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Understanding Verb Forms

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Understanding Verb Forms What are the principal parts of verbs? Regular verbs Irregular verbs Six confusing verbs Sit/Set Rise/Raise Lie/Lay Review A – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Verb Forms


1
Understanding Verb Forms
What are the principal parts of verbs? Regular
verbs Irregular verbs Six confusing
verbs Sit/Set Rise/Raise Lie/Lay Review
A Review B
2
What are the principal parts of verbs?
Verbs dress differently for different occasions.
She dressed for school.
She dresses casually.
She has dressed for graduation.
3
What are the principal parts of verbs?
Verbs have four principal parts. Each principal
part has a different function.
Base Form
talk
draw
Present Participle
is talk
is draw
ing
ing
Past
talk
ed
dr
e
w
Past Participle
have talk
ed
have draw
n
More about participles
4
What are the principal parts of verbs?
Participles
When used as part of a verb phrase, participles
follow a helping verb.
Helping Verb
Helping Verb
Lucas has drawn a picture.
Lucas has drawn a picture.
She was talking.
She was talking.
Verb Phrase
Verb Phrase
5
What are the principal parts of verbs?
These principle parts are used to form all of the
different verb tenses.
Base Form
They talk every day.
Present Participle
They are talking now.
Past
They talked yesterday.
Past Participle
They have talked for hours.
6
What are the principal parts of verbs? Tense
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the
action or state of being expressed by the verb.
Perfect tenses indicate that something happened
or existed before a specific point in time.
Present
Future
Past
Past
Future
Present
- - - -gt
- - - -gt
- - - -gt
Present Perfect
Future Perfect
Past Perfect
He has practiced different songs.
Cody practices his trumpet every day.
Cody will practice for the concert.
He will have practiced all the songs by then.
He had practiced less the night before.
Yesterday he practiced for two hours.
7
Regular verbs
A regular verb generally forms its past and past
participle by adding d or ed to the base form.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
clean
clean
ed
have clean
ed
hope
hope
d
have hope
d
The present participle is formed by adding ing.
Present Participle
clean
ing
8
Regular verbs
A common mistake is to leave the d or ed ending
off the past and past participle forms.
Grammar Gal Says...
He use to play guitar.
Nonstandard
We were suppose to meet there.
He used to play guitar.
Standard
We were supposed to meet there.
9
Regular verbs
Another common mistake is to add unnecessary
letters.
Grammar Gal Says...
He almost drownded.
Nonstandard
The kitten attackted the paper bag.
He almost drowned.
Standard
The kitten attacked the paper bag.
10
Regular verbs
Most regular verbs that end in e drop the e
before adding ing.
ing
hop
hope
Some verbs double the final consonant before
adding ing or ed.
hug
hugg
ing
hug
hugg
ed
11
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. Teresa (call) me yesterday about the party.
2. Then Marty (move) the chairs onto the porch.
3. The salesclerk has (help) my mother before.
12
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. Teresa called me yesterday about the party.
The past form of call is called.
13
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
2. Then Marty moved the chairs onto the porch.
The past form of move is moved.
14
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
3. The salesclerk has helped my mother before.
The past participle of help is helped.
15
Regular verbs
On Your Own
Give the correct form (past, past participle, or
present participle) of the verb in italics, as
indicated in parentheses. 1. The dancers are
(perform) on stage. (present participle) 2. We
(watch) a folk dance an hour ago. (past) 3. We
are (learn) dances from different countries.
(present participle) 4. Someone in the audience
has (request) an Irish square dance. (past
participle) 5. I had (hope) to take dance
lessons. (past participle)
End of Section
16
Regular verbs
Answers
Give the correct form (past, past participle, or
present participle) of the verb in italics, as
indicated in parentheses.
1. The dancers are performing on stage. (present
participle)
2. We watched a folk dance an hour ago. (past)
3. We are learning dances from different
countries. (present participle)
4. Someone in the audience has requested an Irish
square dance. (past participle)
5. I had hoped to take dance lessons. (past
participle)
17
Irregular verbs
Some verbs do not fit the regular pattern.
An irregular verb forms its past and past
participle in some way other than by adding d or
ed.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
nk
have dr
u
drink
dr
nk
a
have hurt
hurt
hurt
18
Irregular verbs
Since most English verbs are regular, people
sometimes try to make irregular verbs follow the
regular pattern. Such verb forms are not standard.
Grammar Gal Says...
Nonstandard
Standard
breaked
broke
drived
drove
knowed
knew
19
Irregular verbsChanging vowels
1. Some irregular verbs form the past and past
participle by changing vowels.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
n
beg
a
n
begin
have beg
u
Other Verbs that Change Vowels Other Verbs that Change Vowels Other Verbs that Change Vowels
find found have found
hold held have held
ring rang have rung
swim swam have swum
20
Irregular verbsChanging consonants
2. Other irregular verbs form the past and past
participle by changing consonants.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
make
ma
have ma
d
d
e
e
Other Verbs that Change Consonants Other Verbs that Change Consonants Other Verbs that Change Consonants
bend bent have bent
build built have built
lend lent have lent
spend spent have spent
21
Irregular verbsChanging vowels and consonants
3. Some irregular verbs form the past and past
participle by changing both vowels and
consonants.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
ride
r
have r
od
e
idden
Other Verbs that Change Vowels and Consonants Other Verbs that Change Vowels and Consonants Other Verbs that Change Vowels and Consonants
buy bought have bought
see saw have seen
speak spoke have spoken
wear wore have worn
22
Irregular verbsNo change
4. A few irregular verbs make no change at all in
their past and past participle forms.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
put
put
have put
Other Verbs that Make No Change Other Verbs that Make No Change Other Verbs that Make No Change
cost cost have cost
cut cut have cut
hit hit have hit
read read have read
23
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. My cousin has (find) a new canyon trail.
2. Her grandfather (build) the shed himself.
3. Last night we (see) Mr. Torrence at the mall.
4. The tickets should not have (cost) so much.
24
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. My cousin has found a new canyon trail.
The past participle of find is found.
25
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
2. Her grandfather built the shed himself.
The past form of build is built.
26
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
3. Last night we saw Mr. Torrence at the mall.
The past form of see is saw.
27
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
4. The tickets should not have cost so much.
The past participle of cost is cost.
28
Irregular verbs
On Your Own
Give the correct form (past or past participle)
of each verb given in parentheses. 1. Two
graceful swans ________ across the lake.
(swim) 2. Gabriela ________ me her softball
glove. (lend) 3. Nate ________ a fleece jacket on
the hike. (wear) 4. I have already ________ the
wrapping paper. (cut) 5. Have you ________ your
best on the science project? (do)
End of Section
29
Irregular verbs
Answers
Give the correct form (past or past participle)
of each verb given in parentheses.
swam
1. Two graceful swans ________ across the lake.
(swim)
lent
2. Gabriela ________ me her softball glove. (lend)
wore
3. Nate ________ a fleece jacket on the hike.
(wear)
cut
4. I have already ________ the wrapping paper.
(cut)
5. Have you ________ your best on the science
project? (do)
done
30
Six confusing verbs
Six verbs in English require special attention.
lie
lay
sit
set
rise
raise
  • Are the children

?
sitting
setting
or
  • Do the fans

or
?
rise
raise
  • Does the baby

still or
still?
lie
lay
31
Six confusing verbs
To figure out which verb is correct, ask . . .
Does the verb have a direct object?
Don usually sits up front.
No object
They set the boxes down.
They set the boxes down.
Direct object
32
Six confusing verbs
Another way to remember which verb to use is to
think about what each verb means.
Grammar Gal Says...
sit to be in place
set to put (something) in place
lie to recline
lay to put or place (something)
rise to go up
raise to make (something) go up
33
Six confusing verbs
A direct object is a word or word group that
receives the action of the verb or shows the
result of the action.
Direct object
They set the boxes down.
boxes
set what down?
boxes
34
Sit / Set
The verb sit means to be seated or to rest.
They sit on the sand.
The verb set means to put (something) in a
place. Set usually has a direct object.
Direct object
He will set the books down soon.
He will set the books down soon.
35
Sit / Set
Set has other meanings that do not require a
direct object. Check a dictionary to see whether
or not the meaning you intend takes an object.
Grammar Gal Says...
The sun sets in the West.
No object
36
Sit / Set
Principal Parts of Sit and Set Principal Parts of Sit and Set Principal Parts of Sit and Set Principal Parts of Sit and Set
BaseForm Present Participle Past Past Participle
sit is sitting sat have sat
set is setting set have set
We sit on the park bench.
We are sitting on the bench.
We have sat on the bench before.
We sat there all day.
She sets the lantern down.
She set the lantern on the table.
She has sat it down already.
She is setting it down now.
37
Sit / Set
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
1. The family (sat, set) down at the table.
2. She (sat, set) the basket on the floor.
3. The lawn chairs are (sitting, setting) by the
pool.
38
Sit / Set
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
1. The family (sat, set) down at the table.
Sat is the past form of sit, which means to be
seated and takes no object.
39
Sit / Set
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
Direct object
2. She (sat, set) the basket on the floor.
Set is the past form of set, which means to put
(something) in a place. Set takes the direct
object basket.
40
Sit / Set
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
3. The lawn chairs are (sitting, setting) by the
pool.
Sitting is the present participle form of sit,
which means to rest and does not take an object.
41
Sit / Set
On Your Own
Give the correct form of sit or set for each of
the following sentences. 1. I ______ on a broken
chair at the party yesterday. 2. Last night Kim
______ her ring on the dresser. 3. At the game,
Kevin was ______ next to Paolo. 4. I have ______
here for hours waiting for you. 5. Before she
left, Josie had ______ a loaf of bread on the
counter.
End of Section
42
Sit / Set
Answers
Give the correct form of sit or set for each of
the following sentences. 1. I ______ on a broken
chair at the party yesterday. 2. Last night Kim
______ her ring on the dresser. 3. At the game,
Kevin was ______ next to Paolo. 4. I have ______
here for hours waiting for you. 5. Before she
left, Josie had ______ a loaf of bread on the
counter.
sat
set
sitting
sat
set
43
Rise / Raise
The verb rise means to go upward.
Slowly the balloons rise into the sky.
The verb raise means to lift (something) up.
Raise usually has a direct object.
Direct object
They raised the flag.
They raised the flag.
44
Rise / Raise
Raise can also mean to grow or to bring to
maturity. Both of these uses also take a direct
object.
Grammar Gal Says...
Direct object
The Johnsons raise wheat.
The Johnsons raise wheat.
Direct object
My aunt raises sheep.
My aunt raises sheep.
45
Rise / Raise
Principal Parts of Rise and Raise Principal Parts of Rise and Raise Principal Parts of Rise and Raise Principal Parts of Rise and Raise
BaseForm Present Participle Past Past Participle
rise is rising rose have risen
raise is raising raised have raised
The sun is rising now.
The sun rose at 715 A.M.
The sun has risen.
The sun rises in the East.
Shawn is raising the blinds for us.
Shawn has raised the blinds often.
Shawn raises the blinds each morning.
Shawn raised the blinds yesterday.
46
Rise / Raise
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
1. The winner proudly (rises, raises) her trophy.
2. Smoke is (rising, raising) from the factory.
3. He gently (rose, raised) the injured turtle
from the lake.
47
Rise / Raise
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
Direct object
1. The winner proudly (rises, raises) her trophy.
Raises is the correct form because the verb means
to lift (something) up and takes the object
trophy.
48
Rise / Raise
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
2. Smoke is (rising, raising) from the factory.
Rising is the correct form because the verb means
to go upward and takes no object.
49
Rise / Raise
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
Direct object
3. He gently (rose, raised) the injured turtle
from the lake.
Raised is the correct form because the verb means
to lift (something) up and takes the object
turtle.
50
Rise / Raise
On Your Own
Give the correct form of rise or raise for each
of the following sentences. 1. Please ______ the
sign higher. 2. I hope the bread is
______. 3. Sparks ______ from the fire and
scattered into the night sky. 4. They ______
the couch while I looked under it. 5. Prices have
______ steadily for almost a year.
End of Section
51
Rise / Raise
Answers
Give the correct form of rise or raise for each
of the following sentences. 1. Please ______ the
sign higher. 2. I hope the bread is
______. 3. Sparks ______ from the fire and
scattered into the night sky. 4. They ______
the couch while I looked under it. 5. Prices have
______ steadily for almost a year.
raise
rising
rose
raised
risen
52
Lie / Lay
The verb lie means to rest, to recline, or
to be in a place.
The pigs lie in the grass.
The verb lay means to place (something
somewhere). Lay usually takes a direct object.
Direct object
The chef lays the food on the plate.
The chef lays the food on the plate.
53
Lie / Lay
Lie can also mean to tell an untruth. The past
and past participle forms for this meaning of lie
are lied and have lied.
Grammar Gal Says...
The girl lied about spilling the paint.
54
Lie / Lay
Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Principal Parts of Lie and Lay
BaseForm Present Participle Past Past Participle
lie is lying lay have lain
lay is laying laid have laid
lay
lay
These verbs are easy to confuse because the past
form of lie is also lay.
Base form of lay
Please lay the blanket on the bed.
Past form of lie
After his walk, the dog lay on the grass.
55
Lie / Lay
Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Principal Parts of Lie and Lay
BaseForm Present Participle Past Past Participle
lie is lying lay have lain
lay is laying laid have laid
The cat lies on the chair.
The cat is lying there still.
The cat lay down an hour ago.
The cat has lain there a long time.
He lays the cane against the wall.
He is laying the cane against the wall.
He laid the cane there earlier.
He has laid it there before.
56
Lie / Lay
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
1. Please do not (lie, lay) your gloves on the
heater.
2. Micki (lay, laid) in bed all day with a cold.
3. The napkins are (lying, laying) on the table.
57
Lie / Lay
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
Direct object
1. Please do not (lie, lay) your gloves on the
heater.
Lay is the correct form because the verb means
to place (something somewhere) and takes the
object gloves.
58
Lie / Lay
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
2. Micki (lay, laid) in bed all day with a cold.
In this sentence, lay is the past form of lie.
The verb means to rest or to recline and does
not take an object.
59
Lie / Lay
For each of the following sentences, choose the
correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has
a direct object, identify it.
3. The napkins are (lying, laying) on the table.
Lying is the correct present participle form
because the verb means to be in a place and
takes no object.
60
Lie / Lay
On Your Own
Give the correct form of lie or lay for each of
the following sentences. 1. Then the clerk
______ the small package on the scale. 2. Those
clothes will ______ on the floor until you pick
them up. 3. Who ______ this paintbrush on the
bare floor? 4. That wet towel has been ______
here all day long. 5. After his playtime, the
puppy ______ down and slept.
End of Section
61
Lie / Lay
Answers
Give the correct form of lie or lay for each of
the following sentences. 1. Then the clerk
______ the small package on the scale. 2. Those
clothes will ______ on the floor until you pick
them up. 3. Who ______ this paintbrush on the
bare floor? 4. That wet towel has been ______
here all day long. 5. After his playtime, the
puppy ______ down and slept.
laid
lie
laid
lying
lay
62
Review A
Give the correct form (past, past participle, or
present participle) of each italicized verb, as
indicated in parentheses.
1. After lunch we (wash) the car and mowed the
lawn. (past)
2. Marcos has (look) everywhere for his boots.
(past participle)
3. My aunt is (bring) the salad. (present
participle)
4. I (know) the answer, but I ran out of time.
(past)
5. Most of the leaves have already (fall) from
the trees. (past participle)
63
Review A
Give the correct form (past, past participle, or
present participle) of each italicized verb, as
indicated in parentheses.
1. After lunch we washed the car and mowed the
lawn. (past)
2. Marcos has looked everywhere for his boots.
(past participle)
3. My aunt is bringing the salad. (present
participle)
4. I knew the answer, but I ran out of time.
(past)
5. Most of the leaves have already fallen from
the trees. (past participle)
64
Review B
For each sentence, choose the correct verb form
in parentheses.
  1. Geraldo (rose, raised) the branch so I could get
    by.
  1. I had (lain, laid) my hat on the back of the
    chair.
  1. Everyone (sat, set) quietly during the recital.
  1. The children were (sitting, setting) in their
    seats waiting for the show to start.
  1. The foam has (risen, raised) to the top of the
    drink.

6. The baby is (lying, laying) in his crib.
65
Review B
For each sentence, choose the correct verb form
in parentheses.
  1. Geraldo raised the branch so I could get by.
  1. I had laid my hat on the back of the chair.
  1. Everyone sat quietly during the recital.
  1. The children were sitting in their seats waiting
    for the show to start.
  1. The foam has risen to the top of the drink.

6. The baby is lying in his crib.
66
The End
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