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As American as Motherhood and Apple Pie

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Title: As American as Motherhood and Apple Pie


1
As American as Motherhood and Apple Pie
  • The Founding Mothers
  • Kevin P. Dincher
  • www.kevindincher.com

2
Motherhood and Apple Pie
  • American Idiom
  • Quintessential elements of American home life.

Fred is so old-fashioned. Everything about old
times is good to him. He's all motherhood and
apple pie.
3
Motherhood and Apple Pie
  • American Idiom
  • Principles or values with which few disagree

4
Flag, Motherhood and Apple Pie
  • American Idiom
  • Patriotism and traditional American values
  • Something that can't be questioned because it
    appeals to patriotism and widely-held American
    traditional values.

5
(No Transcript)
6
As American as Motherhood and Apple Pie
Women in the Early Republic
7
Not talking about Republican mothers!
8
Not talking about baking pies!
9
This is a course about women
10
Simone de Beauvoir (1908 1986)
  • 1953 The Second Sex (Le Deuxième Sexe)
  • Study of the treatment of women through history
  • Inferior status
  • Second Wave of Feminism

Simone-Lucie-Ernestine-Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir
11
Second Wave of Feminism
  • 1963
  • Equal Pay Act
  • 1964
  • Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act
  • 1972
  • Equal Rights Amendment
  • Title 9 of the Educational Amendments of 1972
  • 2009
  • Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act

12
First Wave of Feminism
  • 19th and Early 20th Centuries
  • focused officially mandated inequalities
  • Property Rights
  • Suffrage
  • Lucretia Mott
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Lucy Stone
  • Susan B. Anthony

13
Women's suffrage laws before 19th Amendment
Full Suffrage
Presidential Suffrage
Primary Suffrage
Municipal Suffrage
School, Bond, Tax Suffrage
Municipal Suffrage some cities
Primary Suffrage some cities
No Suffrage
14
19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
  • 1870 Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady
    Stanton
  • 1919 Congress approved sent to States
  • 1920 Tennessee became 36th State to ratify
    amendment on August 18

15
19th Amendment
  • 1922 Leser v. Garnett
  • Maryland Constitution limited suffrage to men
  • Maryland had not ratified 19th Amendment
  • Destroyed State autonomy
  • Increased electorate without the state's consent
  • State Constitutions in some ratifying states did
    not allow their legislatures to ratify
  • Tennessee and West Virginia violated their own
    rules of procedure

16
19th Amendment
  • Connecticut Sep 14, 1920
  • Vermont Feb 8, 1921
  • Delaware Mar 6, 1923
  • rejected Jun 2, 1920
  • Maryland Mar 29, 1941
  • rejected on Feb 24, 1920
  • not certified until Feb 25, 1958
  • Virginia Feb 21, 1952
  • rejected on Feb 12, 1920
  • Alabama Sep 8, 1953
  • rejected on Sep 22, 1919
  • Florida May 13, 1969
  • South Carolina Jul 1, 1969
  • rejected on January 28, 1920
  • not certified until Aug 22, 1973
  • Georgia Feb 20, 1970
  • rejected on July 24, 1919
  • Louisiana Jun 11, 1970
  • rejected on July 1, 1920
  • North Carolina May 6, 1971
  • Mississippi Mar 22, 1984
  • rejected on March 29, 1920

17
Rebellion or Revolution?
  • 1776

18
Rebellion or Revolution?
  • American Rebellion
  • Armed Insurrection
  • Breaking with British and establishing own
    government
  • American Revolution
  • Fundamental Change
  • In power or organizational structures
  • In culture, economy, and socio-political
    institutions
  • Old world view

19
Pre-Revolution - 18th Century Women
  • Womans Domain
  • Feminine domestic circle
  • Pre-industrial, family economy
  • Rural/agricultural
  • Isolation
  • Rudimentary literacy
  • Politically
  • Deferential colonial democracy
  • Political apathy
  • Both men and women

20
Late 18th Century
  • Technological and Political Revolutions
  • Industrial Revolution
  • New Technology
  • Reshape domestic labor
  • Eroded stability of households
  • Political Revolution
  • Constitutional experiment
  • Political innovation
  • Aggressive, egalitarian, participatory democracy

21
  • What does it mean to be a citizen rather than a
    subject?
  • Who ought to rule and who ought to be content
    to be ruled?
  • Could a woman be a patriot a political person
    and if so, what does a female patriotism look
    like?

22
Republican Motherhood
  • Linda K. Kerber
  • Philosophy about the role of women in the
    emerging United States before and after the
    American Revolution

Department of History University of Iowa
23
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24
Whats he going on about?!?!?
The Old World The Enlightenment The New World
Women and an BRIEF History of Marriage Coverture Aristotle Who thought women were idiots John Locke Who opened the door on natural rights) The American Colonial/Revolutionary Experience Republican Motherhood Educating Women The First Wave of Feminism Property Rights The Seneca Falls Convention Suffrage and Abolition
Some of the Founding Mothers and Ladies of Liberty Some of the Founding Mothers and Ladies of Liberty Some of the Founding Mothers and Ladies of Liberty
25
Founding Mothers
  • Linda K. Kerber
  • Women of the Republic Intellect and Ideology in
    Revolutionary America (1997)
  • No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies Women and
    the Obligations of Citizenship (1999)

26
Founding Mothers
  • Cokie Roberts
  • Founding Mothers The Women Who Raised Our Nation
    (2005)
  • Ladies of Liberty The Women Who Shaped Our
    Nation (2008)

27
Founding Mothers
  • Woody Holton
  • Abigail Adams (2010)

28
Not the Founding Mothers
  • Woody Holton
  • Unruly Americans and the Origins of the
    Constitution (2008)
  • Forced Founders Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and
    the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia
    (1999)
  • Black Americans in the Revolutionary Era A Brief
    History with Documents (2009)
  • Joseph Ellis
  • Revolutionary Summer The Birth of American
    Independence (2013)

29
The Old World
  • Women and Marriage

30
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Dirt, Greed and Sex Sexual Ethics in the New
    Testament and Their Implications for Today
  • L. William Countryman (1988)

Chapter 8 Women and Children as Property in
the Ancient Mediterranean World
31
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • 1. Women by nature inferior to men
  • Liberating Elements
  • Individual women
  • Christian counter-message
  • Early Christian communities

32
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • 1. Women by nature inferior to men
  • Creation Stories
  • Genesis 11 23
  • Genesis 24 324
  • Exegesis vs. Eisegesis
  • Woman
  • Derivative being
  • Named by (subject to) man

33
The Woman is not created in the image of God.
34
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35
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Women by nature inferior to men
  • 2. Woman source of sin

36
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Every woman should be filled with shame by the
    thought that she is a woman.        
  • Clement of Alexandria (150-215)

37
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Do you not know that you are Eve? The judgment of
    God upon this sex lives on in this age
    therefore, necessarily the guilt should live on
    also. You are the gateway of the devil you are
    the one who unseals the curse of that tree, and
    you are the first one to turn your back on the
    divine law you are the one who persuaded him
    whom the devil was not capable of corrupting you
    easily destroyed the image of God, Adam. Because
    of what you deserve, that is, death, even the Son
    of God had to die.
  • Tertullian
  • c. 160c. 225

38
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • What is the difference whether it is in a wife or
    a mother, it is still Eve the temptress that we
    must beware of in any woman... I fail to see what
    use woman can be to man, if one excludes the
    function of bearing children.     
  • Saint Augustine of Hippo (185-254)

39
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Woman was merely man's helpmate, a function which
    pertains to her alone. She is not the image of
    God but as far as man is concerned, he is by
    himself the image of God.
  • Saint Augustine of Hippo (185-254)

40
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • As regards the individual nature, woman is
    defective and misbegotten, for the active power
    of the male seed tends to the production of a
    perfect likeness in the masculine sex while the
    production of a woman comes from defect in the
    active power. 
  • St. Albert the Great (c.1193 1280)

41
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • As regards the individual nature, woman is
    defective and misbegotten, for the active power
    of the male seed tends to the production of a
    perfect likeness in the masculine sex while the
    production of a woman comes from defect in the
    active power.    
  • Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 1274)

42
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • If women become tired or even die, that does
    not matter. Let them die in childbirththat is
    why they are there.    
  • Martin Luther (1482-1546)

43
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Woman was made for only one reason, to serve and
    obey man.         
  • John Knox (1513-1572)

44
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Wife Be content to be insignificant. What loss
    would it be to God or man had you never been
    born?             
  • John Wesley (1703-1791)

45
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • The Feminist agenda is not about equal rights for
    women. It is about a socialist, anti-family
    political movement that encourages women to leave
    their husbands, kill their children, practice
    witchcraft, destroy capitalism, and become
    lesbians.
  • Pat Robertson (1992)

46
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • A wife should submit herself to the leadership of
    her husband. Leadership in the church should
    always be male.                 
  • Southern Baptist Convention (2000)

47
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Women by nature inferior to men
  • Woman source of sin
  • Marriage women as property
  • Contract between two men
  • Economic arrangement
  • Adultery
  • Polygamy (polygyny)

48
The Bible Women and Marriage
  • Women by nature inferior to men
  • Woman source of sin
  • Marriage women as property
  • Christians quarreled over sexual ethics
  • Virginity/Monogamy
  • Role of women
  • Maintained property ethic

49
Post Biblical Greco-Roman World (100-400)
  • Marriage
  • Economic agreement/contract
  • Between two men (womans consent?)
  • Monogamy (sort of)
  • Inferior status of women
  • Classic era
  • Athens women fitted approximately the same
    category as slaves
  • Early Roman law candidly referred to the
    "perpetual tutelage of women" and considered them
    to be under the manus (hand) of their fathers
  • Not exactly property but not their own person
  • No political role (Aristotle idiots)
  • Property rights
  • Greeks none
  • Romans some

50
Barbarian Invasions and Aftermath (400 - ?)
  • Church filled the political/social gap
    established social order that would last 1000
    years
  • Women
  • Naturally inferior weak source of sin
  • Not exactly property not a separate person
  • No property rights no innate political role
  • Exceptions France

51
Powerful Women of the Middle Ages
  • Nancy Goldstone
  • Four Queens The Provençal Sisters who Ruled
    Europe
  • Lady Queen The Notorious Reign of Joanna I,
    Queen of Naples, Jerusalem and Sicily
  • The Maid and the Queen the Secret History of
    Joan of Arc

52
Barbarian Invasions and Aftermath (400 - ?)
  • Church filled the political/social gap
    established social order that would last 1000
    years
  • Marriage
  • Ideal Virginity/celibacy
  • Corrective for sin (lust)
  • Necessary for procreation
  • Economic agreement
  • Generally between 2 men with the womans
    consent
  • One flesh husband
  • Affection/companionship? Romantic love?
  • No direct involvement by church or state
  • Church kept registry of marriages identified
    causes for nullification
  • 1500s
  • Martin Luther
  • Transferred registration to state
  • Council of Trent
  • Catholic marriage required a ceremony officiated
    by a priest with two witnesses
  • John Calvin
  • required both state registration and church
    consecration to constitute marriage

53
Modern Marriage
  • The Enlightenment (1600-1800)
  • Rise of the Individual
  • Question the status of women in marriage
  • Industrial Revolution (1750 1850)
  • Family no longer the primary economic unit
  • Romantic love/affection basis for marriage
  • Economic/social stability

54
The Enlightenment (1600 1800)
  • A phase in Western philosophy and cultural life

René Descartes 1596 1650 Father of Modern
Philosophy
Voltaire 1694 1798 François-Marie Arouet
55
Robert Filmer (1588-1653)
  • Patriarcha, 1680
  • A defense of the divine right of kings to rule.
  • God Adam
  • Adam Noah
  • Noah Shem, Ham, Jepheth
  • Shem, Ham, Jepheth all kings/governors

56
(No Transcript)
57
John Locke (1632-1704)
  • 1689 Two Treatises on Government
  • The First Treatise
  • Refutes Filmers Patriarcha
  • The Second Treatise
  • Theory of civil society

58
John Locke (1632 1704)
  • The first society was between man and wife,
    which gave beginning to that between parents and
    children... conjugal society is made by a
    voluntary compact between man and women.

59
John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Natural Rights
  • Individual self
  • Conscious, self-aware, self-reflective
  • Human nature
  • Characterized by reason and tolerance
  • In a natural state
  • All people were equal and independent, and
    everyone had a natural right to defend his Life,
    health, Liberty, or Possessions

60
The Declaration of Independence
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
    men are created equal, that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty and the
    pursuit of Happiness

61
The French Revolution
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    (Lafayette,1789)
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the
    Female Citizen (Olympe de Gouges, 1791)
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    of 1793

62
UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
  • ... Recognition of the inherent dignity and of
    the equal and inalienable rights of all members
    of the human family is the foundation of freedom,
    justice and peace in the world.
  • All human beings are born free and equal in
    dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason
    and conscience and should act towards one another
    in a spirit of brotherhood.

63
  • "All are equal, all are free, and all deserve a
    chance to pursue their full measure of
    happiness."

64
John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Second Treatise of Government (1689)
  • Status of women
  • Women are not property
  • Although not equal to men
  • Retain power over children in the absence of the
    father
  • But second to him when he is around
  • Capable of leaving the compact of marriage
  • But would probably be foolish to do so
  • To be honored and respected by adult children
  • Independent of honor/respect for father

65
  • What does it mean to be a citizen rather than a
    subject?
  • Who ought to rule and who ought to be content
    to be ruled?
  • Could a woman be a patriot a political person
    and if so, what does a female patriotism look
    like?

66
Founding Fathers
67
Pre-Revolution - 18th Century Women
  • Womans Domain
  • Feminine domestic circle
  • Pre-industrial, family economy
  • Rural/agricultural
  • Isolation
  • Rudimentary literacy
  • Politically
  • Deferential colonial democracy
  • Political apathy
  • Both men and women

68
Pre-Revolution Women
  • Not part of the political community
  • Men and most women did not trust women to
    take politics seriously
  • Pre-revolutionary Activists/Agitators addressed
    themselves to men challenged men to act
  • Did not address concerns of women did not try to
    engage women

69
Pre-Revolution Women
  • Not part of the political community
  • Exceptions
  • Protest small pox inoculation centers
  • Cooks/nurses in French and Indian War
  • New Yorks She-Merchants

70
She-Merchants
  • January 21, 1733
  • New York Weekly Journal
  • satirical newspaper article, to describe women
    who engaged in trade.
  • New York had numerous women traders in the 1700s.
  • Jean Zimmerman (2006)
  • The Women of the House How a Colonial
    She-Merchant Built a Mansion, a Fortune, and a
    Dynasty

71
American Boycott of British Good (Began in
March of 1769)
72
American Boycott of British Good (Began in
March of 1769)
  • Trade and Navigation Acts
  • Molasses Act of 1733
  • Sugar Act of 1764
  • Tea Act of 1773
  • The Stamp Act of 1765
  • The Quartering Act of 1765
  • Townsend Acts
  • Revenue Act of 1767
  • Indemnity Act
  • Commissioners of Customs Act,
  • Vice Admiralty Court Act
  • New York Restraining Act
  • Intolerable Acts (1774)
  • The Boston Port Act
  • The Massachusetts Government Act
  • The Administration of Justice Act
  • The Quartering Act
  • The Quebec Act

73
Charles Cunningham Boycott
  • Irish Land War
  • 1870s, 1880s and 1890s
  • Unpopular landlord's agent
  • ostracized by the local community.
  • Also applied to
  • Tenants who wanted to pay their rent
  • Police
  • Shops and other businesses who traded with
    boycotted people.

74
American Boycott of British Good (Began in
March of 1769)
  • Impact 38 reduction in purchase of British
    imports

75
American Boycott of British Good (Began in
March of 1769)
  • Could only succeed with womens support and
    active participation
  • Needed to address women

76
Christopher Gadsden
  • Principal leader of the South Carolina Patriot
    movement
  • Delegate to the Continental Congress
  • Brigadier general in the Continental Army
  • To the Planters, Mechanics, and Freeholders of
    the Province of South Carolina, No Ways Concerned
    in the Importation of British Manufacturers
    (June 22, 1769)

Gadsden Flag
77
Christopher Gadsden
  • I come not to the last, and what many say and
    think is the greatest difficulty of all we have
    to encounter, that is to persuade our wives to
    give us their assistance, without which tis
    impossible to succeed. I allow of the
    impossibility of succeeding without their
    concurrence.

78
Christopher Gadsden
  • But, for my part, so far from doubting that we
    shall have it, I could wish, as our political
    salvation at this crisis, depends altogether upon
    the strictest oeconomy, that the womem could,
    with propriety, have the principle management
    thereof for tis well know, that none in the
    world are better oeconomists, make better wives
    or more tender mothers, than ours.

79
Christopher Gadsden
  • Only let their husbands point out the necessity
    of such a conduct convince them, that it is the
    only thing that can save them and their children,
    from distresses, slavery, and disgrace their
    affections will soon be awakened, and cooperate
    with their reason. When that is done, all that
    is necessary will be done for I am persuaded
    that they will be then as anxious and presevering
    in this matter, as any the most zealous of us can
    possible wish.

80
Christopher Gadsden
  • Very Traditional
  • Women wives
  • Doesnt address women addresses their husbands
  • Ignores independent or single women
  • Domestic duties and responsibilities

81
Christopher Gadsden
  • Breaks New Ground
  • Recognizes women as political
  • Women could be patriots and had a key role in the
    patriot cause
  • Domestic duties and responsibilities have
    political ramifications
  • Consumption behaviors had political implications,
    and women make political decisions whether they
    intend to or not

82
Women Patriots
  • Boycott
  • Daughters of Liberty
  • Spinning Circles
  • Shopping/Purchases
  • Tea
  • Clothing
  • Homespun
  • Old British clothes
  • Clothing for the army
  • Recycling
  • Rags
  • Lead weights
  • Urine
  • Policed local merchants
  • About 1766
  • Women who displayed their loyalty by
    participating in boycotts of British goods

83
Women Patriots
  • Boycott
  • War
  • Spinning Circles
  • Shopping/Purchases
  • Tea
  • Clothing
  • Homespun
  • Old British clothes
  • Clothing for the army
  • Recycling
  • Rags
  • Lead weights
  • Urine
  • Policed local merchants
  • Maintain household economy while men were at war
  • Supported/accompanied the army as cooks, nurses,
    etc.
  • Boardinghouses
  • Members of Congress
  • Soldiers
  • Prisoners

84
Molly Pitcher
  • Mary Ludwig Hays (1754-1832)
  • 1777
  • Valley Forge
  • Water Girls
  • Molly! Pitcher!
  • June 28, 1778
  • Battle of Monmouth
  • Sergeant Molly

85
Women Patriots
  • We are no way dispirited here, we possess a
    Spirit that will not conquered. If our Men are
    all drawn off and we should be attacked, you
    would find a Race of Amazons in America.
  • Abigail Adams to John Adams

86
Founding Fathers
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