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Early History of Entomology in Egypt


Title: Early History of Entomology in Egypt Author: ham Last modified by: ahmedazab NRC Created Date: 1/10/2004 12:19:46 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early History of Entomology in Egypt

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Biotechnology Research in Egyptian Institutions
by H. S. A. Salama National Research

  • Biotechnology can be an efficient catalyst in
    improving the economy of the country and ensuring
    a better quality of life for all. Biotechnology
    is always giving the impression that its
    potential impact on medicine and human health
    care , industry and agriculture is almost
    limitless.Miracle drugs for cancer, heart attacks
    , Alzheimer's disease and other incurable
    diseases are already on hands or soon to be

In Egypt Research and development has been
possible through a network of Universities , and
Research Institutes. Institutions concerned with
Biotechnology Research are Agricultural
Research Centre with 16 institutes including an
institute for Agricultural Biotechnology
An institute for vaccines, antibiotics, and
enzymes production (Ministry of Health). A
Centre of Biotechnology including labs. for
agricultural, industrial and medical
biotechnology (GERC) (Cairo Univers)
  • A Centre of GE. B including 4 Labs. for tissue
    culture, molecular biology and tissue culture(
    Ain Shams Univers.)
  • Labs. of GE. B. concerned with agricultural,
    industrial and environmental research
    (Alexandria, Suez Canal and Menia Univers.)
  • A Centre of GE. B. (Menoufia Univers.)
    concerned with agricultural and medical research

A multidisciplinary National Research Centre
having departments concerned with agricultural ,
industrial and medical biotechnology. Mubarak
City for Scientific Research including an
institute for Biotechnology (GEBRI)
  • Theodor Bilharziasis research institute
    including labs. for immunology, biochemistry and
    therapeutical chemistry.
  • NAMRU-3 concerned with immunology and diagnosis
    of infectious diseases research.

Biotechnology Research in Universities

In the Universities there exist satellites
(centers and labs.) mainly concerned with
Biotechnology research. Various successful
achievements in this area have been recorded .
Departments and special courses for teaching
Biotechnology at the undergraduate level have
also been established since 1996.
Research related to Genetic Engineering and
Biotechnology at the National Research Centre.
  • Among the Egyptian research institutes, the
    multidisciplinary National Research Centre ( NRC
    ) of Cairo is heavily engaged with research in
    fields related to GE B. in the areas of
    Agriculture, Medicine, Health and Industry .

  • This Centre (NRC) is the largest and most
    competent Research Institution in Egypt which
    can support multidisciplinary research programs
    in the field of GE B. It was established in
    1956 as a national center to conduct

basic and applied research of national interest
in its 13 main research divisions and 107
research departments and these are
  • 1- Agricultural and Biological Research Division
  • 2-Food Industries and Nutrition Research Division
  • 3- Pharmaceutical Industries Research Division
  • 4- Environmental Sciences Research Division

  • 5- Medical Sciences Research Division
  • 6- Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
    Research Division
  • .
  • 7- Human Genetics and Genome Research Division
  • 8- Veterinary Research Division
  • 9-Engineering Research Division

  • 10- Chemical Industries Research Division
  • 11- Inorganic Chemical Industries and Mineral
    Resources Research Division
  • 12- Physics Research Division
  • 13- Textile Industries Research Division

  • Over 2200 research scientists (with Ph. D.
    degree) supported by 3500 research assistants,
    technicians , and administration staff are
    engaged in research and development in this
    Centre .

  • The NRC occupies an area of 15 acres on which
    laboratories, pilot plants, fermentors, green
    houses, central services laboratory , growth
    chambers, excellent library, documentation
    centre, instrumentation centre and computer
    services are located.

  • Activities in the area of Biotechnology run
    along the following lines

  • 1-Plant Biotechnology
  • classical genetics for breeding with high
    yielding , early maturing , pest resistant and
    high protein crops. Techniques of plant tissue,
    cell and organ cultures are now well developed.
    In vitro propagation of banana, potato,
    strawberry , date palm , mulberry , artichoke and
    ornamental plants .

  • Also In vitro production of secondry
    metabolites such as tropane alkaloids and
    antineoplastic alkaloids.Molecular
    characterization and finger printing of plants,
    plant improvement through gene transfer and
    preservation of plant genetic resources represent
    a part of the current activities .

  • 2- Biofertilisers
  • Transfer of the characteristics of N
    fixation by Rhizobium to non legumes is
    carried out. Production of biological
    fertilizers for various crops is highly
    successful. The prospects for improved
    agriculture by use of microbial inoculants are
    good leading to better yield, lower costs. and
    reduced dependence on chemicals.

  • 3- Biopesticides
  • Development of microbial pesticides for pest
    control to reduce environmental pollution
    Examples are Bacillus thuringiensis and virus
    diseases which play a great role in insect

  • 4- Cytogenetics and Genetic Toxicology
  • Effect of pesticides in inducing chromosome
    aberrations in bone marrow , micronuclei in
    polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow and
    sister chromatid exchange.

  • 5- Bio-fuel research
  • Municipal digesters used in the treatment of
    municipal sewage sludge , with the evolved gases
    satisfying part of the energy needs of the
    municipal treatment plant.

  • 6- Veterinary medicine
  • Preparation of vaccines against endemic
    diseases that affect both animals and humans.
    Studies to speed up genetic improvement of farm
    animals and to increase production using
    embryo cloning and sexing and production of
    genetic mosaics

  • 7-Fermentation technology
  • Production of cell matter or biomass of cell
    components, metabolites . Use of molasses and
    ricebran to produce ethanol , acetic acid , ethyl
    acetate, butyl acetate , acetone and butanol by
    fermentation . Production of bulk chemicals such
    as citric acid (Aspergillus niger ), lactic acid
    (Lactobacillus spp. ) is progressing .

  • 8- Enzyme production
  • Preparation of new enzymes from different
    organisms and also medicinal kits for diagnosis
    of human diseases. Research on microbial and
    plant enzymes of significant importance in
    various industries .

  • 9- Antibiotic production
  • Isolation, identification and
    characterization of new antibiotics from Egyptian
    environment. Production of conventional
    antibiotics required for combating common
    bacterial and fungal infections prevalent in the
    middle east area .

  • 10- Biomedical Technology
  • Development and use of molecular cloning and
    nucleic acid analysis techniques for infectious
  • Defining some genes suffering functional
    disorders during the process of carcinogenesis .
  • Utilization of biochemical and immunological
    techniques in production of diagnostic kits for
    various diseases .

  • 11- Recombinant DNA technology in the diagnosis
    of hemoglobinopathies
  • Use of genetic engineering (DNA) probe for
    accurate diagnosis of prevalent genetic
    disorders, its use in prenatal detection of
    diseases that cannot be diagnosed otherwise.

  • ( e. g. thalessaemias and other
  • haemoglobinopathies and leuchenne muscular
    dystrophy). Highly qualified research staff in
    clinical genetics, human cytogenetics,
    biochemical genetics , prenatal diagnosis and
    population genetics.

  • Research on mental retardation, chromosomal
    aberration, primary amenorrhea, male infertility,
    intersex problems, inborn errors of metabolism,
    multiple malformations and recurrent abortions.
    There is an outpatient unique clinic receiving
    patients with genetic disorders referred by
    specialists from all over Egypt.

Scientific manpower at NRC
  • NRC has qualified and experienced
    scientific manpower resources in all fields
    including those related to GE B. i. e. genetics
    (plant, animal, human) biochemistry,
    microbiology, virology, physiology, plant and
    animal breeding, food technology, industrial

medical physics, biophysics, tissue culture,
mammalian cell culture, cell physiology,
molecular biology, biological pesticides .etc.
Many scientists have been educated in well
reputed European , American and Canadian
Foreign Cooperation
  • NRC has signed several bi lateral, and
    international agreements with developed and
    developing countries, some international
    organizations and the International Centre for GE
    and Biotechnology. This include joint research
    projects, exchange of information and scholars,
    training, etc.

  • Mubarak City for Scientific Research - Genetic
    Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute
    (GEBRI )
  • -It aims to develop new solutions for medical
    pharmaceutical, industrial and environmental
    problems through molecular biotechnological
    techniques .
  • -Designed to cover advanced biotechnological RD
    in the Biodiversity, Bioinformatics ,

  • -Germplasm conservation , production of novel
    biotechnology products, genomics,
  • -Stem cell technology and tissue engineering.
  • It consists of 6 departments
  • -Nucleic Acids Research .
  • -Environmental Biotechnology .
  • -Medical Biotechnology .
  • -Bioproces development and Pilot Plant .
  • -Pharmaceutical Bioproducts .
  • -Protien Research .

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