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WWI

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Britain blockades Germany for its contraband. Later Britain took all of the goods that were supposed to go into Germany. (Food, cotton, medicine, gasoline) German ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WWI


1
WWI
2
  • 1st World War in history
  • Great War or War to End all War
  • Not called WWI until after WWII
  • Total war
  • Involved 60 nations and 6 continents

3
  • Cost of War
  • 400 billion
  • 10 million dollars an hour
  • 16 million deaths
  • First war of the Industrial Revolution
  • New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting

4
world map
5
The Real Causes of the War
  • Imperialism- European powers were going to all
    parts of the world to gain land.
  • Africa, Asia, The Pacific
  • By 1910, the most desirable colonies had been
    taken.
  • Germany envied France and Britain b/c they had
    the most richest colonies.
  • They soon realized that the only way to get land
    in Africa was to take it away from the
    colonizers.

6
Cartoon-European grab bag
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
European nations competing for colonies around
the world..Imperialism
7
Cartoon-European grab bag
COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
8
Cartoon-European grab bag
COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
9
Nationalism
  • 2 forms- 1 to act in the countrys own national
    interest.
  • Ex Alsace-Lorraine-strip of land on the boarder
    of France and Germany.
  • Had been taken by Germany in 1871 and France was
    expecting to gain it back.
  • Germany did not want to give it up.
  • This caused problems in their relationship.

10
  • 2. The longing for an ethnic minority
    independence in a nation where there are many
    different/diverse groups.
  • Ex Austria-Hungary- Hungarians and German
    speaking Austrians governed millions of Czechs,
    Slovaks, Poles Italians, Romanians and Serbs.
  • These different groups wanted their own
    independent self government and lands.
  • This often caused conflict within the nation
    itself.

11
Militarism
  • Building up a nations military for war and
    giving them more power than the government.
  • Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain,
    Russia
  • Spend large sums of money on new weapons and
    warships.
  • All of these countries were preparing for war.

12
  • Alliances
  • European nations began forming military alliances
    with one another to maintain a balance of power
    ..
  • Triple Alliance Triple EntenteCentral
    Powers Allied Powers
  • Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary
    Empire FranceBulgaria Russia

13
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14
franz
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinands funeral procession
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family.
Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian
Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28,
1914 eventually led to WWI.
Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist
assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain
allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under
Austrian rule.
15
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16
Alliance Chain Reaction
  • When the Archduke was assassinated, Bosnia along
    with Serbia were annexed to Austria-Hungary.
  • Austria-Hungary was convinced Serbia has
    something to do with the killings.
  • They used this excuse to declare war on Serbia on
    July 28, 1914.
  • This set off the chain reaction of alliances
    throughout Europe.

17
  • July 29, 1914- (Russia was Serbias protector)
    began mobilization.
  • Germany demanded Russia stop. They didnt.
    Germany declared war on Russia.
  • Russias ally France declared war on Germany.
  • Germany declares war on Belgium.
  • Great Britain declared war on Germany.

18
Schlieffen Plan
  • Quick sweep through France to knock the French
    out of the war then turn east and defeat Russia.
  • Germany is between France and Russia.
  • This plan was put in order to avoid fighting both
    countries at the same time.

19
  • Germany had to pass through Belgium to get to
    France
  • Belgium was neutral.
  • Germany hoped Britain would stay out of the war.
  • The invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the
    war.
  • 1 week after the conflict started all of Europes
    great powers were involved.

20
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Bulgaria
  • Allies
  • Russia
  • France
  • Serbia
  • Great Britain

21
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23
Deadly Technology Leads to Stalemate
  • Stalemate- Both sides cant gain the advantage.
  • Germany and France and Britain
  • 1914 Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central
    Powers
  • Italy and Romania join Allies

24
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Bulgaria
  • Allies
  • Russia
  • France
  • Serbia
  • Great Britain
  • Italy
  • Romania

25
Deadly Technology
  • Machine guns and rapid fire artillery
  • Grenades
  • Submarines
  • Poison Gas
  • Air Planes
  • Zeppelins
  • Tanks
  • Battle of Somme in 1916 British troops lost
    20,000 troops in one day.

26
Trench Warfare
  • Trench foot
  • Contracted lice from rats
  • Constant fear
  • No mans land
  • Casualties (French had 1,000,000 casualties in
    first 3 months of war)

27
Trench Warfare
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29
TRENCH WARFARE
30
American Response
  • Some felt personally involved b/c 92 million were
    immigrants or children of immigrants.
  • Germans and Irish for Central Powers
  • Most Americans for Allies
  • Wilson wanted Americans to remain neutral.

31
US IN 1914
  • Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just
    a week before WWI began in Europe.
  • Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912.
  • Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war
    but..it was in Europe.
  • US was officially NEUTRAL

32
American Response
  • American Neutrality- Influenced by trade
  • Preparedness Movement- Be ready for war.
    Patriotic education (Propaganda)
  • Peace Movement- Progressives, social reformers
    and women. (Women marching down streets
    proclaiming peace).

33
American Opinions
  • 3 groups
  • Isolationists- Stay out of war
  • Interventionists- U.S. should intervene on side
    of Allies
  • Internationalists- Get involved only to solve the
    problem and promote peace.

34
Britain Blockades Germany
  • Britain blockades Germany for its contraband.
  • Later Britain took all of the goods that were
    supposed to go into Germany. (Food, cotton,
    medicine, gasoline)
  • German response blockade of Britain

35
German Submarine Warfare
  • U-Boats- Britain and Germany competed to build
    the largest and strongest navy.
  • Germany blockaded Britain by navy.
  • Propaganda used by Britain to sway U.S. opinion.
  • Lusitania- 128 Americans killed
  • Germany agreed to stop blowing up passenger
    ships.
  • March 24,1916 Sussex was sunk by Germans

36
  • Killed 2 Americans
  • Sussex Pledge- Germans would warn ships before
    they sank them.
  • Wilson authorized banks to make a huge loan to
    the Allies.

37
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA
  • May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which
    was British passenger liner.
  • Germans believed it was carrying contraband
    (weapons) to the British.
  • Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans.
  • U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany
    because of unrestricted submarine warfare.
  • US believed the Germans had violated
    international law of targeting civilians

38
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39
war zone
40
America Enters the War
  • Jan. 31, 1917 Germany informs U.S. that the
    Sussex pledge would be ended.
  • Feb. 3 U.S. cuts off diplomatic ties with
    Germany.
  • Zimmerman Note- Germany promises lost land to
    Mexico if they declare war on U.S.

41
zimmerman cartoon
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