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TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation Education


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Title: TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation Education

TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation
Module 1 Introduction to Hazmat Transportation
This work is sponsored by the U. S. Department of
Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials
Safety Administration (PHMSA).  It was conducted
through the Hazardous Materials Cooperative
Research Program (HMCRP), which is administered
by the Transportation Research Board of the
National Academies.   Prepared by 3 Sigma
Consultants, LLC 909 Edenbridge Way, Nashville,
TN 37215
Learning Outcomes
  • At the end of this module students will be able
  • Recognize the importance of hazardous materials
    in meeting societal needs
  • Describe the role of hazardous materials
    transportation as part of the freight network and
    logistics supply chain
  • Summarize the regulatory environment under which
    hazardous materials transportation operates
  • Discuss the need and methods/practices utilized
    to ship hazardous materials in an efficient,
    reliable, safe, secure and environmentally-sensiti
    ve manner
  • Recall what is involved in responding to and
    managing an incident
  • Be aware of hazmat transportation workforce
    development issues

  • Hazardous materials and societal needs
  • Hazmat transportation logistics
  • Hazmat legal and regulatory environment
  • Risk management
  • Hazmat transportation incident management
  • Security of hazmat transportation shipments
  • Hazmat transportation workforce development

What Is a Hazardous Material?
  • A substance or material, that when transported in
    commerce, is capable of posing an unreasonable
    risk to
  • Health
  • Safety
  • Property
  • Environment

Source PHMSA, USDOT, July 2012.
PHMSA Hazmat Classification System
  • Class 1 Explosives
  • 1.1 Explosives with a mass explosion hazard
  • 1.2 Explosives with a projection hazard
  • 1.3 Explosives with predominately a fire hazard
  • 1.4 Explosives with no significant blast hazard
  • 1.5 Very insensitive explosives blasting agents
  • 1.6 Extremely insensitive detonating substances
  • Class 2 Gas
  • 2.1 Flammable gas
  • 2.2 Non-flammable compressed gas
  • 2.3 Poisonous gas
  • Class 3 Flammable Combustible Liquid
  • Class 4 Flammable Solid
  • 4.1 Flammable solid
  • 4.2 Spontaneously combustible material
  • 4.3 Dangerous when wet material
  • Class 5 Oxidizing Agent Organic Peroxide
  • 5.1 Oxidizer
  • 5.2 Organic peroxide
  • Class 6 Toxic Infectious Substance
  • 6.1 Poisonous material
  • 6.2 Infectious substance (Etiologic agent)
  • Class 7 Radioactive Material
  • Class 8 Corrosive Material
  • Class 9 Miscellaneous Hazardous Material

Note Gasoline and fuel oil are considered Class
3 materials liquefied natural gas and compressed
natural gas are considered Class 2 materials.
Hazardous Materials and Societal Needs
  • More than 70,000 chemicals are used regularly
    around the world.
  • They are used to produce almost everything we
  • Some of these hazardous materials are finished
    products while others are used as ingredients in
    producing these products.

Sample Products Made From Hazardous Materials
  • Building insulation
  • Automobile parts
  • Compact fluorescent bulbs
  • Coolant systems
  • Plastic packaging
  • Solar panels
  • Batteries
  • Diesel additives
  • Detergents
  • Paper
  • Air filters
  • Oil spill absorbents, booms and skimmers
  • Drugs and vaccines
  • Medical devices
  • Fertilizers
  • Safe drinking water
  • Clothing
  • Computer parts
  • Soft drinks

Source American Chemistry Council
Hazmat Transportation Logistics
  • The transportation of hazardous materials is a
    major shipping activity involving many freight
    modes and service providers.
  • The majority of shipments are made by truck, with
    pipeline, rail and waterway trips representing
    longer-haul and larger bulk movements.
  • Hazardous cargo takes on many forms, with unique
    material properties that require different types
    of packaging.
  • A variety of operational issues, particularly
    involving shippers and carriers, must be
    considered from a logistics perspective.

Generalized Supply Chain Flow Chart
Manufacturer Output/Raw Materials
  • Transportation
  • Truck (Highway)
  • Rail
  • Water/Ocean
  • Air
  • Pipeline

Hazmat Transportation Modes
Various Types of Hazmat Packaging
Special Containers
Economic Considerations Dry Cargo Capacity
Efficiencies Among Surface Transportation
Source C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal
Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation
Effects on the General Public 2001-2009,
Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways,
Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas,
2012, p. 2. Prepared for the National Waterways
Foundation. 1750 Short Tons is the standard dry
bulk cargo capacity for a single barge.
Economic Considerations Liquid Cargo Capacity
Efficiencies Among Surface Transportation
Source C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal
Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation
Effects on the General Public 2001-2009,
Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways,
Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas,
2012, p. 2. Prepared for the National Waterways
Foundation. 27,500 BBL is the standard liquid
bulk cargo capacity for a single barge.
Economic Considerations Fuel Efficiency
Comparisons Among Surface Transportation
Ton-Miles per Gallon of Fuel
Source C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal
Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation
Effects on the General Public 2001-2009,
Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways,
Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas,
2012, p. 5. Prepared for the National Waterways
Environmental Considerations Greenhouse Gas
Emission Comparison Among Surface Transportation
Metric Tons of GHG per Million Ton-Miles (2005
Source C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal
Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation
Effects on the General Public 2001-2009,
Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways,
Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas,
2012, p. 5. Prepared for the National Waterways
Foundation. GHG is Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
U.S. Freight Transportation Infrastructure
  • Roads
  • Over 4 million miles of public roads
  • 164,000 miles of roads comprising the National
    Highway System, including over 47,000 miles of
  • Rail
  • Over 250,000 miles of track, including yards,
    sidings and parallel lines
  • Nearly 95,000 miles of Class I railroad track
  • Waterway
  • Over 13,000 miles of inland waterways, including
    rivers and Great Lakes
  • Nearly 300 major commercial ports
  • Pipeline
  • Roughly 1.7 million miles of oil and gas
  • Air
  • Over 13,000 airports

Sources FHWA Freight Facts and Figures 2011,
North American Transportation Statistics Database
U.S. Hazardous Material Shipment Characteristics
  • Over 2.2 billion tons of hazardous materials are
    transported every year, valued at over 1.4
  • This corresponds to 323 trillion ton-miles of
    hazmat cargo moved annually
  • The average trip distance of these shipments is
    96 miles.
  • Hazmat transportation represents roughly 18 of
    total tons transported by freight industry and
    accounts for nearly 10 of the ton-miles.

Source 2007 Commodity Flow Survey
Considerations in Transporting Hazardous Materials
  • Efficiency
  • Move hazardous cargo so as to minimize travel
    time and cost
  • Reliability
  • Deliver hazmat shipments on schedule
  • Safety
  • Avoid incidents (including accidents),
    particularly those that could cause a hazmat
  • Respond effectively when incidents do occur
  • Security
  • Prevent hazmat from being purposely used as a
    weapon or detonating device
  • Environmental Protection
  • Limit air, land, water and noise pollution

Factors Affecting Hazmat Mode Choice
  • Travel time and service reliability
  • Total logistics costs
  • Safety and security
  • Shipment size and weight
  • Hazardous materials properties and composition
  • Container characteristics
  • Availability of infrastructure access/egress
  • Equipment availability
  • Local restrictions (e.g., bridges, tunnels,
    highway weights)
  • Intermodal considerations

Route Selection Factors
  • Efficiency
  • Trip length
  • Travel time
  • Availability of diversion route
  • Access to enroute storage and repair facilities
  • Safety Security
  • Condition of infrastructure
  • Height, width, weight and traffic conflict
  • Accident likelihood
  • Population exposure
  • Number of transfers
  • Proximity to critical infrastructure and iconic
  • Emergency response capability
  • Safe stopping places
  • Environmental
  • Wildlife and vegetation exposure
  • Soil composition
  • Proximity to surface and ground water

Hazmat Legal and Regulatory Environment
  • The hazmat regulations (HMR)are both
    comprehensive and complex, and cover all aspects
    preparing and executing hazmat shipments.
  • Shippers, carriers, and all other parties
    involved in making hazmat shipments must comply
    with the HMR and other regulations.
  • Regulations are regularly updated and changed
    therefore, one must access them frequently to
    stay in compliance.
  • The packaging and handling regulations guard
    against accidental release of hazmat during
    storage and transport.
  • The extensive regulations on shipping papers,
    marking, labeling, and placarding are designed to
    facilitate hazard communication.
  • Enforcement of the hazmat regulations is a joint
    effort of multiple agencies.

Hazmat Transportation Regulations
  • Primarily contained in the Code of Federal
    Regulations, 49 CFR Parts 171-180.
  • Specify requirements for the safe transportation
    of hazardous materials in commerce by rail car,
    aircraft, vessel, motor vehicle and pipeline.
  • Apply to any person involved in functions related
    to the transportation of hazardous materials.
  • Prescribe requirements for classification,
    packaging, hazard communication, incident
    reporting, handling and transportation
    of hazardous materials.
  • State, local and tribal regulations may also be
    enacted providing that they do not conflict with
    Federal regulations.

The Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR)
  • 49 CFR 171 through 180
  • 171 General information, regulations,
  • and definitions
  • 172 Hazardous materials table, special
  • provisions, hazmat communications,
  • emergency response, training
  • 173 Shippers and packaging
  • 174 Carriage by rail
  • 175 Carriage by aircraft
  • 176 Carriage by vessel
  • 177 Carriage by public highway
  • 178 Specs for packaging
  • 179 Specs for tank cars
  • 180 Continuing qualification and
  • maintenance of packagings

Source PHMSA, USDOT, July 2012.
Other Regulatory Requirements, Standards, and
  • DOD Military shipments
  • DOE/NRC Nuclear materials
  • STB Commercial transportation
  • OSHA Worker health and safety
  • NLRB Organized labor
  • NFPA First responder safety and health
  • USDA Invasive species
  • State-level hazmat compliance programs

Risk Management
  • Hazmat transportation events occur that put
    people, property, and the environment at risk
  • Many incidents are minor
  • Risk management can be used to minimize the
    impacts of these incidents
  • Even at best, risk management cannot prevent
    every incident
  • Risk management includes identification,
    analysis, evaluation, and monitoring
  • Risk analysis can be either qualitative or
  • Multiple tools and programs exist that can assist
    with risk management efforts

Potential Impacts of a Hazmat Release
  • Human health
  • Acute fatality/injury
  • Reproductive failure and birth defect
  • Cancer
  • Impaired immune system
  • Respiratory illness
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Effects of contaminated drinking water
  • Environment
  • Crop and vegetation destruction
  • Damage to fish/birds/mammals and their habitats
  • Endangered species and loss of plant/animal
  • Soil degradation
  • Disruption of food chain
  • Water contamination

Impact severity will depend on the duration and
rate of exposure (dose) and the manner in which
the recipient reacts when subjected to that dose
Incident vs. Accident
  • Accident used to describe things that happen
  • Incident - has a wider meaning and can be used
    both for accidents and for intentional actions
    such as crimes.
  • Note Accidents are considered a subset of

Hazmat Incident Occurrences
  • Many incidents occur each year in all modes of
    transportation with varying degrees of severity
  • Many are minor and do not make headlines

Source PHMSA
Hazardous Materials Transportation Incidents,
Injuries and Fatalities 2011
  • Less than 10 of large truck shipments include
    hazmat as all or part of the cargo load.
  • In contrast, less than 5 of large truck
    accidents involve trucks carrying hazmat.

Highway 12,801
Accident related 332
Injuries 129
Fatalities 11
Rail 743
Accident related 40
Injuries 20
Fatalities 1
Air 1,400
Accident related 2
Injuries 7
Fatalities 0
Water 71
Accident related 0
Injuries 8
Fatalities 0
Pipeline 596
Injuries 60
Fatalities 14
Notes Accident -related excludes human errors and package failures. Water data are for incidents involving packaged materials only and do not include incidents where the vessel is the container (e.g., a barge or oil tanker). Non-pipeline reporting requirements changed in 2002.
Source, Accident/Incident Summary Statistics, available at http//
2011 Hazmat Incidents by Material Type
Material Percent of Total
Flammable-combustible liquid 48.9
Corrosive material 24.8
Combustible liquid 6.7
Non-flammable compressed gas 3.6
Oxidizer 3.5
Flammable gas 2.2
Poisonous material 2.2
Other 8.1
Source PHMSA
Hazmat Incidents by Transport Phase
Source PHMSA
What are Risks and How do we Manage Them?
  • Risk - The potential for an unwanted outcome
    resulting from an incident as determined by its
    likelihood and the associated consequences.
  • Risk Management - A process for identifying,
    assessing and reducing risks to public safety and
    security, environmental quality and economic
    well-being or a method for prioritizing risk
    management needs and evaluating risk control

Fundamental Questions of Risk Management
  • What can go wrong?
  • How likely is it?
  • What are the consequences?
  • How can we use available resources to most
    effectively control undesirable risks?

Types of Risks Associated with Hazmat Transport
  • Operational
  • Failed procedures
  • Improper packaging
  • Information Systems
  • Improper tracking, marking or documentation
  • Environmental
  • Population/carrier/environmental exposure
  • Human Resource
  • Unqualified drivers/handlers
  • Security
  • Theft or malicious acts
  • Reputational
  • Bad corporate reputation
  • Loss of customers

Hazmat Transport Risk Factors
  • Vehicle
  • Configuration, weight
  • Operator
  • Age, experience, condition, training, valid
  • Packaging
  • Type, age, protection
  • Infrastructure and equipment
  • Type, condition, use
  • Situational
  • Speed, weather, lighting, time-of-day,
    maneuvering, impact location

Source Battelle, Hazardous Materials
Transportation Incident Data for Root Cause
Analysis, HMCRP Report 1
The Corporate Risk Pyramid Varying Levels of RM
Increasing involvement investment
PHMSAs Stepwise Approach to Risk Management for
Hazardous Materials Transport
Source http//
Risk Heat Map A Way to Rank and Prioritize Risks
Very High High High Very High Very High
High Medium Medium High Very High
Medium Low Medium Medium High
Low Low Low Medium High
Low Medium High Very High
Risk Reduction Strategies
  • Reduce likelihood of an incident occurring
  • Avoid routes with poor terrain or known hazards
  • Train employees on proper handling and packaging
  • Regularly inspect packages and vehicles/vessels
  • Reduce potential consequences if an incident
  • Avoid routes that pass through highly populated
    or environmentally sensitive areas
  • Train employees to contain spills quickly
  • Have well documented emergency procedures
  • Proved PPE to employees to minimize exposure
    during leakage
  • Keep spill cleanup equipment on vehicles/vessels
    at all times

Risk Communication Roles and Responsibilities
  • Risk communication is necessary at various times
    in a hazmat shipments lifetime
  • Prior to an event
  • During an event (response)
  • Following an event (recovery)
  • Multiple stakeholders (audiences) are involved at
    each stage and require certain information
  • Internal stakeholders
  • Business partners (e.g., shippers, carriers,
  • Regulators
  • Emergency responders
  • Potentially impacted communities
  • Media

Hazmat Transportation Incident Management
  • The adverse consequences of incidents depend on
    decisions and actions during incident management.
  • Hazmat transportation incident response requires
    a structured but flexible approach.
  • While incident response is primarily a local
    responsibility, national procedures apply and
    resources are available. Mutual aid can be
  • Successful incident management requires
    coordination among many stakeholders, including
    first responders, fire services, hazmat response
    teams, emergency managers, carriers and shippers.
  • An all-hazards approach that includes mitigation,
    preparedness, response, recovery and prevention
    helps ensure success.
  • Hazmat transportation incidents often require
    specialized equipment, highly trained personnel,
    effective leadership and difficult decisions.

Goal Minimize Adverse Consequences
Accident human error equipment, packaging, or
infrastructure failure purposeful act weather
combinations of factors
Initial injuries or fatalities property or
environmental damage other damages/costs
Leak, spill, fire, explosion, exposure,
Final Consequences
Injuries and fatalities property or
environ-mental damage other damages/costs
Incident Management
minutes, hours, days, weeks
Potential Consequences
Category Description
Injuries and fatalities Transportation workers, incident responders, general public direct and indirect (e.g., stress, secondary crashes)
Property damage Damage to vehicles (carriers and others), transportation infrastructure, utilities, neighborhoods, businesses, public facilities
Environmental damage Air, ground and/or water contamination with immediate or extended impacts on human health, flora, and/or fauna
Product loss Loss of the material/product being transported
Emergency response Costs to emergency responders and, for major events, other state and federal agencies, NGOs, and private sector responders
Evacuation/ disruption Costs to people displaced from homes, schools, businesses interference with normal community activities loss of business and earnings potential for regional economic impacts
Transportation system impacts Costs for lost time, missed schedules, wasted resources, increased operating costs for transportation system users
Cleanup Costs of decontamination removal of absorbed material, damaged equipment, and other debris disposal
Intangibles Loss of credibility with investors, customers, partners, regulators, employees, media, and others
Every Incident is Different
  • Properties and hazards of material involved (if
  • Types of equipment and extent of damage
  • Weather (temperature, precipitation, visibility,
  • Topography, natural environment, built
  • Proximity of sensitive land uses
  • Responder capabilities and access to the scene
  • Proximity of emergency medical care
  • Useful source Emergency Response Guidebook

More likely, less severe
Less likely, more severe
Incident Stakeholders
  • Carrier
  • Shipper
  • Fire and rescue
  • Law enforcement
  • Towing and recovery
  • Emergency medical
  • Hazmat response team
  • Hazmat cleanup contractor
  • Emergency managers
  • Environmental agencies
  • Public works
  • Utility companies
  • Truck driver, train/marine/aviation crew, other
    operating personnel
  • Operators/occupants of other involved
  • Transportation infrastructure owner/operator
  • Other transportation system users
  • Impacted neighborhoods, schools, businesses, and
    other land uses
  • Insurers
  • News media
  • Other (e.g., 911 National Response Center
    elected officials LEPCs and SERCs USDOT, USCG,
    EPA, NRC, DOD, and other federal and state
    agencies industry organizations)

Bold private sector Red public
sector Italics/blue public and/or private
All-Hazards Approach
Mitigation Activities taken to avoid or reduce
the severity or consequences of an
emergency Preparedness Activities, tasks,
programs and systems developed and implemented
prior to an emergency . . . to support
prevention, mitigation, response and
recovery Response Immediate and ongoing
activities, tasks, programs and systems to
manage the effects of an incident that threatens
life, property, operations or the
environment Recovery Activities and programs . .
. to return conditions to a level that is
acceptable to the entity
Definitions from NFPA 1600, Standard on
Disaster/Emergency Management and Business
Continuity Programs
NRF provides structure and mechanisms for
national-level policy for incident management
NIMS provides the template for the management of
ICS is to organize on-scene operations for a
broad spectrum of emergencies from small to
complex incidents
Response and Recovery Transitions
Infrastructure owners/operators, public works,
utility companies, environmental organizations,
. land use planners and boards,
Fire services, EMS, HMRTs, law enforcement,
emergency managers, and supporting agencies
(perhaps National Guard, Coast Guard, other state
and federal agencies, mutual aid)
schools, other institutions, home owners,
businesses, chambers, .. economic developers,
land owners, attorneys, banks, . . .
Relative Responsibilities
Elected officials
hours, days
days, weeks
Short-Term Recovery
weeks, months, years
Long-Term Recovery
Security of Hazmat Transportation Shipments
  • Hazmat shipments and facilities are a security
    concern because of their potential to be used as
    means of attacking other targets.
  • Measures that improve cargo security in general
    are equally applicable to hazmat shipment
  • The most effective security enhancement
    procedures are multi-layered systems that address
    each aspect of vulnerability.
  • En route security is challenging due to the many
    uncontrolled factors involved.
  • Industry and government are cooperating to
    enhance hazmat security.

Focus Areas for Securing Assets in Transport
  • Maintain chain of custody
  • Confirm security practices of partners in chain
  • Verify credentials of personnel in chain
  • Verify controlled physical access to assets
  • Emergency preparedness/resilience/redundancy

Chronology of Security Needs
Source FMCSA
Types of Security Technologies
  • Communication
  • Panic buttons
  • Driver identification and authentication
  • Electronic supply chain manifest
  • Remote vehicle disabling
  • Remote cargo door locks
  • Electronic cargo seals
  • Geofencing
  • Cargo tracking
  • Public sector reporting

Hazmat Transportation Workforce Development
  • The volume of hazardous materials carried by the
    U.S. transportation network will continue to
    increase, as will the employment demand.
  • Educational programs should be available for post
    secondary students through graduate school to
    develop awareness, knowledge and skills related
    to hazmat transportation.
  • As most hazardous materials transportation
    positions are filled from within an organization,
    education and training opportunities must be
    provided to maintain knowledge levels and support
    staff promotion and retention.
  • Given these diverse needs, a hazmat
    transportation curriculum tool kit that is
    comprehensive yet adaptable should be maintained
    and broadly disseminated.

Transportation Work Force Challenges
  • Competitive labor market within transportation
    industry and among other industry sectors
  • Demographic changes in the work force
  • Introduction of new technologies

Source NCHRP Report 685, Strategies to Attract
and Retain a Capable Transportation Workforce,
Multiple Responsibilities of Hazmat
Transportation Workforce
  • Training
  • Logistics
  • Package design
  • Regulatory enforcement
  • Safety
  • Risk analysis
  • Incident response
  • Represent organization in professional forums

Alternative Career Paths in Hazardous Materials
  • Engineering
  • Environmental
  • Chemical
  • Civil and environmental
  • Mechanical
  • Systems
  • Industrial
  • Environmental and health science
  • Chemistry
  • Business
  • Supply chain and logistics
  • Management/business administration
  • Information science
  • Other (e.g., agriculture, construction, military)

Retention and Promotion
  • This is key as most positions are filled from
    within organizations.
  • Offer education and training opportunities,
    specifically in areas such as transportation
    basics, environmental science, and chemistry.
  • Provide opportunities for professional growth and
  • Advanced degrees
  • Professional certification
  • Executive management training
  • Membership and involvement in professional

Key Takeaways
  • Hazardous materials are an essential part of
    producing goods that meet societys needs.
  • Thousands of different types of hazardous cargo
    are shipped as part of the hazardous materials
    life cycle, moved across an extensive network by
    truck, rail, waterway, air and pipeline.
  • While it is important that these shipments are
    made efficiently and reliably - safety, security
    and environmental protection are significant
    considerations. This applies to both incident
    prevention and mitigating the consequences of an
    incident should one occur.
  • Federal, state, local, tribal and international
    standards and regulations have been established
    to promote trips that are incident free or
    successfully mitigated should an event occur.
  • Developing and retaining a qualified workforce
    for hazardous materials transportation is a
    continuous challenge.

Student Exercise
  • Prepare a two-page memo describing
  • How chlorine is used in our society to meet our
  • The manner in which it is packaged and
  • The potential health effects of chlorine exposure
  • The consequences of a particular incident that
    occurred in the past involving the release of
    chlorine while the shipment was in transport

Resources for Support and Additional Learning
  • Other Course Modules
  • Hazmat transportation logistics
  • Hazmat legal and regulatory environment
  • Mode and route selection
  • Risk management
  • Hazmat transportation incident management
  • Security of hazmat transportation shipments
  • Hazmat transportation workforce development issues