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Reform in American Society


Title: Reform in American Society Author: MCPSS Last modified by: MCPSS Created Date: 4/7/2009 4:10:28 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reform in American Society

Reform in American Society
Americas Spiritual Awakening Section 1
Second Great Awakening
  • During the early decades of the 19th Century,
    people again turned to religion
  • In many cases it was for the same reasons which
    led to the First Great Awakening in the 1700s
    fear of change

Great Awakenings First Second
  • Free will
  • People could seek salvation and control destiny
  • Focus on saving soul, not hellfire and damnation.
  • Led to reforms in the North
  • Fate controlled by omnipotent God
  • People could not save selves from damnation
  • Religionfear
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
  • In US and Europe

Charles G. Finney
  • Finney preached in NY
  • His message differed from that of
    Jonathan Edwards
  • People could be saved and seek salvation
  • Conversion brought thousands back to the church

Religion in the 19th Century
  • Revivals were held throughout the country, but
    were most effective in the North
  • New converts were asked to examine their soul and
    become a better person

Religion in the 19th Century
  • African-American churches united slaves in a
    common belief of freedom
  • Churches in the north, like Rev. Richard Allens
    Bethel African Church, provided a cultural center

  • In the early and mid-1800s, a group of people
    started looking at the world, religion and the
    changing economy in a different way.
  • Most sought a simpler life and focused on
    emotions and feeling

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson writer
  • Henry David Thoreau Walden and Civil
  • Unitarians religious group who tried to make
    people better through reforms

Utopian Communities
  • Shakers - Religious, Mother Ann Lee, 6000 members
    in several states
  • Forbid marriage and sex
  • Lack of members caused
    its demise
  • Amana settlement
    allowed marriage and

Utopian Communities
  • Brook Farm - founded by George Ripley
  • Communal living where everyone worked for the
    common good.

Utopian Communities Before the Civil War
Utopian Communities
  • Utopian communities generally failed within a few
    years due to lack of funding or internal

American Romantics
  • True romanticism believes that every individual
    brings a certain uniqueness to the world and are
    therefore valuable for their individual
  • Thomas Cole painted western landscapes
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter and Moby
  • Edgar Allan Poe the Raven
  • Emily Dickinson
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
  • Walt Whitman great patriotic poet
  • Wonderful expressions of individual joy and pain
    is portrayed during this era

Section 2 Early Immigration and Urban Reform
  • Main Idea
  • A wave of Irish and German immigrants entered the
    United States during a period of urbanization
    and reform.
  • Reading Focus
  • Why did many Irish and Germans immigrate to the
    United States in the 1840s and 1850s?
  • What was life in the United States like for the
    new immigrants?
  • How did urbanization and industrialization lead
    to reform?

Irish and German Immigrants
  • Since the 1700s, the poor people of Ireland had
    relied on the potato as their staple, or major,
    food crop.
  • From 1845 to 1849, a disease, or blight, struck
    the crop, severely restricting the potato harvest.
  • Deprived of their primary food source and
    receiving little relief from the ruling British
    government, Irelands poor faced starvation.
  • By 1850 about 1 million had died during the Great
    Irish Famine.
  • Desperate to save themselves and their families,
    about 1.5 million of them settled in the United

Irish and German Immigrants
  • Like the Irish, many Germans were fleeing
    conditions in their homeland.
  • Some fled economic depression and overpopulation,
    which made jobs scarce.
  • Others left to escape religious persecution,
    harsh tax laws, or military service.
  • Still others fled their country after a
    revolution in 1848 failed.
  • Many Germans came to the United States in search
    of free land and business opportunities.
  • Push-pull model of immigration factors that
    cause people to leave their homeland are
    pushes, and factors that cause people to move
    to a particular country are called pulls.

The Lives of Immigrants
  • Many immigrant groups to the United States have
    faced discrimination.
  • As the number of Irish immigrants grew, so too
    did these feelings of nativism, or opposition to
  • But the influx of a huge number of poor,
    Catholic, Irish immigrants in such a short time
    changed many Americans views.
  • They began to regard immigrants as a threat to
    their way of life.

The Lives of Immigrants
  • Nearly as many Germans as Irish immigrated to the
    United States in the mid-1800s.
  • Fortunately for the Germans, they did not
    encounter the same hostility that greeted Irish
  • Most German immigrants were middle class and
  • They could afford to travel far inland, seeking
    free or cheap land, reunions with relatives, or
    other opportunities in the heartland.
  • German immigrants worked as farmers, artisans,
    factory workers, and in other occupations.

Reform, Urbanization, and Industrialization
  • By the mid-1800s, large American cities were home
    to some tremendously wealthy people.
  • The vast majority of urban Americans, however,
    were very poor.
  • Many city-dwellers lived in tenements, or poorly
    made, crowded apartment buildings.
  • Lacked adequate light, ventilation, and
  • They were very unhealthy places to live.
  • Disease spread rapidly in the crowded conditions.

(No Transcript)
Reform, Urbanization, and Industrialization
  • In some cities, local boards of health were
    established to set sanitation rules.
  • Enforcement was often uneven, and the poorer
    neighborhoods received less attention than richer
  • Local reform societies reached only a fraction of
    those who needed help.
  • For the most part, the poor of Americas large
    cities fended for themselves, helping their
    families, neighbors, and friends as best they
  • Serious efforts at reforming cities would not
    begin until late in the century.

Reform, Urbanization, and Industrialization
  • Previously, most Americans had worked on farms.
  • Worked for themselves, kept the profits they
    earned, and made much of what they needed
  • American factory workers were wage earners who
    were paid a set amount by business owners.
  • Using their limited wages, they had to buy the
    things they needed from merchants in the city
    where they lived.
  • A new social class arose the urban working
  • Most of them were poor and uneducated.
  • Many were immigrants.
  • Business owners wanted to maximize their profits.
  • Resulted in low wages, long hours, and unsafe
    working conditions for workers

Reform, Urbanization, and Industrialization
  • In the 1820s, workers began to organize into
    groups to demand higher wages, shorter hours, and
    safer working conditions.
  • Labor movement efforts by workers to improve
    their situation
  • Skilled workers, such as carpenters and masons,
    formed organizations to regulate their pay.
  • In 1834 several smaller groups united to form the
    National Trades Union in New York City.
  • The labor movement faced fierce opposition from
    business owners and many government officials.

Reform, Urbanization, and Industrialization
  • The Ten-Hour Movement a labor reform campaign to
    limit the working day to 10 hours from the more
    common 12 hours or more
  • By 1840, all federal employees received a 10-hour
  • In the mid-1840s, New Hampshire became the first
    state to limit the workday to 10 hours. Other
    states followed New Hampshires example.
  • Despite this success, laborers remained very much
    at the whim of business owners. It would be
    decades before they made substantial progress in
    improving their work conditions.

  • Many people were not happy about immigration
  • Nativism an extreme dislike for immigrants by
    native born people and a desire to limit
  • Nativists disliked
  • Irish, Asians, Jews and Eastern Europeans

Section 3
  • Reforming Society

Prison Reform
  • Alexis de Tocqueville visited America to observe
    the prison system
  • He was dismayed at the amount of abuse

Prison Reform
  • Dorthea Dix was horrified to see mentally ill and
    handicapped people in prisons alongside violent
  • She led the drive to build separate facilities
    for mentally ill people

Children in the Jails
  • Josiah Quincy (I think grandson of Quincy that
    defended the British soldiers at the Boston
    Massacre) wanted to separate the sentencing for
    adults and children
  • The children should receive less time for the
    crimes and work more on rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation worked on preparing the individual
    for life outside the jail with education and job

Common School movement
  • Horace Mann pushed for free and compulsory
    education for all children.
  • He helped establish tax supported schools, a
    longer school year and teacher training

School Reform
  • McGuffy Readers were used to teach children to
  • They combined phonics with stories encouraging
    hard work, punctuality and sobriety.

(No Transcript)
School Reform
  • Catherine Beecher sought to create teachers from
    spinster women
  • Schools also responsible for raising children

School Reform
Secondary School Enrollment 1840-1860
  • The beverages of choice in the 1800s
    were beer and whiskey
  • With the new machinery of the Industrial
    Revolution, men were getting injured and even
  • Reformers blamed alcohol on the breakup of
    families and poverty

  • Women led the temperance movement.
  • Temperance societies sprung up throughout the
  • They were so successful that alcohol consumption
    dropped by 50

  • American Temperance Society and the American
    Temperance Union helped spread the message -
  • Alcohol corrupted society

(No Transcript)
Education for Women
  • Sara Grimke ran one of several schools open for
  • Emma Willard started the first college for women
  • Oberlin College opened their doors to women
  • Elizabeth Blackwell became Americas first female

Education for Women
  • Catherine Beecher(daughter of Lyman Beecher) took
    a survey on womens health and found that 3 of
    every 4th woman was ill since they rarely bathed
    or exercised.
  • She started a school for all girls
  • Before 1820s most girls only attended elementary

Education for people with Disabilties
  • Samuel Howe worked to provide a way for those
    with visual disabilities to receive an education
  • Thomas Gallaudet studied to provide those with
    hearing impairments an education

Section 4
  • The movement to
  • End Slavery

  • By the 1820s some people began to openly question
    the morality of slavery
  • Others wanted violent uprisings

What to do with free slaves?
  • Some proposed that all Blacks be sent back to
    Africa Robert Finley started the American
    Coloniation Society
  • This society founded Liberia on the west coast of
    Africa and approximately 12,000 African Americans
    relocated there

  • Charles Finney preached about the evils of
  • Most whites in the north gave slavery no
    attention at all
  • Some, particularly the Irish, wanted slavery to

  • William Lloyd Garrison - editor of The
  • Wanted slave holders to release their slaves
    immediately with no payment for their loss
  • He associated with Africans who promoted violence
  • Found the Anti-Slavery Society

  • David Walker wrote Appeal to the Colored
    Citizens of the World
  • Was completely against the returning to Africa
    idea. He argued America was his not Africa and
    it had been built with the blood and sweat of
    other black men why should he leave?
  • Thought that slaves that did not revolt deserved
    to be enslaved

  • Frederick Douglass - born a slave
    and ran away as a child
  • Eloquent speaker who talked about his life as a
  • Worked with Garrison for a time but split with
    him to write The North Star

(No Transcript)
The Underground Railroad, was a vast network of
people who helped runaway slaves escape to the
Northern United States and into Canada.It was not
run by just a single person,but it consisted of
many individuals. Slaves followed the North Star
and used songs to pass along information to each
other for a safe passing Follow the Drinking
Gourd was one most used
Most African Americans resisted their
enslavement. They used techniques such as work
slow-downs, sabotage, sickness, self-mutilation,
or the destruction of property.To get to their
destination point they used the Underground
Railroad to transport them.Harriet Tubman was one
involved in the Underground Railroad.
The Underground Railroad was neither "under the
ground or a "railroad system," but was a loose
network of aid and assistance to fugitives from
captivity. Perhaps as many as 100,000 enslaved
Africans may have escaped in the years between
The American Revolution and the Civil War
Opposition to Abolition not only in the South
  • Many Northerners did not believe in abolition
    because they thought the freed slaves would take
  • The debates were so heated in Congress that a Gag
    Rule was issued to keep it from being discussed
    in the Legislature
  • The South argued for the continuance because of
    their economic needs

This rest of the slides for section 4 are a
review from Chapter 14
  • Thank you for participating

  • America continued to import slaves until 1808
  • Natural birth rate caused the slave population to
  • By the mid 1800s, all
    slaves were born in
    America and spoke
    English (unless they were illegally traded and
    many were)

  • Life expectancy for slaves in America was much
    longer than Africans who lived in Africa

  • Men, women and children worked from sun up to sun
  • Slave marriages were not considered legal under
    the eyes of God so families could be sold apart.

  • Immigrant labor did not come to the south so many
    slaves learned skills
  • Some hired themselves out for pay

  • All slaves, regardless of age, worked
  • This little boy was a companion for the
    daughter of his owner.

Urban and Rural Slavery
  • Slaves in the cotton fields worked all day in the
    hot sun, ate substandard food, lived in wooden
    shacks and were beaten for minor infractions.
  • Slaves in larger towns worked for pay which was
    shared with their owner. They did not have an

Slave Uprisings
  • Nat Turner 1831, led an uprising leading to the
    death of 55 whites.
  • The retaliation led to the deaths of hundreds of
    slaves and strengthening the slave codes

Slave Codes
  • Regions and counties made laws for slaves only to
    make certain that slaves stay under the control
    of whites
  • After uprisings, codes became stricter, some not
    allowing more than 2 slaves to gather

Slave Codes
  • Most states made it illegal to teach slaves how
    to read and write or learn a trade.
  • They could not travel without papers.
  • Even then, there was a chance that they would be
    kidnapped and sold to another owner

Pro-Slavery Advocates
  • Southerners defended slavery by
  • The Bible Slaves should obey their masters
  • Slaves were learning about Jesus and away from
    the savages in Africa
  • Slaves were happy doing menial labor

Economics of Slavery
  • The cost of a prime field hand was about 1,500 -
  • It cost about 20 each year to care for a slave
  • The care was necessary from birth to death, 60-70
    years, and during non-growing seasons

Section 5
  • Womens Rights

Cult of Domesticity
  • Womens roles changed in the early to mid 1800s
    but they were still treated like property
  • Some women began protesting for equality for
    women and slaves

Cult of Domesticity
  • Women were housewives once they got married
  • There jobs included cooking, cleaning, tending to
    the children, and household food
  • These are the women who were impacted by the
    Second Great Awakening

Cult of Domesticity
  • Women in the 1830s had more free time than their
    mothers since they could hire immigrants to help
    with domestic chores
  • They joined the causes of abolitionism and
    temperance, and eventually, feminism

Sarah and Angelina Grimke
  • Daughters of southern slaveholders, the Grimke
    sisters became avid spokesmen for the
    anti-slavery movement
  • In 1833, Sarah wrote Letters on the Equality of
    the Sexes and the condition of Women
  • Angelina wrote An Appeal to Christian Women of
    the South urging them to rid the country of

Seneca Falls Convention
  • Sojourner Truth, Isabella Baumfree,
    spoke about her life as a
  • She was booed and hissed at because
    the women did not want feminism to get
    lost while promoting abolitionism

Seneca Falls Convention
  • In 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
    held a convention for womens rights
  • They declared that women were entitled to the
    same rights and equality as men

Seneca Falls Convention
1st time women organized and spoke out as a group
  • The organizers wrote the Declaration of
    Sentiments which detailed the injustice that was
    occurring throughout this country toward women.

Continued fight for equal rights
  • Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony took up the fight
    to provide women with equality
  • Anthony argued for not only political rights but
    also wanted equal pay for an equal job
  • She also fought to allow women into predominantly
    male roles
  • In 1860, because of her work and persistence, New
    York finally gave women ownership of her wages
    and property