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Manual Drivetrains and Axles Fourth Edition


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Title: Manual Drivetrains and Axles Fourth Edition

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OBJECTIVES After studying chapter 1 the reader
should be able to 1. Describe the role of
hybrid and alternative fuel vehicles in todays
society. 2. Identify carbon-based fuels. 3.
Describe how organic materials decompose into
carbon-based fuels, 4. Explain the difference
between carbon-based and noncarbon-based energy
sources. 5. Explain the Federal and California
Air Resources Board emission standards. 6. List
alternatives to carbon-based fuels. 7. List the
factors that will be needed to reduce the carbon
VEHICLES The purpose of manufacturing and
selling hybrid and alterative fuel vehicles is to
provide an alternative vehicle to the buyer who
wishes to reduce the use of our natural
resources. The use of hybrid and alternative
fuel vehicles will help the environment and
reduce the production of carbon dioxide by
reducing the amount of fuel used.
CARBON-BASED SOCIETY The term organic is applied
to anything that was alive at one time.
Throughout history most of the energy used in the
world is generated by burning organic fuel that
contains carbon (abbreviated C). The economy
that uses only carbon-based fuels is often
referred to as a carbon-based society. Carbon is
formed from materials that were once alive on the
earth including Plants that die and eventually
are turned into coal, oil, and natural
gas. Animal life of all types that also dies and
decays to form carbon fuels. The source of
carbon-based fuels is limited to the remains of
dead plants and animals and is therefore not a
limitless resource.
carbon-based biology, the basic energy storage
compounds are in carbohydrates where the carbon
atoms are linked by single bonds into a chain.
(For example, CO2 plus H2O plus sunlight and
chlorophyll CH2O O2). A carbohydrate is
oxidized (combined with oxygen) to release energy
(and waste products of water and carbon dioxide).
Plants release oxygen during photosynthesis and
animals, including humans, release carbon dioxide
when they exhale.
Chemistry of the Atmosphere When carbon is
burned, it combines with the oxygen in the air.
The atmosphere on earth has about 21 oxygen
abbreviated O2 (pronounced O two), about 78
nitrogen abbreviated N2 (pronounced N two), and
1 of many other gases.
Chemistry of Carbon-Based Fuels Organic
chemistry names chemicals according to the number
of carbon atoms that are in the element. The name
and number of the most commonly used carbon
elements include Methane one carbon atom.
Ethane two carbon atoms. Propane three
carbon atoms. Butane four carbon atoms.
Pentane five carbon atoms. Hexane six
carbon atoms. Heptane seven carbon atoms.
Octane eight carbon atoms. The carbon atoms
are attached to hydrogen atoms to form
hydrocarbons (abbreviated HC).
Chemistry of Carbon-Based Emissions When
carbon-based fuels are burned, the carbon and the
hydrogen from the fuel combines with the oxygen
and the nitrogen in the air to create many new
and often dangerous compounds including Carbon
monoxide (CO) - A colorless, odorless poisonous
gas Carbon dioxide (CO2) - An inert greenhouse
gas, which is thought to cause global
warming Hydrocarbons (HC)- This is simply
unburned fuel and is one of the components of
smog. (A term used to describe a condition that
looks like smoke and/or fog and therefore the
term smog).
federal Clean Air Act (CAA) was established in
1970 to create nationwide air quality standards
to protect public health. The CAA also granted
California, which has some of the worst air
quality in the nation, the authority to set its
own vehicle emission standards. Other states
began adopting the stricter California standards
beginning in 1990. Federal and California
tailpipe standards limit exhaust emissions of
five pollutants Hydrocarbons (HC) a component
of smog Nitrogen oxides (NOx) a lung irritant
and a component of smog Carbon monoxide (CO) a
colorless, odorless poisonous gas Particulate
matter (PM) for diesel vehicles only also
called soot Formaldehyde (HCHO) thought to be
a cancer-causing gas
Which Are the Green States? States that have
adopted the California emission standards are
usually called green states. Other states that
have adopted the California emission standards
include Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New
Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont,
Pennsylvania, Oregon, and Washington.
United States, emissions standards are managed by
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well
as some U.S. state governments. Some of the
strictest standards in the world are enforced in
California by the California Air Resources Board
Tier 1 and Tier 2 Federal emission standards
are grouped by Tier. All vehicles sold in the
United States must meet Tier 1 standards that
went into effect in 1994 and are the least
stringent. Additional Tier 2 standards have been
optional since 2001, and are currently being
phased in and are to be fully adopted by 2009.
The current Tier 1 standards are different
between automobiles and light trucks (SUVs,
pickup trucks, and minivans), but Tier 2
standards will be the same for both types.
TLEV Transitional Low Emission Vehicle More
stringent for HC than Tier 1. LEV (also known
as LEV I) Low Emission Vehicle, an intermediate
California standard about twice as stringent as
Tier 1 for HC and NOX. ULEV Ultra-Low Emission
Vehicle (also known as ULEV I), a stronger
California standard emphasizing very low HC
ULEV II Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle, a cleaner
than average vehicle certified under the Phase II
LEV standard. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide
emissions levels are nearly 50 lower than those
of a LEV II-certified vehicle.
SULEV- Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle, a
California standard even tighter than ULEV,
including much lower HC and NOX emissions
roughly equivalent to a Tier 2 bin 2 vehicles.
ZEV Zero Emission Vehicle, a California
standard prohibiting any tailpipe emissions.
PZEV Partial Zero-Emission Vehicle, compliant
with the SULEV standard additionally has
near-zero evaporative emissions and a
15-year/150,000-mile warranty on its emission
control equipment. Tier 2 standards are even
more stringent. Tier 2 variations are appended
with "II", such as LEV II or SULEV II. There are
other categories that have also been created.
ILEV Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle PZEV
Partial Zero Emission Vehicle
AT-PZEV Advanced Technology Partial Zero
Emission Vehicle If a vehicle that meets the
PZEV standards and is using high technology
features, such as an electric motor or
high-pressure gaseous fuel tanks for compressed
natural gas, it qualifies as an AT-PZEV. Hybrid
electric vehicles like the Toyota Prius can
qualify, as can internal combustion engine
vehicles that run on natural gas (CNG), such as
the Honda Civic GX. These vehicles are
classified as "partial" ZEV because they receive
partial credit for the number of ZEV vehicles
that automakers would otherwise be required to
sell in California. NLEV National Low
Emission Vehicle- all vehicles nationwide must
meet this standard which started in 2001.
PZEV rated vehicles meet SULEV emission
standards, but in addition must produce zero
evaporative emissions and have an extended
(15-year/150,000 mile) warranty on their
emission-control equipment. Many gasoline
vehicles from the 2001 and later model years meet
the standard for PZEV.
LEV Standard Categories (Numbers in parenthesis
are 100,000 mile standards for LEV I, and 120,000
mile standards for LEV II. NMOG means non-methane
organic gases, which includes alcohol. CO means
carbon monoxide. NOX means oxides of nitrogen.
PM means particulate matter, also known as soot.)
NMOG grams/mile CO grams/mile NOX grams/mile
LEV I (Cars) TLEV 0.125/0.156 3.4/4.2 0.4/0.6
LEV I (Cars) LEV 0.075/0.090 3.4/4.2 0.2/0.3
LEV I (Cars) ULEV 0.040/0.055 1.7/2.1 0.2/0.3
LEV II (Cars and Trucks lt 8,500 lbs) LEV 0.075/0.090 3.4/4.2 0.05/0.07
LEV II (Cars and Trucks lt 8,500 lbs) ULEV 0.040/0.055 1.7/2.1 0.05/0.07
LEV II (Cars and Trucks lt 8,500 lbs) SULEV --/0.010 --/1.0 --/0.02
California LEV II 120,000 mile tailpipe emissions
limits (Numbers in parenthesis are 100,000 mile
standards for LEV I, and 120,000 mile standards
for LEV II. NMOG means non-methane organic gases,
which includes alcohol. CO means carbon
monoxide. NOX means oxides of nitrogen. PM
means particulate matter, also known as soot.
The specification is in grams per mile (g/mi).)
Certification Level NMOG (g/mi) CO (g/mi) NOX (g/mi)
LEV-2 0.090 4.2 0.07
ULEV-2 0.055 2.1 0.07
SULEV 0.010 1.0 0.02
Federal EPA Bin Number The higher the Tier
number, the newer the regulation and the lower
the bin number, the cleaner the vehicle. The
2004 Toyota Prius is a very clean Bin 3, while
the Hummer H2 is a dirty Bin 11.
EPA Tier 2 -120,000 Mile Tailpipe Emission Limits
Certification Level NMOG (g/mi) CO (g/mi) NOX (g/mi)
Bin 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Bin 2 0.010 2.1 0.02
Bin 3 0.055 2.1 0.03
Bin 4 0.070 2.1 0.04
Bin 5 0.090 4.2 0.07
Bin 6 0.090 4.2 0.10
Bin 7 0.090 4.2 0.15
Bin 8a 0.125 4.2 0.20
Bin 8b 0.156 4.2 0.20
Bin 9a 0.090 4.2 0.30
Bin 9b 0.130 4.2 0.30
Bin 9c 0.180 4.2 0.30
Bin 10a 0.156 4.2 0.60
Bin 10b 0.230 6.4 0.60
Bin 10c 0.230 6.4 0.60
Bin 11 0.230 7.3 0.90
Note The bin number is determined by the type
and weight of the vehicle.
Air Pollution Score US EPA Vehicle Information Program (The higher the score, the lower the emissions.) Air Pollution Score US EPA Vehicle Information Program (The higher the score, the lower the emissions.)
Selected Emissions Standards Score
Bin 1 and ZEV 10
PZEV 9.5
Bin 2 9
Bin 3 8
Bin 4 7
Bin 5 and LEV II cars 6
Bin 6 5
Bin 7 4
Bin 8 3
Bin 9a and LEV I cars 2
Bin 9b 2
Bin 10a 1
Bin 10b and Tier 1 cars 1
Bin 11 0
Smog Emission Information New vehicles are
equipped with a sticker that shows the relative
level of smog causing emissions created by the
vehicle compared to others on the market. Smog
causing emissions include unburned hydrocarbons
(HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX).
California Standards The pre-2004 California Air
Resources Board (CARB) standards as a whole were
known as LEVI.  Within that, there were four
possible ratings which included Tier 1, TLEV,
LEV, and ULEV. The newest CARB rating system
(since January 1, 2004) is known as LEV II. 
Within that rating system there are three
primary ratings which include LEV, ULEV, and
SULEV.   States other than California are given
the option to run with the Federal EPA
standards, or they can adopt California's
EUROPEAN STANDARDS Europe has its own set of
standards that vehicles must meet and include the
following tiers Euro I (1992-1995) Euro II
(1995-1999) Euro III (1999-2005) Euro IV
(2005-2008) Euro V (2008)
GREENHOUSE GASES Greenhouse gases are those
gases in our atmosphere that block harmful
ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun but if in
too great a concentration can prevent heat from
escaping the surface, which leads to an increase
in the temperature on earth.
OZONE Ozone is composed of three atoms of oxygen
and is abbreviated O3. Ozone occurs naturally in
the atmosphere and can be detected by smell after
a thunderstorm. Ozone has a strong clean smell,
and in high concentrations, can be a lug and
respiratory irritant. Ozone can be created by
lightning, which breaks the molecular of oxygen
(O2) into atoms (O), which then combine back into
oxygen or combine to create ozone.
Upper level ozone. Ozone located in the upper
atmosphere (called the ozone layer) is helpful
because it helps block harmful ultraviolet rays
from the sun from entering the lower atmosphere.
Ground level ozone. Ozone that is located at
ground level or in the atmosphere close to the
earth is a health concern because it causes
breathing problems including Eye
irritation Asthma Shortness of breath Chest
tightness, Wheezing
Vehicles and ozone. Exhaust from vehicles causes
ground level ozone levels to increase because
unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen
(NOX) in the presence of sunlight combine to
create ozone, also called smog, which is a term
used to describe the smoke or fog-like appearance
of ground level ozone.
radiation is divided into three designations
based on their reaction to living organisms. The
designations include Designation A,
abbreviated UVA, is not absorbed by the ozone
layer and generally is not damaging to biological
organisms. Designation B, abbreviated UVB, is
only partially absorbed by the ozone layer and
can cause damage to biological organisms. Designat
ion C, abbreviated UVC, is almost completely
absorbed by the ozone layer and represents little
of any health concerns.
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Carbon dioxide that is generated as result of
human activity is known an anthropogenic
greenhouse gas.
KYOTO PROTOCOL A meeting in Kyoto Japan on
December 11, 1997 asked that countries
voluntarily agree to reduce their overall
emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5 per
cent below 1990 levels in the commitment period
2008 to 2012. The United States and Australia
signed this agreement but did not ratify it so
these countries are not held accountable for
reducing the amount of greenhouse gases produced.
Ozone gas (O3) in the earths upper atmosphere
filters ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) from the sun
before it reaches ground level. This process is
essential to life on earth because UV-B is
associated with skin cancers, eye cataracts, and
weakened immune systems. It can also reduce plant
yields. Certain man-made chemicals used in
refrigeration, air conditioning, fire and
explosion prevention and as solvents can trigger
reactions in the atmosphere that destroy the
ozone layer.
Ozone-depleting substances (ODS)
include Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Hydro
chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), Halons Methyl
ozone, a respiratory irritant, can cause
respiratory problems, including inflammation of
the lungs. Ozone exposure may lead to the
following conditions Premature death (due to
long-term exposure to high levels of
ozone) Shortness of breath Chest pain when
inhaling deeply Wheezing and coughing Another
health concern involves particulate matter (PM),
also called soot, which is found in the exhaust
of diesel engines. Particulate matter has been
linked to respiratory disease and cancer.
What Are Volatile Organic Compounds? Volatile
organic compounds, abbreviated VOC, are gases
emitted by paints, solvents, aerosol sprays,
cleaners, glues, permanent markers, pesticides,
as well as fuels. Health effects of VOC
emissions into the atmosphere include Eye, nose,
and throat irritation Headaches Nausea To reduce
the levels of volatile organic compounds
released, always follow the manufacturers
directions for use of household and industrial
ACID RAIN Acid rain refers to rain that has a pH
lower than 7, indicating that it is acidic.
Normal rain is pure water that is neither acidic
with a pH of less than 7, nor alkaline with a pH
greater than 7. Acid rain usually has a pH of
5.5 but can be as low as 4.3 according to the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The rain
becomes acidic due to gases in the atmosphere,
such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of
nitrogen (NOX). Sulfur dioxide combines with the
rain water to form mild sulfuric acid oxides of
nitrogen combines with rain water to form nitric
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Both acids are harmful to the environment and can
cause the following problems Damage to forests
and soils Damage to fish because the acid rain
makes lakes and streams more acidic Damage to
buildings and paint on vehicles Damage to roads
and sidewalks
CARBON FOOTPRINT The carbon footprint is a
representation of the effect a person or
organization has on the climate in terms of the
total volume of greenhouse gases (mostly carbon
dioxide) produced.
Reducing the Carbon Footprint The following is a
list of simple things you can do immediately,
which will start to reduce your contribution to
global warming. The items in this list will cost
you no money at all and will in fact save you
money. 1. Turn electrical devices off when not
in use, such as lights, television, DVD player,
stereo, and computer. 2. Turn down the
central heating slightly (try just 1 to 2
degrees). 3. Turn down the water heating
setting (just 2 degrees will make a significant
saving) 4. Check the central heating timer
setting - there is no point heating the house if
everyone is gone to work during the day.
5. Fill the dish washer and washing machine
with a full load - this will save you water and
electricity, as well as detergent. 6.
Unplug your cell phone as soon as it has finished
charging. 7. Defrost the freezer regularly if
not done automatically, consider disabling the
automatic function to save electricity. 8. Do
shopping in a single trip. 9. Walk, rather than
drive, to the gym. 10. Sign up with a green
energy supplier, who will supply electricity from
renewable sources (e.g. wind and
hydroelectric power). This will reduce the
carbon footprint contribution from energy
sources that use carbon-based fuels.
The following is a list of items that may take an
initial investment, but should pay for themselves
over the course of 1 to 4 years through savings
on your energy bills. 1. Install energy saving
light bulbs, such as compact florescent bulbs,
instead of incandescent bulbs. 2. Install
thermostatic valves on your radiators, if not
equipped. 3. Insulate the hot water tank. 4.
Insulate the sidewalls and ceiling of the
house.  5. Replace an old freezer, if it is over
15 years old, with a new one with a higher energy
efficiency rating. 6. Replace an older furnace
with a new energy-efficient unit. 7. Travel
less and travel more carbon footprint
friendly. 8. Carpool to work or school. 9. Use
the bus or a train rather than your vehicle. 10.
See if your employer will allow you to work from
home one day a week. 11. While on vacation,
rent a bicycle to explore locally rather than use
a rental vehicle. 12. When staying in a hotel,
turn the lights and air-conditioning off when you
leave your hotel room. 13. Ask for you room
towels to be washed every other day, rather than
every day.
Besides the primary carbon footprint, there is
also a secondary carbon footprint that has an
indirect effect caused by buying habits. 1.
Buying foods out of season at the super market
means that these will have to be shipped in from
far away, adding to your carbon footprint.  2.
Buy local wine rather from European countries,
Australia, or South Africa. 3. Buy local fruit
and vegetables, or grow a garden. 4. Try to buy
clothes and products from closer to home (avoid
items that are made in the distant lands such as
China and India).
In addition, there is a carbon footprint at work.
Do not leave the computer and monitor on when
you are away from your desk. Turn off the lights
when you leave the office. Try to avoid printing
unnecessary documents.  All of these activities
increase the carbon footprint. To decrease the
carbon footprint, consider doing the
following Plant trees Avoid cutting down
trees Drive less Drive a more fuel-efficient
vehicle, such as a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
Peak Oil Peak oil is a term used to define
when the worldwide crude oil production peaks and
starts to decline. Are we near peak oil? Some
experts think that we are at or near peak oil and
that from now on the oil supply for energy use is
on the decline.
GLOBAL WARMING In the past 300 billion years the
earths climate has fluctuated between warm
periods and cold periods. Ice age started 3
million years ago. Glaciers advanced and
retreated 20 times and they covered all of North
America. We are in a warm period between
glaciations, which peaked about 20,000 years ago.
Heat is trapped in the earths atmosphere. As
the gases increase, so does the heat.
The greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
include 1. Water vapor (H2O) 2. Carbon Dioxide
(CO2) 3. Methane (CH4) 4. Nitrous Oxide
(NOX) 5. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Carbon
dioxide increased 30 in the last 100 years and
methane doubled nitrous oxide has increased by
15 enhancing the heat trapping capability of
earths atmosphere. Global temperatures have
increased 0.5 to 1.0F since late 19th century.
In the 20th century, the 10 warmest years
occurred in last 15 years of the century with
1998 being the warmest year on record. This
increased global temperature has caused a rise in
sea level and more frequent and intense storm and
hurricanes due to the warmer ocean water, plus El
Nino events, which are the warming of the
equatorial Pacific Ocean.
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SUMMARY 1. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are
capable of providing better fuel economy than a
comparable size vehicle that uses an internal
combustion engine (ICE) alone. 2. Todays
society is based on the use of carbon-based
fuels, which are made from the remains of living
plants and animals. 3. Carbon atoms are
attached to hydrogen atoms to form hydrocarbons,
abbreviated HC). The Clean Air Act (CAA) was
created to establish standards to protect public
health. 4. The CAA established the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which in
turn established emission standards. 5.
Anthropogenic (man-mad) greenhouse gases (GHG)
are causing an increase in the concentration of
CO2 in the atmosphere. 6. The Kyoto Protocol
calls for countries to voluntarily reduce the
formation of greenhouse gases by at least 5
below 1990 levels. To help reduce the generation
of greenhouse gases, reduce the total amount of
fuel burned. 7. Global warming is thought to be
occurring and is likely to be caused by the
increased production of greenhouse gases.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What is the purpose or the
need for hybrid electric vehicles in todays
society? 2. What is meant by the term
carbon-based society? 3. What are
hydrocarbons? List eight hydrocarbons. 4. What
are the meanings of the following terms TLEV,
AT-PZEV? 5. Which type of ultraviolet radiation
is the most harmful to living organisms on
earth? 6. What are six things that a person can
do to reduce their carbon footprint?