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USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

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USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE Not knowing what to do, I SUBJECT GERUND Flying aeroplanes could be dangerous – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES


1
USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE Not knowing what
to do, I
SUBJECT GERUND Flying aeroplanes could be
dangerous
DEFINING THE WHOLE ACTION She sat there,
waiting
REDUCTION OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE The man
living next-door is...
IT ADJECTIVE TO IN SUBJECT POSITION It is
dangerous to fly aeroplanes
USING A POSSESSIVE I was surprised by his
going. His going surprised me.
PASSIVE GERUND
IT ADJECTIVE OF ? TO It was stupid of you to
let others use you.
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE PREDICATE The
castle is said to be haunted.
PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE
PREDICATE Picasso is believed to have been a
genius.
PASSIVE INFINITIVE
VERBS OF PERCEPTION I saw her crying. I saw her
cry.
PAST INFINITIVE
CAUSATIVE VERBS Have / get sth done Get ? to do
sth Be made to do, Make ? do sth
TOO adj. TOO NOT ENOUGH adj. TO It was too hot
to drink It wasnt cold enough to drink
2
SUBJECT GERUND
HOME PAGE
It is possible to convert the first sentence into
a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the
next sentence in place of THIS
THIS
IS DANGEROUS
HMM, WHAT IS DANGEROUS?
THE SUBJECT
PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE ADJ
PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES.
THIS
IS DANGEROUS.
AND
The subject pronoun THIS stands for the
previous sentence, PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES
3
SUBJECT GERUND
HOME PAGE
It is possible to convert the first sentence into
a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the
next sentence in place of THIS
THIS
IS DANGEROUS
THE SUBJECT
PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE ADJ
This is possible in two ways. NOW CLICK TWICE!
PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES.
THIS
IS DANGEROUS.
4
SUBJECT GERUND
DONT YOU AGREE?!
HOME PAGE
PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES.
FLYING AEROPLANES
FLYING
THIS
IS DANGEROUS.
Now CLICK and REPLACE THIS with the new Gerund
Subject.
If the subject in the first clause denotes a
general group,
OMIT the subject,...
and ADD a gerund.
The Phrase FLYING AEROPLANES is ready to be
used as a Gerund Subject in the second clause.
5
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
6
THERE IS YET ANOTHER WAY TO USE A SENTENCE IN THE
SUBJECT POSITION
IT INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
HOME PAGE
PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES
THIS
IS DANGEROUS
TO
IT
THE SUBJECT PRONOUN THIS STANDS FOR THE
FIRST CLAUSE
PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE ADJ
If the subject in the first clause denotes a
general group,
IT IS DANGEROUS TO FLY AEROPLANES
and if there is a predicative adjective in the
second clause,
OMIT the subject,...
and LINK the remaining predicate FLY
AEROPLANES to the predicative adjective with
TO..
START the predicative adjective with IT
7
IT INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
HOME PAGE
CLICK TO SEE THE RULE
IT IS
TO
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
CLEVER
IT IS
TO
SAVE SOME MONEY
STUPID
IT IS
NOT TO
SAVE SOME MONEY
EXCITING
IT IS
VISIT OTHER COUNTRIES
TO
BORING
IT IS
BE ABLE TO TRAVEL
NOT TO
IT IS
EAT IN MODERATION
REASONABLE
TO
IT IS
EAT IN MODERATION
UNREASONABLE
NOT TO
8
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
9
IT INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
HOME PAGE
CLICK TO SEE THE RULE
OF ? TO
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
CONSIDERATE
IT WAS
HELP US DO THE WORK
OF HIM TO
INCONSIDERATE
IT WAS
HELP US DO THE WORK
OF HIM NOT TO
STUPID
IT WAS
WAIT OUTSIDE
OF US TO
STUPID
IT WAS
WAIT INDOORS
OF US NOT TO
IT WAS
WEAR THE SHIRT INSIDE OUT
FUNNY
OF ME TO
IT WAS
WEAR THE T-SHIRT PROPERLY
FUNNY
OF ME NOT TO
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
10
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
SUBJECT GERUND, IT INFINITIVE
HOME PAGE
Click for a sentence transformation exercise.
Use the key word that appears on the right to
complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other
words.
She didnt come on time, which was irresponsible.

HER
It was irresponsible of her
to come late.
It is crucial if you are in the right place and
at the right time.
PLACE
Being in the right place
and in the right time is crucial.
There is no point in going on discussing this
issue.
IT
It is pointless to go
on discussing this topic.
People need to develop effective listening
skills.
SKILLS
Developing effective listening skills
is necessary.
You danced in womens garments, which was very
funny.
IT
It was funny of you
to dance in womens clothes.
11
SUBJECT GERUND
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
12
VERBS OF PERCEPTION
SEE...............................................
.......
HEAR STH HAPPEN FEEL.........................
...........................
SEE...............................................
..................
HEAR STH HAPPENING FEEL...........
..................................................
.
You witness the whole action.
You witness only a part of the whole action.
AND I BELIEVE I MUST TELL YOU WHAT IT WAS ALL
ABOUT
A
B
I HEARD THEM SPEAKING ABOUT YOU
Click and match!
THEN, THEY WENT SOMEWHERE ELSE TO GOSSIP
I HEARD THEM SPEAK ABOUT YOU
B
A
JUST BEFORE HE PHONED TO TELL HER HE WAS TOO ILL
TO GO OUT THAT DAY
A
TESS HAD SEEN HER BOYFRIEND KISS A GIRL
A
Click and match!
WHEN SHE ENTERED THE ROOM TO SAY SURPRISE
TESS SAW HER BOYFRIEND KISSING A GIRL
B
B
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
13
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE
HOME PAGE
Click for a sentence transformation exercise.
Use the key word that appears on the right to
complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other
words.
Because she was crying, we stopped minding our
own business.
WE
When we saw her
crying we stopped
to look at her.
We watched the train until it disappeared in the
skyline.
WE
We watched the train disappear
in the horizon.
I saw a man who slipped a secret note in the
presidents pocket.
NOTE
I saw a man
slip a secret note
in the presidents pocket.
When I woke, my mothers snoring was audible.
MUM
heard mum snoring.
When I woke I
I was unable to sleep as mum kept snoring until
the crack of dawn.
I
I heard mum snore
the night out.
14
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
15
IT INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
ANIMATED RULE
HOME PAGE
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
TOO
DANGEROUS
IT IS
TO
APPROACH
TOO
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
NOT
ENOUGH
SAFE
IT IS
TO
APPROACH
NOT
ENOUGH
16
IT INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
HOME PAGE
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
TOO
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
NOT
ENOUGH
FAR
IT IS
TO
REACH
TOO
CLOSE
IT IS
REACH
NOT
ENOUGH
TO
CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
IT IS
TO
SOLVE
TOO
COMPLICATED
IT IS
TO
SOLVE
NOT
SIMPLE
ENOUGH
17
IT INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
ANIMATED RULE
HOME PAGE
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
TOO
FOR ?
COSTLY
IT IS
TO
BUY
TOO
FOR Jim
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
NOT
ENOUGH
FOR ?
CHEAP
IT IS
TO
BUY
NOT
FOR Jim
ENOUGH
18
IT INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
HOME PAGE
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
TOO
FOR ?
IT IS
ADJECTIVE
EVENT
TO
NOT
ENOUGH
FOR ?
STUBBORN
SHE IS
TO
CONVINCE
TOO
FOR US
LENIENT
SHE IS
CONVINCE
NOT
ENOUGH
TO
FOR US
CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
I AM
TO
BE A FRIEND
TOO
FOR YOU
BAD
I AM
TO
BE A FRIEND
NOT
FOR YOU
GOOD
ENOUGH
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
19
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
IT INFINITIVE
HOME PAGE
Click for a sentence transformation exercise.
Use the key word that appears on the right to
complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other
words.
It was such fine weather that he couldnt stay
indoors.
GOOD
was too good to
stay indoors.
The weather
The flight was so bumpy that the baby couldnt
sleep.
SMOOTH
was not smooth enough for
the baby to sleep.
The flight
My essay was so incoherent that the teacher
couldnt understand it.
TOO
too incoherent for the
teacher to understand.
My essay was
The steak was so tough that the old man couldnt
chew it.
NOT
was not tender enough for
the old man to chew.
The steak
The food was so delicious that Carol couldnt
stop eating.
YUMMY
too yummy for Carol to
stop.
The food was
20
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
SUBJECT GERUND, IT INFINITIVE
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
21
REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
AFTER
HOME PAGE
AFTER
DOING
THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE
TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND
FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING
PHRASE
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC
After checking if all the windows were shut, I
left the house.
The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be
the same so the subject in the RAC can be
omitted.
Who checked all the windows in the RAC?
Main Clause (MC)
FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)
After I HAD checkED if all the windows were shut,
I left the house.
Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund
(ing) form
After I had checked... ? After checking...
CHANGES
Omit the Subject in the RAC
After I had checked... ? After checking...
22
CONVERSION PRACTICE
AFTER
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Smith
After Smith had listened to
her, he could better
understand why she had
behaved so.
listen
listening
ADD A GERUND!
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
After Smith had listened to her, he could better
understand why she had behaved so.
After listening to her, Smith could better
understand why she had behaved so.
23
REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
BEFORE
HOME PAGE
BEFORE
DOING
THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE
TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND
FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING
PHRASE
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC
Before leaving the house, I had checked if all
the windows were shut.
The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be
the same so the subject in the RAC can be
omitted.
Who left the house in the RAC?
Main Clause
(MC)
FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)
Before I leFT the house, I had checked if all the
windows were shut.
Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund
(ing) form
Before I left ? Before leaving...
CHANGES
Omit the Subject in the RAC
Before I left... ? Before leaving...
24
CONVERSION PRACTICE
BEFORE
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Smith
Before Smith could understand
why she had behaved that
way, he had listened to
her twice.
understand
understanding
ADD A GERUND!
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
Before Smith could understand why she had behaved
that way, he had listened to her.
Before understanding why she had behaved so,
Smith had listened to her twice.
25
REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
BECAUSE
HOME PAGE
BECAUSE
DOING
THE SUBJECT OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DROPS WITH THE
ADVERB BECAUSE, AND THE VERB TENSE ALTERS INTO
A GERUND TO REDUCE THE ADVERB CLAUSE TO A
MODIFYING CLAUSE.
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC
NOT waning to offend him, Amber weighed her words
carefully.
The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be
the same so the subject in the RAC can be
omitted.
Who didnt want to offend him in the RAC?
Main Clause
(MC)
FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)
BECAUSE Amber DIDnt want to offend him, SHE
weighed her words carefully.
Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund
(ing) form
Because Amber didnt want to... ? NOT wanting
to...
CHANGES
Omit the Subject and the adverb BECAUSE in the
RAC
Because Amber didnt want to..., she... ? Not
wanting to..., Amber...
26
CONVERSION PRACTICE
BECAUSE
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Janet
Because Janet had nowhere to
go, she spent the whole night in an
abandoned car.
have
Having
OMIT BECAUSE!
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!
ADD A GERUND!
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
Because Janet had nowhere to go, she spent the
night in an abandoned car.
Having nowhere to go, Janet spent the night in an
abandoned car.
27
CONVERSION PRACTICE
BECAUSE
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Janet
Because Janet didnt have anywhere
to go, she spent the night in
an abandoned car.
not have
Not having
OMIT BECAUSE!
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!
ADD A GERUND!
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
Because Janet didnt have anywhere to go, she
spent the night in an abandoned car.
Not having anywhere to go, Janet spent the night
in an abandoned car.
28
CONVERSION PRACTICE
BECAUSE
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Craig
Because Craig is a snob, he
looks down on other people.
be
Being
OMIT BECAUSE!
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE!
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
ADD A GERUND!
Because Craig is a snob, he looks down on other
people.
Being a snob, Craig looks down on other people.
29
CONVERSION PRACTICE
BECAUSE
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Hugh
Because Hugh was asked a
most inappropriate question, he
was at a loss for
words.
be
Being
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE!
ADD A GERUND!
OMIT BECAUSE!
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
Because Hugh was asked a most inappropriate
question, he was at a loss for words.
Being asked a most inappropriate question, Hugh
was at a loss for words.
30
REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
SINCE
HOME PAGE
SINCE
DOING
THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE
TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND
FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING
PHRASE
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC
Since moving to the big city, Heather has made
many new friends.
The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be
the same so the subject in the RAC can be
omitted.
Who moved to the big city the RAC?
Main Clause
(MC)
FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)
Since she movED to the big city, HEATHER has made
many new friends.
Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund
(ing) form
Since she moved... ? Since moving...
CHANGES
Omit the Subject in the RAC
Since she moved... ? Since moving...
31
CONVERSION PRACTICE
SINCE
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Cheryl
Since Cheryl met him, she
has changed beyond
recognition.
meet
meeting
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!
ADD A GERUND!
Since Cheryl met him, she has changed beyond
compare.
Since meeting him, Cheryl has changed beyond
compare.
32
REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
WHILE
HOME PAGE
WHILE
DOING
THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE
TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND
FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING
PHRASE
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC
W h i l e f i s h i n g , T o m f e l l a
s l e e p .
Main Clause (MC)
Who was fishing in the RAC?
The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be
the same so the subject in the RAC can be
omitted.
FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)
While Tom WAS fishing, he fell asleep.
Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund
(ing) form
While Tom was fishing... ? While fishing...
CHANGES
Omit the Subject in the RAC and make it definite
in the MC
While Tom was fishing..., he... ? While
fishing..., Tom...
33
CONVERSION PRACTICE
WHILE
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
HOME PAGE
Chantal
While Chantal was daydreaming in
class, she fell asleep.
daydream
daydreaming
OMIT THE SUBJECT!
OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!
ADD A GERUND!
MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!
While Chantal was daydreaming in class, she fell
asleep.
While daydreaming in class, Chantal fell asleep.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
34
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE
HOME PAGE
Click for a sentence transformation exercise.
Use the key word that appears on the right to
complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other
words.
He prayed, and then he asked her for a dance.
HER
He prayed
before asking her
for a dance.
Because Wilma was a working mother, she was so
busy.
A
Being a working mother,
Wilma was so busy.
The child was flipping through the pages, when he
found the note.
THE
The child found the note
while flipping through the
pages.
Carla panicked in the exam because she didnt
have enough time.
NOT
Not having enough time,
Carla panicked in the exam.
Hilary has been unable to sleep since she
unearthed the secret.
THE
Since unearthing the secret
Hilarys been sleepless.
35
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
36
POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND
IN SUBJECT POSITION
HOME PAGE
S E N T E N C E O R D E R
NEXT SENTENCE
JOHN MOVED TO A
VILLAGE
THIS SURPRISED US
CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE
CLICK!
JOHN MOVED TO A
VILLAGE
JOHNS MOVING TO A
VILLAGE
Verbing
Subjects
S E N T E N C E O R D E
R
JOHNS MOVING TO
A VILLAGE
SURPRISED US
SURPRISED US
S U B J
E C T
37
POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND
IN SUBJECT POSITION
HOME PAGE
S E N T E N C E O R D E R
NEXT SENTENCE
TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER RESIGNATION
EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT THIS
CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE
CLICK!
TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER
RESIGNATION
TRACYS HANDING IN
HER RESIGNATION
Verbing
Subjects
S E N T E N C E O R D E
R
TRACYS HANDING IN HER RESIGNATION
EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT
EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT
O B J E
C T
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
38
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND
HOME PAGE
Click for a sentence transformation exercise.
Use the key word that appears on the right to
complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other
words.
Paula left Tommy, and this has scathed him.
HAS
Paulas leaving Tommy has
hurt him deeply.
We were outraged by the fact that Velma had
betrayed us.
SHOCKED
Velma's betraying us shocked
everyone.
He keeps insulting everyone, which is
inexcusable.
HIS
We cant excuse
his insulting everyone.
Laureen got admitted to Harvard, and we
celebrated this.
GETTING
Laureens getting admitted to Harvard.
We celebrated
Zach keeps bunking off work, which is intolerable.
OFF
Zachs bunking off work
We cant tolerate
all the time.
39
POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
40
CAUSATIVE VERBS
WITH ZERO INFINITIVE
MAKE ? DO sth
TO FORCE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AGAINST THEIR
WILL
HAVE ? DO sth
TO PERSUADE sb TO DO sth
TO PAY AND ASK sb TO DO sth
GET ? TO DO sth
TO PERSUADE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AFTER SOME
DIFFICULTY
TIM HAD HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE.
B
It was not easy, but Tims mother, at last, saw a
point in buying him a motorbike.
A
TIM MADE HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE.
Tim gave his mom a reason to buy him a motorbike,
and she said yes.
B
C
TIM GOT HIS MOTHER TO BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE.
C
A
Tim was so hard on his mother that she had to buy
that motorbike.
She wanted him to stay longer, but she couldnt
bend him to her will.
HAVE
have him stay longer.
She couldnt
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
41
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
WITH ZERO INFINITIVE
CAUSATIVE VERBS
HOME PAGE
Click for a sentence transformation exercise.
Use the key word that appears on the right to
complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other
words.
We were forced to walk barefoot all the way.
US
They
made us walk barefoot
all the way.
The teacher failed to achieve silence in the
classroom.
BE
get the students to be
The teacher couldnt
silent.
Zoey will call an electrician to repair the damage
REPAIR
Zoey will
have an electrician repair
the damage.
You cant influence me to play truant again.
TO
get me to play truant
You cant
again.
Even a faintest smile of hers would be enough for
us to do what she wanted.
US
have us do what she
She could
wanted even with a smallest smile.
42
CAUSATIVE VERBS
GET sth DONE
TO MANAGE SOMETHING OFTEN DIFFICULT
TO HAVE SOMEONE DO SOMETHING FOR YOU
HAVE sth DONE
TO SUFFER FROM SOMETHING UNFORTUNATE
MATCHING
CAUSATIVE SENTENCE
GET STH DONE
A
B
GET STH DONE
My arm got broken.
IVE GOT THE REPORT FINISHED
HAVE STH DONE GET STH DONE
Phew! Ive finished the report.
B
C
HAVE STH DONE GET STH DONE
I HAD / GOT THE CAR REPAIRED
HAVE STH DONE
A
HAVE STH DONE
I had somebody repair the car.
C
I HAD MY ARM BROKEN
Someone is cutting her hair at the moment.
CUT
is having her hair cut
She
right now.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
43
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
CAUSATIVE VERBS
HOME PAGE
Click for a sentence transformation exercise.
Use the key word that appears on the right to
complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other
words.
A tailor is taking in her dresses around the
waist now.
HER
Presently, she
is having / getting her dresses taken
in.
Have you finished decorating the new house?
THE
Have you
got the new house decorated?
I wonder when you will go to a dentist to check
your teeth.
REPAIR
I wonder when you
will have / get your teeth checked.
His ankle was badly sprained while playing
football.
BADLY
He
had his ankle badly sprained
during a game of football.
Somebody broke into the garage yesterday.
THE
We
had the garage broken into
yesterday.
44
CAUSATIVE VERBS
HOME PAGE
Return to the home page to link to another use of
Gerunds and Infinitives.
45
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
S E N T E N C E
-A-
S E N T E N C E
-B-
CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION
CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION
PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING
SOMETHING
SUBJECT
VERB
OBJECT
O B J E C T
SENTENCE B REPLACES THE
OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ?
THE SUBJECT OF SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE
OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE ?
PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING
CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION
CAROL
O B J E C T
P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT BE V3
T O i n f i n i t i v e
B A R E I N F I N I T I V E
CAROL
TO
CAROL IS SAID
LOVE HER PROFESSION
P R E S E N T
P R E S E N T
THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO
THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF
THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH
SIDES PRESENT.....................................
..............................................PRES
ENT PAST..........................................
..................................................
...PAST
46
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
S E N T E N C E
-A-
S E N T E N C E
-B-
CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION
CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION
PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING
SOMETHING
SUBJECT
VERB
P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT BE V3
T O i n f i n i t i v e
B A R E I N F I N I T I V E
TO
CAROL IS SAID
LOVE HER PROFESSION
P R E S E N T
P R E S E N T
People think that the manager has a terrible
secret.
BELIEVED
The manager
is believed to have
a terrible secret.
People think that Irene is planning to leave.
BE
Irene
is thought to be planning
to leave.
THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO
THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF
THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH
SIDES PRESENT.....................................
..............................................PRES
ENT PAST..........................................
..................................................
...PAST
47
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
present - TO - present present - TO - future
past - TO - past
TO
P R E S E N T
P R E S E N T
BE
IT
THAT
SHE
IS SAID
SHE IS A SPY
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
Broken Object The subject in the object
clauseshe replaces the subject of the sentenceit
1?
Broken Object Connector The infinitive TO
replaces THAT
2?
Bare Infinitive The verb is used in the base
form after the infinitive TO
3?
It is believed that the sales will drop
dramatically.
ARE
The
sales are believed to drop
dramatically.
It is thought that urbanization poses a great
threat to the nature.
IS
Urbanization
a big threat to the nature.
is thought to pose
48
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
S E N T E N C E
-A-
S E N T E N C E
-B-
KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS
KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS
PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING
SOMETHING
SUBJECT
VERB
OBJECT
O B J E
C T
SENTENCE B REPLACES THE
OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ?
SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE
OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE
VOICE ?
PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING
KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS
KATE
O B J E
C T
P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT BE V3
T O i n f i n i t i v e
B A R E I N F I N I T I V E
KATE
TO
KATE WAS BELIEVED
HAVE SUPERPOWERS
P A S T
P A S T
THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO
THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF
THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH
SIDES PRESENT.....................................
..............................................PRES
ENT PAST..........................................
..................................................
...PAST
49
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
S E N T E N C E
-A-
S E N T E N C E
-B-
CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION
KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS
PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING
SOMETHING
SUBJECT
VERB
P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT BE V3
T O i n f i n i t i v e
B A R E I N F I N I T I V E
TO
KATE WAS BELIEVED
HAVE SUPERPOWERS
P A S T
P A S T
People claimed that he possessed a terrible
secret.
POSSES
He
was claimed to possess
a terrible secret.
People acknowledged that he was a great authority
in his field.
BE
He
was acknowledged to be
a great authority in his field.
THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO
THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF
THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH
SIDES PRESENT.....................................
..............................................PRES
ENT PAST..........................................
..................................................
...PAST
50
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
present - TO - present present - TO - future
past - TO - past
TO
P A S T
P A S T
HATE
IT
THAT
Amy
WAS SAID
AMY HATED CHILDREN
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
Broken Object The subject in the object
clauseAmy replaces the subject of the sentenceit
1?
Broken Object Connector The infinitive TO
replaces THAT
2?
Bare Infinitive The verb is used in the base
form after the infinitive TO
3?
It was said that Tom had an embarrassing secret.
WAS
Tom
was said to have a
skeleton in the cupboard.
It was thought that Jim didnt trust anyone.
WAS
Jim
no one.
was thought to trust
51
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
present - TO - present present - TO - future
past - TO - past
TO
P R E S E N T
F U T U R E
MARRY
IT
THAT
TOM
IS BELIEVED
TOM WILL MARRY NO ONE
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
Broken Object The subject in the object
clauseTom replaces the subject of the sentenceit
1?
Broken Object Connector The infinitive TO
replaces THAT
2?
Bare Infinitive The verb is used in the base
form after the infinitive TO
3?
It is said that Phil will move to another country
next year.
IS
Phil
is said to move
to another country next year.
It is believed that rising corbondioxide levels
will cause calamities.
ARE
Rising carbondioxide levels
calamities soon.
are believed to cause
52
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
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Gerunds and Infinitives.
53
TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE
VOICE
S E N T E N C E
-A-
S E N T E N C E
-B-
SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS
SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS
PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING
SOMETHING
SUBJECT
VERB
OBJECT
O B J E
C T
SENTENCE B REPLACES THE
OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ?
SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE
OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE
VOICE ?
PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING
SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS
SHAKESPEARE
O B J E
C T
P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT BE V3
T O H A V E P e r f e c t i n f i n i t i
v e
P A S T P A R T I C I P L E
SHAKESPEARE
TO HAVE
SHAKESPEARE IS SAID
INVENTED NEW WORDS
P R E S E N T
P A S T
THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS
LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH
TO HAVE IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE
FURTHER BACK IN TIME PRESENT......................
..................................................
.....PAST PRESENT................................
......................PRESENT PERFECT PAST........
..................................................
..........PAST PERFECT
54
TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE
VOICE
S E N T E N C E
-A-
S E N T E N C E
-B-
CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION
SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS
PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING
SOMETHING
SUBJECT
VERB
P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT BE V3
T O H A V E P e r f e c t i n f i n i t i
v e
P A S T P A R T I C I P L E
TO HAVE
SHAKESPEARE IS SAID
INVENTED NEW WORDS
P R E S E N T
P A S T
People believed that he had taken alcohol before
driving.
HAVE
He
was believed to have taken
alcohol before driving.
People say that she has graduated from Harvard.
HAVE
She
is said to have graduated
from Harvard.
THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS
LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH
TO HAVE IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE
FURTHER BACK IN TIME PRESENT......................
..................................................
.....PAST PRESENT................................
......................PRESENT PERFECT PAST........
..................................................
..........PAST PERFECT
55
TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE
VOICE
present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE -
present perfect past - TO HAVE - past
PERFECT
TO HAVE
P R E S E N T
P A S T
POSSESSED
IT
THAT
MARS
IS CLAIMED
MARS POSSESSED LIFE
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
Broken Object The subject in the object
clauseMars replaces the subject of the sentenceit
1?
Broken Object Connector The perfect infinitive
TO HAVE replaces THAT
2?
Perfect Infinitive The verb is used in the past
participle form after perfect infinitive TO
3?
It is thought that old civilizations lived in
insecurity.
ARE
Old civilizations
are thought to have lived
in insecurity.
It is believed that Salvador Dali had many
quirks.
IS
Salvadaor Dali
many quirks.
is believed to have had
56
TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE
VOICE
present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE -
present perfect past - TO HAVE - past
PERFECT
TO HAVE
P R E S E N T
P R E S E N T P E R F E C T
GOT
IT
RON HAS GOT A DIVORCE
THAT
RON
IS SAID
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
Broken Object The subject in the object
clauseRon replaces the subject of the sentenceit
1?
Broken Object Connector The perfect infinitive
TO HAVE replaces THAT
2?
Perfect Infinitive The verb is used in the past
participle form after perfect infinitive TO
3?
It is said that Seth has come back from Africa.
IS
Seth
is said to have come
back from Africa.
Its thought that the murder has been committed
because of jealousy.
IS
is believed to have been
The murder
caused by jealousy.
57
TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE
VOICE
present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE -
present perfect past - TO HAVE - past
PERFECT
TO HAVE
P A S T
P A S T P E R F E C T
CHEATED
IT
THAT
I
WAS CLAIMED
I HAD CHEATED
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
Broken Object The subject in the object clauseI
replaces the subject of the sentenceit
1?
Broken Object Connector The perfect infinitive
TO HAVE replaces THAT
2?
Perfect Infinitive The verb is used in the past
participle form after perfect infinitive TO
3?
It was believed that Prometheus had stolen the
fire from Titans.
WAS
Prometheus
was believed to have stolen
the fire from Titans.
It was claimed that the he had embezzled the
funds of the company.
WAS
He
the funds of the company.
was claimed to have embezzled
58
LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM
TO
BE
IT
THAT
Amy
IS BELIEVED
AMY IS PRETENDING
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION
TO HAVE
BEEN
IT
THAT
Amy
IS BELIEVED
AMY WAS PRETENDING
S U B J E C T
V E R B
O B J E C T
C L A U S E
It is thought that the world is getting worse
each day
IS
The world
is thought to be getting
worse each day.
It is believed that Dan was keeping a secret from
us.
IS
Dan
is believed to have been
keeping a secret from us.
59
LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM
HOME PAGE
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Gerunds and Infinitives.
60
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