Protective Association (APA)
  • 1887 papal conspiracy against liberty
  • Against Roman Catholics (mainly those coming from
    Eastern and Central Europe)
  • Immigration Restriction League
  • 1894 America should be populated with people of
    Germanic origins because of their energy and
    intelligence.
  • Organized by Harvard graduates

19
APA Poster
20
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21
Restrictions on Immigration
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
  • Resulted from many workers and labor unions in
    the west concerned about job competition
  • Banned all Chinese immigrants except students,
    teachers, merchants, tourists, and government
    officials
  • Lasted till 1943
  • Gentlemens Agreement 1907
  • Prior to agreement Japanese children were being
    forced to attend segregated school in San
    Francisco
  • Limited emigration of Japanese unskilled workers
    to US in exchange for repeal of segregation in
    schools.

22
Political Cartoons of Discrimination
  • Thomas Nast
  • German-American editorial cartoonist
  • Drew Uncle Sam and Santa Claus
  • Famous for commentary on Gilded Age

23
"The Chinese Question." (February 18, 1871).
Thomas Nast. (Columbia defends disconsolae John
Chinaman from nativist Attacks)
24
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25
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26
Circa 1889
27
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28
People Move to Major Cities
  • Urbanization
  • Growth of cities in Midwest and Northeast
  • Why?
  • 1)Farming more efficient (less jobs on farms)
  • 2)African Americans move from South
  • 3)Immigrants live in cities (cheapest
    convenient)
  • By 1890 2x as many Irish in NYC than in Dublin,
    Ireland
  • By 1910 immigrants were more than half of total
    population in 18 major US cities
  • Ethnic communities develop in cities

29
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30
Challenges of City Life Disease and Fire
  • Housing issues
  • Many middle class families left cities as a
    result of mass transit systems
  • As a result, their old houses were often divided
    up for multiple families
  • Tenements
  • Airshafts filled with garbage
  • Drinking water
  • Development of piped water and filtered water
    slow to come in larger cities
  • Unclean water cholera and typhoid fever

31
Challenges of City Life Disease and Fire
  • Lack of Sanitation (spread disease)
  • Sewage often in streets
  • Smoke from factories unfiltered
  • Garbage in streets
  • Fires Spread Easily
  • Buildings made of wood
  • Lighting by candles and kerosene in homes
  • Frequent occurrences in large cities
    (1870s-1880s)
  • 1871 Great Chicago Fire
  • Lack of fire departments till 1900

32
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33
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34
Living Conditions of Immigrants and Urban Poor
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives 1890
  • Riis's reform argument targeted six major areas
    men, women, children, workplaces, living and
    housing conditions, and improvements, real and
    imagined.
  • Inspired investigative journalism
  • Tenement Housing and slums
  • Crime, disease, fires
  • Clip on Jacob Riis
  • For following photos
  • Write the one adjective that comes to mind to
    describe the condition of the people portrayed.

35
Photo by Jacob Riis portraying tenements
36
Entitled Children Sleeping in Mulberry Street
1890
37
Entitled A Cave Dwellar, One of 4 Peddlars Who
Slept 1890
38
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39
Homeless Children, 1890
40
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41
Living Conditions for women
42
Tenement housing from the outside view
43
Society Assists Urban Poor and Immigrants
  • Americanization Movement
  • Attempt to give immigrants opportunities such as
    classes in English to help them assimilate.
  • Social Gospel Movement
  • Salvation through service to urban poor
    Protestant ethics
  • Later contributed to Progressive Movement in
    early 1900s

44
Jane Addams
  • Inspired middle class women to get involved in
    community
  • Basis Believe that poverty and the lack of
    opportunity breed the problems of the ghetto.
    Ignorance, disease, and crime are the result of
    economic desperation and not the result of some
    flaw in moral character.
  • First woman to win Nobel Peace Prize

45
Jane Addams 1860-1935
Hull House Chicago, Illinois Founded 1889
46
Jane Addams Founder of Hull House
  • Settlement houses
  • Community centers in urban, slum areas
  • Toynbee Hall London, England
  • Purpose social responsibility taken for urban
    poor
  • Hull House Chicago
  • Paid for by her inheritance
  • One of first American settlement houses
  • Assisted many immigrants and brought attention to
    problems of urbanization
  • Offered dance, school, day-care, music, health
    services, etc.
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