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The Triumph of White Men


Title: Slide 1 Author: Thomas Dunn Last modified by: Pam Created Date: 7/8/2011 4:09:53 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Triumph of White Men

  • The Triumph of White Mens Democracy 18241840

Fine Accommodations New Yorks Astor House
completed in 1836, was one of the grandest of the
new American hotels, offering fine accommodations
to travelers who could afford to pay for them.
The Triumph of White Mens Democracy 1824 1840
  • Democracy in Theory and Practice
  • Jackson and the Politics of Democracy
  • The Bank War and the Second-Party System
  • Heyday of the Second-Party System

Democratic Space The New Hotels
  • Politicians spent most of their time in hotels
    and congressmen, legislators made deals there
  • Became symbol of new democratic spirit
  • Almost all white males had right to vote
  • The ideals of equal citizenship hardened during
    this period

Democracy in Theory and Practice
Democracy in Theory and Practice
  • Democracy became preferred description of
    American politics in 1820s and 1830s
  • In democracy, the people were sovereign and could
    do no wrong

Democracy in Theory and Practice (contd)
  • Traditional ideas of deference declined further
  • Equality of opportunity all important the
    resulting inequalities of reward not really
  • America became society of winners and losers

Democratic Culture
  • Mode of dress no longer indicator of gentility
  • Industrialism created class of low paid workers
  • Licensing abolished for doctors, lawyers
  • Popular press important source of information
  • New forms of literature and art for mass audience

Democratic Culture (contd)
  • Many novels written for women, melodramas popular
    in theater
  • Painters depicted everyday life
  • Poets, novelists sought to enlighten the new

Democratic Political Institutions
  • Most states adopted universal white male suffrage
    by the 1820s
  • Many appointed offices made elective
  • Professional politicians and stable, statewide
    party organizations emerged

Democratic Political Institutions (contd)
  • Politicians like Martin Van Buren promoted
    benefits of two-party system
  • Concept of loyal opposition accepted
  • Democracy spread to presidency
  • Most presidential electors chosen by popular vote
    rather state legislature by 1828
  • Participation rates rose from 27 in early 1820s
    to high of 78 in 1840

Stump Speeches Political candidates of the
Jacksonian era traveled from town to town giving
stump speeches. The political gatherings at which
they spoke provided entertainment and were an
excellent source of political news. This
painting, Stump Speaking (1853/1854), is by
George Caleb Bingham, one of the most prolific
democratic genre painters.
Economic Issues
  • Republican ideology from Revolution made people
    suspicious of groups they did not identify with
    or benefit from
  • Jacksonians fear of the money power
  • Debate over role of federal government in the

Jackson and the Politics of Democracy
Jackson and the Politics of Democracy
  • Jackson became a symbol of democracys triumph
  • Actions of Jackson and his party re-fashioned
    national politics in a democratic mold
  • Era known as Jacksonian Democracy

Jackson Comes to Power
  • Corrupt Bargain set motivation for 1828
  • Tariff main agenda resulting law became known as
    tariff of abominations
  • Influential state leaders supported Jackson
  • Calhoun in South Carolina, Van Buren in New York

Jackson Comes to Power (contd)
  • Their efforts led to formation of Democratic
    party, first modern American party
  • New electioneering techniques of mass democracy
  • Mudslinging dominated campaign
  • Jackson portrayed as man of the people

Jackson Comes to Power (contd)
  • Jackson unclear about his stands on policy issues
    of the day other than Indian removal
  • Jacksons democratic stamp on his administration
  • Defended spoils system as democratic
  • Replaced most of cabinet because of Peggy Eaton

TABLE 10.1 The Election of 1824
Map 10.1 Election of 1828
Indian Removal
  • Indian removal policy inherited from prior
  • Jackson agreed with state complaints that federal
    government had not removed Indians quickly enough

A Falling House? Jacksons resigning cabinet
members were, according to this cartoon, rats
deserting a falling house. Jackson is seated on a
collapsing chair, while the altar of reform and
public confidence in the stability of this
administration pillars topple to his left, and
resignations flutter behind him. The
presidents foot is on the tail of the Secretary
of State Martin Van Buren rat.
Indian Removal (contd)
  • Some southern states asserted authority over
    Indians in their borders
  • Jackson got federal government approval for state
    removal initiatives with Indian Removal Act of
  • 1838U.S. Army forced Cherokee west along the
    Trail of Tears

Trail of Tears Robert Lindneux, The Trail of
Tears (1942). Cherokee Indians, carrying their
few possessions, are prodded along by U.S.
soldiers on the Trail of Tears. Thousands of
Native Americans died on the ruthless forced
march from their homelands in the East to the new
Indian Territory in Oklahoma. (Source Robert
Lindneux, American. Trail of Tears. Courtesy of
the Newberry Library, Chicago/Woolaroc Museum,
Bartlesville, Oklahoma.)
Map 10.2 Indian Removal Because so many
Native Americans, uprooted from their lands in
the East, died on the forced march to Oklahoma,
the route they followed became known as the Trail
of Tears.
The Nullification Crisis
  • South opposed tariffincreased prices and
    endangered access to foreign markets
  • John C. CalhounDoctrine of Nullification right
    of an individual state to set aside state law

The Nullification Crisis (contd)
  • Personal relations between Jackson and Calhoun
  • 1830Jefferson Day Dinner
  • Jackson to the unionit must be preserved
  • Calhoun to the unionnext to our liberty, the
    most dear

The Nullification Crisis (contd)
  • 1832tariff passed, South Carolina nullified
  • Jackson threatened to send army

The Nullification Crisis (contd)
  • Compromise
  • Force Bill authorized Jackson to use military to
    enforce federal law
  • Clays Compromise Tariff of 1833 lowered rates
  • Nullification foreshadowed state sovereignty
    positions of the South in slavery debates

The Bank War and the Second-Party System
The Bank War and the Second-Party System
  • The Bank War a symbolic defense of Jacksonian
    concept of democracy
  • Led to two important results
  • Formation of opposition party to Jackson the
  • Economic disruption

The Bank Veto and the Election of 1832
  • Jackson opposed to the Bank
  • His opposition drives Nicholas Biddle to seek
    early recharter of the Banks
  • The bill passed easily but vetoed by Jackson
  • 1832 election
  • Bank a major issue
  • Jackson reelected

TABLE 10.2 The Election of 1832
Killing the Bank
  • Jackson destroyed bank by removing federal
  • Funds transferred to state (pet) banks
  • Biddle used his powers to cause recession,
    attempted to blame Jackson

Killing the Bank (contd)
  • Clay got censure of Jackson through Senate for
    abusing his power (Jacksons withdrawal of
    deposits from bank)
  • Destruction of bank provoked fears of
    dictatorship, cost Jackson support in Congress

A Hydra-Headed Bank Aided by Van Buren
(center), Jackson wields his veto rod against the
Bank of the United States, whose heads represent
the directors of the state branches. Bank
president Nicholas Biddle is wearing the top hat.
In ancient mythology the Hydra was a snake with
many heads each time one was cut another would
sprout up and it would not die. (Source
Collection of The New-York Historical Society.
Negative number 42459.)
The Emergence of the Whigs
  • Whig party a coalition of forces, first united in
    censure of Jackson
  • Clay and National Republicans
  • Webster and New England ex-Federalists
  • States-rights southerners
  • Anti-Masonic party

The Emergence of the Whigs (contd)
  • Whigs defended activist government in economics,
    enforcement of decency
  • Democrats opposed government regulation of
  • Democrats weakened by
  • Defection of Loco-Focos faction upset over pet
  • Specie Circular led to the Panic of 1837

TABLE 10.3 The Election of 1836
Map 10.3 Election of 1840
Heyday of the Second-Party System
Heyday of the Second-Party System
  • Election of 1840 marked rise of permanent
    two-party system in the U.S.Whigs and Democrats
  • Whigs supported a positive liberal statewere
    Industrialist, successful farmers, Protestant

Heyday of the Second-Party System (contd)
  • Democrats supported negative liberal statewere
    small farmers, manufacturing, Catholic
  • Whigs believed market economy would benefit all
  • Democrats were ambivalent about market economy

Conclusion Tocquevilles Wisdom
Conclusion Tocquevilles Wisdom
  • Alexis de Tocqueville praised most aspects of
    American democracy
  • Warned of future disaster if white males refused
    to extend liberty to women, African Americans,
    and Indians