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WORLD HISTORY THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE

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Title: WORLD HISTORY THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE Author: Malcolm & Sandy Butler Last modified by: DCSS Created Date: 10/15/2006 11:01:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WORLD HISTORY THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE


1
WORLD HISTORYTHE HUMAN EXPERIENCE
  • CHAPTER ONE(1)
  • HUMAN BEGINNINGS

2
Major Themes of Ch. One(1)
  • Movement Migrations of prehistoric people result
    in there spread throughout the world
  • Innovation Early humans produce tools and
    domesticate animals as well as crops.
  • Change The earliest civilizations begin with the
    evolution of farming into the construction and
    population of the first cities.

3
Section One(1)
  • Discovery of Early Humans In Africa
  • Objective To find out how have recent
    archeological finds contributed to our
    understanding of human origins.

4
  • Thanks to research using the best available
    technology, anthropologist have believe they have
    traced their findings of the first humanlike
    creatures to about 4.4 million years ago. These
    remains belong to a group of beings, called
    hominids.
  • Thanks to research using the best available
    technology, anthropologist have believe they have
    traced their findings of the first humanlike
    creatures to about 4.4 million years ago. These
    remains belong to a group of beings, called
    hominids.

Some of the found artifacts even include objects
that were shaped by human hands, such as tools,
pots, and beads.
5
Dating Early Artifacts
  • One big problem with researching findings is
    determining is age.
  • To perform such a task, archaeologists,
    anthropologists, and paleontologist use a process
    called radioactive carbon dating.
  • Another process they use is the testing of DNA
    to form links between todays people and
    prehistoric ancestors.

6
Prehistoric Finds In Africa
  • DISCOVERY OF LUCY
  • In 1974, the skeleton of a hominid named Lucy,
    was discovered by two scientists, Tom Gray and
    Donald C. Johnson.
  • Lucy was thought to be as old as 3.2 million
    years old.
  • Lucys skeleton was the most in tact and complete
    skeleton found from her time.

7
A THEORY
  • No one actually knows for sure when the first
    humans lived but some scholars believe the first
    hominids date back to about 4.4 million years ago.

8
INSIDE THE THEORY
  • Known as Australopithecus, these hominids stood
    between 3 ½ and 5 feet tall and walked on two
    legs.
  • They were nicknamed southern ape
  • They had large faces, large teeth, flat noses and
    small brains.

9
Groups of Humans
  • There are more than one group of hominids, and
    scientist have based all of there names off of
    one Latin root word, homo, meaning human.
  • First was Homo Habilis or person with ability.
  • Then came Homo Erectus or person who walks
    upright.
  • And last was Homo Sapiens or person who
    thinks.

10
Homo Habilis
  • Lived during the Paleolithic period
  • first to manufacture tools

11
Homo Erectus
  • Were hunter gatherers
  • Learned to make fire
  • Also learned to cook, keep warm, and scare away
    threatening animals

12
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
  • Many scientist believe that modern humans, or
    Homo Sapiens Sapiens originated in Africa some
    50,000 years ago.

13
Language
  • Early humans had no set language, instead they
    communicated using grunts and gestures.

14
SECTION TWO(2)THE APPEARANCE OF HOMO SAPIENS
Objective To find out what were the achievements
of the earliest humans.
15
THE NEANDERTHALS
  • There has been evidence found of Homo Sapiens
    that date back to about 200,000 years ago.
  • They are thought to be Neanderthals
  • Neanderthals stood about 5 ½ feet tall and were
    very muscular.

16
THEIR SKILLS
  • Were nomadic hunter-gatherers
  • Used fire for warmth and the cooking of food
  • Created stone knives and spear points
  • - created blades of such sort b chipping
    away small pieces of stone from the edges of
    larges stones

17
Neanderthal Ways Of life
  • Lived in small group of no less than 35 and no
    more than 50
  • Huddled together in caves or under the overhangs
    of cliffs

18
Cultures And Beliefs
  • The Neanderthals practiced medicine and cared for
    their sick and/or elderly. There is some evidence
    that the Neanderthals believed in life after
    death. They are known to have covered dead bodies
    with flowers, bury them in shallow graves, and
    leave food and other tools necessary for living
    in the afterlife.

19
Cro-Magnons
  • The earliest of them were the Cro-Magnons.
  • They were much taller than previous forms of
    humans.
  • Though they were more sophisticated, they still
    used many of the forms of survival from previous
    humans.

20
Technology
  • The Cro-Magnons made a major improvement in their
    techniques for living.
  • Made thinner and sharper cutting blades
  • Used bones, antler, and ivory to make new and
    more useful tools.

21
Accomplishments
  • One major technological advance made by the
    Cro-Magnons was the creations of art in the form
    of cave paintings.

22
Neolithic Revolution
  • The Neolithic Revolution was a period of
    improvement for early humans beings.
  • New environments began to blossom all ever the
    world and new ways of living made life a lot
    easier.
  • People gradually shifted from hunting and
    gathering food to producing it, making longer
    survival a more common goal.

23
Neo. Rev (contd)
  • Not only did the Neolithic Revolution take place
    very slowly, but different things happened at
    different times in different parts of the world,
    so no group was experiencing the same advances as
    another group.

24
The Dawn Of Agriculture
  • Archaeologist have found evidence of agriculture
    in the middle east dating back to as-far-as 8,000
    BC.
  • The crops that Neolithic people domesticated
    varied from place to place depending on the
    climate of a particular region.
  • Farming made life easier by bringing steady
    supplies of food, which allowed early humans to
    settle longer in one place.
  • Soon, nomads began to establish villages, which
    enabled more people to survive.
  • This caused a rise in world population.

25
Technological Advances
  • Farmers of the Neolithic period plowing land
  • They soon learned to train oxen to pull plows
    doing the work for them.
  • Things That Emerged
  • The practice of weaving textiles
  • Wheels for transportation
  • The hammering of metals (copper, lead, and gold)
    to make weapons and jewelry
  • Well-made fur and leather clothing

26
Section Three(3)Emergence Of Civilization
Objective To find out what economic, political,
and social changes resulted from the rise of
cities.
27
River Valley Civilizations
  • Slowly, villages began to form into complex
    societies
  • Many civilizations rose from settlements in river
    valleys like that of the Nile and Tigris
  • In civilizations, people began to learn trades to
    develop a system of specialized labor

28
The Economy Of A Civilization
  • Depended on farmers growing a surplus of food

29
First Irrigation Systems
  • One of the things that allowed farmers to produce
    such vast amounts of food was their irrigation
    system
  • These irrigation systems consisted of the human
    transport of water, then ditches and nearby
    rivers, then small canals and simple water
    reservoirs
  • To prevent flooding from the Nile River, farmers
    built dams and dikes to control waters that could
    possibly cause mass destruction

30
Specialized Labor
  • Men and women began to earn livings doing only
    one task instead of many because of the number of
    people in a civilization and because they could
    sell the extra food produced by farmers
  • Many people became artisans, jewelers, or metal
    workers

31
Cultural Diffusion
  • At first, farmers and artisans traded within
    their own community, but soon began traveling to
    nearby areas to exchange goods. Eventually they
    created a specialized class of traders called
    merchants, who began to handle trade routes, thus
    creating the first expeditions.
  • Some trade was conducted over land and some over
    water
  • People built rafts and boats to travel on rivers
  • Before long, rivers and seacoast became filled
    with sailing ships
  • Not only goods were exchanged, but so were ideas

32
Planning And Leadership
  • City residents depended on farmers for food
  • Farmers depended on city residents to did
    irrigations and maintain reservoirs
  • The first cities needed a way of supervising and
    protecting agriculture and trade
  • They instated government officials to oversee the
    collection, storage, and distribution of farming
    supplies because nomadic groups would repeatedly
    raid and pillage farms.
  • These officials would also direct labor forces
    needed for large scale construction projects

33
  • Soon, cities began to hire professional soldiers
    to guard their territory and trade routes
  • Now we have a complete civilization
  • A government
  • an army
  • an economy
  • and civilians
    to run it

34
Levels Of Social Standing
  • Archeological evidence proves that ancient cities
    had social classes.
  • Buried treasures
  • Religious government buildings at the cities
    center
  • The further you lived from the citys center, the
    less important you are

35
Invention Of Writing
  • Much of archeological evidence found is that of
    records kept by priest of wheat, cloth ,
    livestock, and items they may have received as
    religious sacrifice.
  • Priest used marks known as pictures, known as
    pictograms
  • Then they began to use marks and pictures to
    represent ideas and sound

36
  • Priestly records listed the individual men and
    women who were heads of households, landowners,
    and merchants.
  • Soon, the priest were also recording such
    information as the kings battle victories, along
    with legal codes, medical texts, and observation
    of the stars.

37
  • Now we have a complete civilization
  • A government
  • an army
  • an economy
  • a system of
    communication
  • and civilians to run it

38
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