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Title: Power Practice


1
Power Practice for use with Vocabulary Power Plus
for the New SAT
Book Four 21 Lessons 315 Words
2
Introduction to Vocabulary WordsBOOK FOUR
3
Table of Contents
Introduction
Lesson 1Lesson 2Lesson 3Lesson 4Lesson
5Lesson 6Lesson 7
Lesson 8Lesson 9Lesson 10Lesson 11Lesson
12Lesson 13Lesson 14
Lesson 15Lesson 16Lesson 17Lesson 18Lesson
19Lesson 20Lesson 21
4
The first slide provides the vocabulary word.
Use this to begin thinking about the definition.
Introduction
Contents
5
The first click will reveal a context in which
the word might be used.Infer the definition of
the word by studying its context.
Introduction
Contents
6
A second click provides the definition of the
word.
Introduction
Contents
7
Lesson One
Contents
8
Lesson One
camaraderie
The race was highly competitive, but the runners
shared a congratulatory camaraderie when it was
over.
n. rapport and goodwill syn friendship amity
ant enmity hostility
Contents
9
Lesson One
frangible
It is dangerous to transport gasoline in a
frangible container.
adj. fragile easy to break syn delicate
breakable ant sturdy strong
Contents
10
Lesson One
litany
Every day, the employees gathered to share a
litany of grievances against their employer.
n. any long, repetitive, or dull recital
Contents
11
Lesson One
moratorium
After the earthquake, the city announced a
moratorium on driving in areas with damaged
streets.
n. a suspension of activity an authorized
delay syn postponement cessation ant rush
continuation
Contents
12
Lesson One
zealous
The zealous activist was willing to have a
criminal record if it meant she got her point
across.
adj. fervent fanatical syn passionate
enthusiastic ant uninterested indifferent
Contents
13
Lesson One
desiccate
The editor desiccated the novel, removing the
juice and the vigor from the authors prose.
v. to dry out to remove moisture syn dehydrate
ant moisten dampen
Contents
14
Lesson One
wrenching
Jills ankle turned violently, and she felt a
wrenching pain that spread throughout her body.
adj. causing mental or physical pain syn
distressing agonizing ant pleasant comforting
Contents
15
Lesson One
replete
Aaron had trouble understanding the computer
system even though it was replete with full
instructions.
adj. full abundant syn abounding rife ant
lacking empty
Contents
16
Lesson One
interminable
The clock seemed to run backward as Edgar
listened to the interminable lecture.
adj. tiresome and long seemingly endless syn
tedious ant fleeting limited
Contents
17
Lesson One
arable
Prolonged droughts can turn arable land into
desert.
adj. suitable for cultivation of land syn
fecund fertile ant barren infertile
Contents
18
Lesson One
lugubrious
The clock struck the lugubrious hour of midnight,
and the crypt door opened with a groan.
adj. mournful gloomy syn somber depressing
ant joyful
Contents
19
Lesson One
truncate
The editor truncated the story to fit the limited
available space in the magazine.
v. to shorten syn abridge abbreviate ant
lengthen increase
Contents
20
Lesson One
ubiquitous
Whenever Sam did something wrong, the ubiquitous
school principal always seemed to be there to
catch him.
adj. occurring or seeming to occur everywhere
omnipresent syn universal ant nonexistent
Contents
21
Lesson One
vernacular
The vernacular of the novel brought readers even
closer to the little known subculture living deep
in the Appalachian Mountains.
n. everyday language
Contents
22
Lesson One
equanimity
With uncanny equanimity, the bomb disposal expert
gently brushed the sand off the top of a buried
antitank mine.
n. composure calmness syn sangfroid poise
ant anxiety agitation
Contents
23
Lesson Two
Contents
24
Lesson Two
metamorphosis
The company experienced a metamorphosis during
World War II, during which it became more
efficient at manufacturing aircraft engines than
making the automobiles it made prior to the war.
n. a transformation or dramatic change syn
mutation ant stasis
Contents
25
Lesson Two
donnybrook
Les disrespected his friends mother, and a
donnybrook broke out.
n. a fight an uproar syn brawl quarrel
altercation ant agreement
Contents
26
Lesson Two
nonchalant
With flak bursting around his plane, the pilot
somehow maintained a nonchalant calm.
adj. unconcerned indifferent syn detached
relaxed ant excited concerned alarmed
Contents
27
Lesson Two
vestige
Terrorists conducted the execution without even a
small vestige of civility.
n. a trace or evidence of something that once
existed syn remnant hint
Contents
28
Lesson Two
interlocutor
The interlocutors talked over each other,
destroying the value of their conversation.
n. someone who participates in a conversation
Contents
29
Lesson Two
procrustean
The procrustean debater minimized or exaggerated
the views of his opponents and forced them into
agreement with him.
adj. strictly disregarding individual differences
or circumstances syn ruthless undiscriminating
ant sympathetic compassionate
Contents
30
Lesson Two
stygian
Marie blindly entered the stygian barn and at
once felt the cobwebs creep across her face.
adj. dark and forbidding syn shadowy ant
bright illuminated
Contents
31
Lesson Two
sophistry
Instead of a rational and logical presentation,
the politician resorted to sophistry.
n. a deliberately deceptive or misleading
argument syn chicanery ruse ant truth
Contents
32
Lesson Two
carte blanche
The owners gave the architect carte blanche to
redecorate their house, and she turned it into a
showplace.
n. boundless authority unlimited power to
act syn license sanction free rein ant
restriction
Contents
33
Lesson Two
incantation
Uttering a mysterious incantation, the carnival
magician made his assistant disappear.
n. a chant a recited magical spell syn
invocation
Contents
34
Lesson Two
cosmopolitan
The farmer applied some country common sense and
took advantage of the cosmopolitan visitors.
adj. worldly sophisticated syn cultured ant
provincial
Contents
35
Lesson Two
rife
An overabundance of cynicism and greed is rife
within todays TV programming.
adj. abundant prevalent syn overflowing
rampant ant lacking limited
Contents
36
Lesson Two
nomenclature
The latest stealth aircraft was so shrouded in
secrecy that outsiders did not even know its
nomenclature.
n. technical names or naming system in an art or
science syn terminology
Contents
37
Lesson Two
brigand
Some misguided people believe that well-dressed,
attractive brigands deserve celebrity treatment.
n. a robber or bandit syn highwayman outlaw
Contents
38
Lesson Two
contemptuous
The contemptuous wine expert rejected twelve
bottles of fine wine and then abruptly left the
restaurant.
adj. haughty scornful syn arrogant derisive
ant humble polite
Contents
39
Lesson Three
Contents
40
Lesson Three
scapegoat
Instead of admitting his own errors, the
president first made scapegoats of his advisors
and then fired them.
n. one who bears the blame for others syn patsy
sucker
Contents
41
Lesson Three
peremptory
The hasty critic passed peremptory judgment on
the new novel without considering it carefully.
adj. not allowing refusal or delay
imperative syn authoritative unconditional
ant roundabout passive equivocal
Contents
42
Lesson Three
atelier
Isolated in her lonely atelier, the poet produced
works that had no real-world feeling in them.
n. an artists or a designers workshop
Contents
43
Lesson Three
axiom
The perfectionists favorite axiom was, If you
want it done right, do it yourself.
n. a universal truth an established rule syn
fundamental theorem ant absurdity
Contents
44
Lesson Three
dulcet
Sonia had a knack for making her complaints sound
nicer by expressing them in dulcet tones.
adj. melodious pleasing to the ear syn
harmonic melodic ant cacophonous dissonant
Contents
45
Lesson Three
usurp
With his horde of vicious raiders, warlord Thulsa
Doom attacked the palace, deposed the king, and
usurped the throne.
v. to take over to seize power syn commandeer
seize co-opt ant abdicate relinquish
Contents
46
Lesson Three
patronizing
Seans patronizing air turned friends into
enemies.
adj. treating with condescension acting
superior syn lofty arrogant ant humble
friendly
Contents
47
Lesson Three
iniquity
A civilized society punishes iniquity by applying
just and rational legal standards.
n. an evil or wicked act syn abomination
injustice sin
Contents
48
Lesson Three
archaic
The mans use of archaic words revealed his age
and his familiarity with an earlier era of
literature.
adj. no longer current or applicable
antiquated syn obsolete outmoded ant current
modern
Contents
49
Lesson Three
vacillate
Professor Roberts urged Jaime not to vacillate as
usual, but to make up her mind and take action.
v. to waver to sway indecisively syn fluctuate
swing waffle ant decide
Contents
50
Lesson Three
perspicacious
The perspicacious gambler knew that he would need
to make a hasty exit after winning most of the
cowboys money.
adj. keen mentally sharp syn shrewd keen
clever ant dull stupid
Contents
51
Lesson Three
abstemious
After many days of abstemious behavior, Selma
rewarded herself with a huge slice of chocolate
cake.
adj. using or consuming sparingly syn frugal
moderate ant gluttonous greedy
Contents
52
Lesson Three
talisman
The adventurer wore a magical talisman that
protected her from orcs.
n. a magic charm or superstitious object for
protection or luck
Contents
53
Lesson Three
expurgate
Fearing censorship, the shock jock fled to
satellite radio, where no federal authority could
expurgate him.
v. to remove vulgar or objectionable
material syn censor bowdlerize sanitize
Contents
54
Lesson Three
pellucid
Marilyn remembered a lake that was so pellucid
she could easily see the red bands on the rainbow
trout.
adj. transparent clear syn limpid ant
obscure opaque
Contents
55
Lesson Four
Contents
56
Lesson Four
efficacious
Federal authorities help assure that a
prescription drug is both safe and efficacious.
adj. effective producing the desired
outcome syn productive useful ant ineffective
Contents
57
Lesson Four
catharsis
Making the punishment fit the crime can bring
about a catharsis within the general public.
n. a release of emotional tension syn purgation
Contents
58
Lesson Four
inundate
The tsunami inundated the surrounding islands,
bringing death and destruction with it.
v. to overwhelm to fill beyond capacity syn
flood overwhelm
Contents
59
Lesson Four
revere
Fans usually revere athletes more for their
performance on the field than their behavior off
it.
v. to regard with respect, awe, or adoration syn
venerate respect honor ant revile
Contents
60
Lesson Four
internecine
World War I resulted in a truly internecine
bloodbath, claiming the lives of some 17 million
people from nine countries.
adj. mutually destructive ant constructive
beneficial
Contents
61
Lesson Four
risible
Standing right behind the speaker, Sarah made
insulting gestures and produced risible results.
adj. relating to laughter laughable syn
comical jocular jocund ant grave solemn
Contents
62
Lesson Four
sybaritic
After a sybaritic adolescence, the prince became
a strong and disciplined king.
adj. marked by luxury or pleasure syn luxurious
ostentatious grandiose ant modest simple
plain
Contents
63
Lesson Four
crepuscular
Sneaking home in the crepuscular morning hours,
Kyle entered the living room so quietly the
family dog never awakened.
adj. pertaining to twilight
Contents
64
Lesson Four
kudos
Though she received welcome kudos from the
general public, Sabrina placed more value on the
approval of her father.
n. acclaim or praise syn honor distinction
ant disapproval rejection Kudos always takes
a singular verb
Contents
65
Lesson Four
estrange
The coach uttered a steady stream of complaints
that eventually estranged her basketball team.
v. to alienate syn disaffect antagonize ant
unite endear
Contents
66
Lesson Four
intrinsic
The props used in the movie were common household
items, but they held enormous intrinsic value to
fans and collectors.
adj. of or relating to a things basic nature
inherent syn basic elemental inborn ant
extrinsic
Contents
67
Lesson Four
maxim
Mark Twain once wrote that an effective maxim
must contain a minimum of sound and a maximum
of sense.
n. an established principle a truth or rule of
conduct syn axiom apothegm proverb
Contents
68
Lesson Four
putrid
The various bags of fast food remnants created a
putrid stench in the car that had been sitting in
the sun all week.
adj. rotten and foul smelling syn fetid rancid
malodorous ant aromatic fragrant
Contents
69
Lesson Four
servile
Though the slave acted servile, it was merely a
ruse to cover his escape plan.
adj. submissive slavish syn subservient
ignoble ant haughty domineering
Contents
70
Lesson Four
apocryphal
After years of repetition, an apocryphal story
becomes an urban legend that defies facts.
adj. of questionable authenticity, but widely
believed syn dubious equivocal spurious ant
genuine authentic
Contents
71
Lesson Five
Contents
72
Lesson Five
consternation
The sheriff and the outlaw stared briefly at each
other in consternation before the lawman drew and
fired.
n. alarming dismay or concern syn bewilderment
shock trepidation ant composure tranquility
Contents
73
Lesson Five
anomaly
One winter day, the temperature soared to 80
degrees in Buffalo, New York, and became a famous
weather anomaly.
n. a deviation from the norm an odd or peculiar
occurrence syn eccentricity irregularity oddity
Contents
74
Lesson Five
vitriolic
A boss with a bad back and a vitriolic tongue
makes everyones life miserable.
adj. harsh in tone bitterly critical syn
caustic offensive scathing ant flattering
genial
Contents
75
Lesson Five
preamble
Certain speakers treat a preamble like a long,
slow walk in the park while their audience is
hoping for a sprint.
n. a preliminary statement an introduction syn
prologue preface opening ant epilogue finale
Contents
76
Lesson Five
coterie
At first, Rhonda wanted to join the cool girls
coterie, but then she was put off by their
meanness.
n. a small group of people who share interests
and meet frequently syn circle clique society
Contents
77
Lesson Five
expiate
After 30 years of leading a brutal dictatorship,
the dying despot decided to expiate his sins.
v. to make amends for syn atone correct rectify
Contents
78
Lesson Five
compendium
Journalist H.L. Mencken called a compendium of
his writings a chrestomathy, which is derived
from a Greek word that means useful learning.
n. a list or collection of items syn
compilation index anthology
Contents
79
Lesson Five
comprise
This simple usage rule helps students the whole
comprises the parts the parts compose the whole.
v. to include or consist of contain syn
constitute encompass incorporate ant exclude
lack
Contents
80
Lesson Five
eidetic
Using his eidetic skills, Ben Pridmore memorized
the order of a randomly shuffled, 52-card deck in
31.03 seconds.
adj. pertaining to extraordinarily detailed and
vivid recall syn vivid ant vague
Contents
81
Lesson Five
innocuous
The beautiful daffodil looks innocuous, but its
bulbs contain poisonous alkaloids.
adj. harmless syn inoffensive innocent ant
injurious
Contents
82
Lesson Five
foist
William foisted cubic zirconia on unsuspecting
customers, who thought the lab-created stones
were real diamonds.
v. to pass off as genuine or valuable syn fob
Contents
83
Lesson Five
plethora
John wanted a brief outline, but George gave him
a plethora of mostly useless information.
n. an overabundance excess syn surplus ant
deficiency shortage paucity
Contents
84
Lesson Five
flippancy
TV shows fill the air with flippancy that lowers
the tone and content of conversation.
n. disrespect syn irreverence rudeness
impertinence ant respect reverence
Contents
85
Lesson Five
incongruous
Humor thrives on incongruous situations, like
seeing fifty clowns emerging from a tiny car.
adj. incompatible unsuitable for the
situation syn discordant improper ant
compatible fitting
Contents
86
Lesson Five
disconcert
The elderly man became disconcerted when the
fast-talking salesman tried to persuade him to
invest in worthless stock.
v. to frustrate confuse syn agitate fluster
perplex ant enlighten comfort encourage
Contents
87
Lesson Six
Contents
88
Lesson Six
sectarian
The sectarian violence swept across the country
as religious groups warred with one another over
conflicting beliefs.
adj. narrowly confined to a particular group syn
insular dogmatic ant tolerant
Contents
89
Lesson Six
peregrination
After miles of peregrination across the empty
desolation of the moor, Simon entered an old
tavern and found werewolves.
n. travel by walking syn trekking exploration
Contents
90
Lesson Six
accoutrement
Emily spent a small fortune acquiring the
accoutrement for her up-scale senior prom.
n. an accessory item of dress or equipment syn
device gear
Contents
91
Lesson Six
contrive
Stranded on the island, the professor contrived a
way to build a generator out of parts from the
wrecked fishing boat.
v. to plan cleverly to devise syn concoct
design engineer
Contents
92
Lesson Six
hubris
Napoleons hubris caused him to invade Moscow and
then endure a disastrous and costly retreat.
n. overbearing pride arrogance syn conceit
smugness pompousness ant humility modesty
Contents
93
Lesson Six
platitude
The team sought inspiration from the coach, but
received useless platitudes instead.
n. an obvious remark a cliché syn banality
maxim truism
Contents
94
Lesson Six
venerate
Fans venerated the homerun king until they
discovered that he had used both steroids and a
corked bat to attain his status.
v. to respect or revere syn glorify treasure
ant abhor despise
Contents
95
Lesson Six
scullion
Every employee in the prestigious company had to
spend time as a scullion, fetching coffee and
running errands, before he or she was offered a
professional position.
n. a servant for menial tasks syn peon toiler
ant patrician aristocrat
Contents
96
Lesson Six
quotidian
Look closely, and youll find that even a boring,
quotidian experience can bring you an exciting
discovery.
adj. everyday commonplace syn ordinary routine
ant rare uncommon
Contents
97
Lesson Six
prognosticate
Back in the day, a shaman used bones to
prognosticate the sex of an unborn child.
v. to predict syn forecast foreshadow
Contents
98
Lesson Six
antediluvian
Griselda arrived at the vintage car show in a
shiny, antediluvian Ford Model T.
adj. extremely old antiquated syn ancient
archaic ant modern new
Contents
99
Lesson Six
stringent
The rebellious students received no sympathy from
the stringent principal.
adj. restrictive imposing demanding
standards syn severe rigid inflexible ant
lenient flexible
Contents
100
Lesson Six
haughty
Talked down to by the haughty waiter during the
meal, Mary got in the last word by refusing to
leave a tip.
adj. condescendingly proud arrogant syn
conceited snobbish supercilious ant humble
modest
Contents
101
Lesson Six
sanctimonious
The sanctimonious leader of the neighborhood
association noticed when any of her neighbors
hedges were uneven, but never seemed to notice
her own dog running all over her neighbors lawns.
adj. showing false piety or righteousness syn
hypocritical specious ant humble modest
Contents
102
Lesson Six
imbroglio
When challenged, Dorian frequently turned an
awkward imbroglio into an all-out fight.
n. a difficult and embarrassing situation syn
predicament ant peace serenity
Contents
103
Lesson Seven
Contents
104
Lesson Seven
gibberish
Shook up by his accident, Clyde could speak only
gibberish when asked what had happened.
n. nonsense unintelligible speech syn babble
chatter prattle
Contents
105
Lesson Seven
inimical
Mutually inimical combatants glared at one
another across the conference table and forced an
end to the truce talks.
adj. unfriendly hostile injurious syn mean
malicious harmful ant encouraging flattering
Contents
106
Lesson Seven
nexus
Logical people recognize the important nexus of
cause and effect.
n. a link, tie, or bond syn connection
correlation ant disruption gap
Contents
107
Lesson Seven
coeval
The woman was so old that she seemed coeval with
her antique, tumbledown apartment building.
adj. of the same time period syn contemporaneous
Contents
108
Lesson Seven
dilatory
When the Senator disliked legislation, he made
painfully dilatory speeches to prevent its
passage.
adj. tending to delay or procrastinate syn
dallying laggard unhurried ant diligent
prompt
Contents
109
Lesson Seven
convoluted
To express ideas clearly, avoid convoluted
phrases.
adj. complicated intricate syn involved
jumbled ant simple obvious
Contents
110
Lesson Seven
entreat
The criminal entreated the judge for mercy and
received 500 hours of community service mowing
the courthouse lawn.
v. to earnestly request or petition syn
importune implore ant demand
Contents
111
Lesson Seven
anecdote
Maria made her guests watch a slide presentation
of her trip and accompanied it with embarrassing
anecdotes.
n. a short account of an incident syn narrative
Contents
112
Lesson Seven
incumbent
The club owner said that it was incumbent on the
audience to laugh at the comedians lame jokes.
adj. obligatory necessary syn required
essential ant voluntary unnecessary
Contents
113
Lesson Seven
churlish
It is churlish to bite the hand that feeds you.
adj. boorish or vulgar syn uncouth rude surly
ant courteous polished civil
Contents
114
Lesson Seven
promulgate
Seth promulgated his love for Cecile on a giant
billboard overlooking Times Square in New York
City.
v. to announce to make known syn declare
exhibit
Contents
115
Lesson Seven
staid
Beneath the librarians staid and cautious
exterior, a wild personality was trying to escape.
adj. showing dignity and often strait-laced
propriety syn composed serious solemn ant
agitated excited nervous
Contents
116
Lesson Seven
livid
She was so livid she couldnt speak through her
clenched teeth.
adj. extremely angry syn enraged furious
fuming ant contented pleased
Contents
117
Lesson Seven
lurid
Paparazzi followed the wayward actor day and
night, hoping for the chance to snap a lurid
photograph to sell to the tabloid newspapers.
adj. shocking explicit syn sensational extreme
ant dull boring mediocre
Contents
118
Lesson Seven
cogent
Nathans cogent reasoning and respectful demeanor
got him out of a parking ticket.
adj. convincing reasonable syn compelling
pertinent influential ant ineffective weak
Contents
119
Lesson Eight
Contents
120
Lesson Eight
pander
The publisher pandered to its audiences low
tastes and sold many trashy magazines.
v. to exploit weaknesses of others to cater to
the vices of others syn cajole indulge
Contents
121
Lesson Eight
otiose
When no one is paying attention, advice is just
otiose words.
adj. useless futile syn unimportant worthless
ant productive necessary
Contents
122
Lesson Eight
puerile
The players were embarrassed by the puerile rule
that each team receive a trophy whether it had
won or lost.
adj. childish juvenile syn immature infantile
ant mature
Contents
123
Lesson Eight
aleatory
In most instances, gambling is a futile, aleatory
exercise the odds are always for the casino and
against the gambler.
adj. dependent on luck or chance
Contents
124
Lesson Eight
asperity
Asperity was often a job requirement for the
editor, because only the best writing was allowed
in the publication, and there was no time for
writers who failed to follow the magazines
guidelines.
n. roughness or harshness severity syn
acerbity irascibility ant mildness kindness
Contents
125
Lesson Eight
renunciation
To lose weight, Elise decided on a renunciation
of binge eating and an acceptance of exercise.
n. rejection refusal to acknowledge syn denial
refusal ant admittance concession
Contents
126
Lesson Eight
unimpeachable
After serving a prison sentence for hacking,
Shannon went straight and became an honest and
unimpeachable network security consultant.
adj. unquestionable beyond doubt syn
trustworthy infallible ant questionable flawed
Contents
127
Lesson Eight
inveigh
It is a citizens duty to inveigh against unfair
and unjust government acts and legislation.
v. to disapprove angrily to protest syn berate
condemn remonstrate ant commend laud praise
Contents
128
Lesson Eight
lionize
The city lionized the mayor, who had led
flawlessly during the major catastrophe.
v. to assign great social importance to to treat
as a celebrity syn acclaim exalt honor ant
ignore overlook
Contents
129
Lesson Eight
allay
The airlines perfect safety record allayed
Raymonds fear of flying.
v. to relieve to alleviate syn calm ease
pacify ant excite intensify agitate
Contents
130
Lesson Eight
vitiate
Luxury vitiated the despots judgment, and his
country fell into decay and anarchy.
v. to corrupt morally to contaminate syn
defile devalue spoil ant purify clarify
cleanse
Contents
131
Lesson Eight
recalcitrant
The recalcitrant resident refused to evacuate his
home, even though it would surely be destroyed in
the volcanic eruption.
adj. stubbornly resistant showing
opposition syn defiant insubordinate unwilling
ant agreeable obedient
Contents
132
Lesson Eight
exegesis
Dr. Smith told her class that reading a
superficial exegesis was a poor substitute for
the original textbook.
n. an explanation of a text a critical
interpretation syn analysis exposition
commentary
Contents
133
Lesson Eight
ameliorate
Youll need more than a small bandage to
ameliorate a deep wound.
v. to make better to improve syn enhance
upgrade ant weaken damage corrupt
Contents
134
Lesson Eight
profligate
The college fraternity residing in the
dilapidated house had a reputation for profligate
behavior and poor academics.
adj. wasteful and immoral syn licentious
decadent ant virtuous principled
Contents
135
Lesson Nine
Contents
136
Lesson Nine
provocative
Falsely shouting fire in a crowded room is a
provocative act.
adj. tending to excite or stimulate syn
provoking exciting ant dull boring
Contents
137
Lesson Nine
bumpkin
The bumpkin finally cracked open the computer
with his crowbar, but he still couldnt find the
files he had heard about.
n. an unsophisticated, awkward person syn yokel
hayseed rube ant intellectual
Contents
138
Lesson Nine
toady
The toady did everything to get the promotion
except shine the bosss shoes.
n. a person who flatters for personal gain syn
sycophant flatterer
Contents
139
Lesson Nine
culpable
None of the inmates believed they had committed
any culpable acts.
adj. deserving blame or condemnation guilty syn
blameworthy liable ant innocent blameless
Contents
140
Lesson Nine
hortatory
Raising his saber in a hortatory gesture, Captain
Jenks led his troops out of the gully and into
the fight.
adj. encouraging inciting syn exhorting ant
discouraging dampening
Contents
141
Lesson Nine
penultimate
The trip from Point A to Point C requires a
penultimate stop at Point B.
adj. next to last
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orotund
Even when relaxing at home, the actor spoke in
orotund tones, as if he were still in the theater.
adj. full and rich in sound (in speech) syn
resonant resounding ant quiet reserved
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Lesson Nine
blithe
Despite having lost her home to the fire, Celine
kept her blithe spirit and sought to help the
rest of her family.
adj. carefree and lighthearted syn cheerful
radiant ant burdened worried troubled
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soporific
Suffering from insomnia, Carol was forced to take
a soporific medication.
adj. tending to induce sleep syn somniferous
monotonous ant dramatic exciting stimulating
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Lesson Nine
pervasive
The poisonous smell of sulfur was so pervasive
that people in all five boroughs could smell it.
adj. permeating spreading throughout syn
sweeping persistent ant contained restricted
limited
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Lesson Nine
benign
The doctor detected a growth on Johns liver, but
fortunately determined that it was benign.
adj. beneficial favorable syn benevolent
harmless ant harmful malevolent
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Lesson Nine
frenetic
The dancing was frenetic, the noise was
deafening, and then the police arrived.
adj. wildly excited syn frenzied frantic ant
calm composed
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Lesson Nine
recrimination
The couple loudly exchanged recriminations for an
hour, but never really figured out who started
the whole thing.
n. a counteraccusation syn countercharge
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Lesson Nine
indecorous
Ben and Queenie changed seats to escape the
indecorous loudmouth talking on his cell phone in
the restaurant.
adj. lacking good taste improper syn
inappropriate vulgar ant decent
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Lesson Nine
corroborate
In surprise testimony, the shifty pickpocket
corroborate the detectives version of events.
v. to strengthen by adding evidence syn confirm
substantiate validate ant contradict
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Lesson Ten
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Lesson Ten
majordomo
Wherever Samuel wandered in the mansion, the
ubiquitous majordomo seemed to be there,
attending to his every need.
n. a chief butler or assistant
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Lesson Ten
untenable
Most people have at least some untenable beliefs,
adopted with little or no analytical thought.
adj. impossible to defend or justify syn
groundless unsupported indefensible ant
sound irrefutable
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Lesson Ten
perambulate
Francis perambulated down the main drag, lazily
enjoying displays of goodies in the upscale
stores.
v. to walk about to stroll syn saunter wander
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Lesson Ten
veneer
With intensive coaching, Tarzan acquired a thin
veneer of social graces to hide his wild
background of surviving on his own in the jungle.
n. a thin, attractive layer that conceals
something common or coarse syn disguise gloss
facade
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Lesson Ten
timorous
After taking the strength-and-conditioning class,
Sandra lost her timorous demeanor and found an
aggressive attitude.
adj. timid syn bashful sheepish reticent ant
bold confident courageous
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Lesson Ten
luminous
Thaddeus enjoyed luminous things, so he slapped a
coat of glow-in-the-dark paint on his car.
adj. emitting light syn glowing radiant ant
dim dark
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Lesson Ten
circuitous
The teacher liked circuitous lectures and seldom
arrived at the main point.
adj. indirect roundabout syn roundabout
meandering ant direct straight
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Lesson Ten
perquisite
Receiving only a small hourly wage, the waitress
used her charm and good service to gain major
perquisites.
n. a tip or payment in addition to regular
wages syn fringe benefit perk benefit
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Lesson Ten
probity
Despite long exposure to opportunities for
bribes, the Senator had earned a reputation for
probity.
n. integrity respectability syn rectitude
decency trustworthiness ant wickedness impiety
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Lesson Ten
polemical
Students having polemical inclinations might
enjoy their schools debate team.
adj. relating to controversy or argument syn
controversial contentious ant indisputable
agreeable
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Lesson Ten
tacit
Reading between the lines, the book club members
thought they understood the authors tacit
opinions.
adj. indicated but not expressed implied
silently syn hinted suggested unspoken ant
explicit frank
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Lesson Ten
largesse
Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft and famously
rich, is also known for the largesse of his
charitable foundation.
n. generosity syn magnanimity munificence ant
stinginess
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Lesson Ten
indolent
When winter arrives, bears stop raiding
campgrounds and enter a state of indolent
hibernation.
adj. lazy syn torpid idle lethargic ant
industrious busy productive
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Lesson Ten
circumlocution
Gifted in the art of circumlocution, the senator
could speak for an hour and not even come close
to answering a simple question.
n. unnecessarily wordy or evasive language syn
discursiveness indirectness evasion ant
conciseness brevity
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Lesson Ten
depredate
When Attila the Hun, well recognized for his
savagery, decided to depredate provinces, not
many people resisted.
v. to plunder and pillage syn pilfer ransack
ravage ant enhance
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Lesson Eleven
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Lesson Eleven
canard
My reputation for dishonesty is a great canard,
said the Senator at his carefully controlled
press conference.
n. a deliberately misleading story syn lie
pretense sham ant fact truth reality
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Lesson Eleven
wont
The author is wont to trash others and make
herself look good.
adj. likely syn accustomed
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Lesson Eleven
etymology
According to strict etymology, myriad means ten
thousand, but now it is more often used to
indicate a great multitude.
n. the history of a word the study of word
origins
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Lesson Eleven
cortege
To the mournful muttering of snare drums, the
slow cortege accompanied the casket to the burial
site.
n. a group of attendants a retinue syn
entourage followers posse
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Lesson Eleven
solecism
Whom shall I say is calling? said the
secretary, committing a solecism by not using
Who.
n. a deviation or error in speech, manners, or
deeds syn mistake faux pas blunder
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Lesson Eleven
demotic
Displaying a keen ear for demotic language, the
author excelled at writing realistic dialogue.
adj. relating to ordinary people syn colloquial
common ant formal elevated
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Lesson Eleven
simian
With simian, close-set eyes and a continual
smirk, the official resembled his less-than-human
policies.
adj. related to or resembling an ape or monkey
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Lesson Eleven
impresario
The impresario was brilliant at handling
difficult celebrity divas, notorious for their
faultfinding ways.
n. an entertainment producer or manager syn
organizer proprietor
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Lesson Eleven
requisite
The lawyer questioned the witness relentlessly,
but could not drag the requisite information out
of her.
adj. required necessary syn imperative needed
important ant incidental nonessential
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Lesson Eleven
bulwark
Enemy artillery pounded away at the bulwark,
attempting to clear a path for the advancing
infantry.
n. a defensive wall or embankment syn
fortification barrier
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Lesson Eleven
malaise
Silence fell over the crowd, and then came the
malaise, a sense that something bad was about to
happen.
n. vague bodily or emotional discomfort or
uneasiness syn illness distress discontent
ant comfort relief peace
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Lesson Eleven
disingenuous
With disingenuous humility, the expert in quantum
physics pretended not to understand simple
mathematics.
adj. insincere calculating syn duplicitous
cunning shifty ant honest sincere candid
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Lesson Eleven
crescendo
The crescendo of noise culminated in a giant
explosion.
n. a gradual increase in intensity, force, or
volume syn increase buildup ant decrease
waning
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Lesson Eleven
intransigent
The foolish, intransigent leader ignored the
dissenting but reasonable voices of others.
adj. uncompromising refusing to moderate syn
determined immovable obdurate ant flexible
yielding
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Lesson Eleven
dogged
With dogged determination, the coyote chased the
road runner across the desert.
adj. unrelenting persistent syn driven
steadfast unwavering ant hesitating
vacillating
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Lesson Twelve
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Lesson Twelve
propensity
The toddler had a propensity for shocking his
parents with his wild crayon drawings on their
walls.
n. a tendency syn inclination predisposition
penchant ant aversion
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Lesson Twelve
condescending
A condescending attitude will neither win friends
nor influence people positively.
adj. displaying superiority patronizing syn
denigrating degrading ant respectful honorable
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Lesson Twelve
compunction
The hit man executed his targets without
compunction or remorse.
n. an uneasiness caused by guilt a qualmsyn
regret
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Lesson Twelve
sepulcher
The greedy man had a five-story sepulcher built
as a memorial to himself, but the price did not
include people to care that he died.
n. a tomb or burial chamber syn crypt catacomb
mausoleum
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Lesson Twelve
bellicose
Laurie, who believed the best defense was a good
offense, unnerved everyone with her bellicose
manner.
adj. warlike inclined to fight syn pugnacious
belligerent hostile ant mild passive peaceful
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Lesson Twelve
pulchritude
Pierre enjoyed the pulchritude but not the
philosophy of Miss Universe.
n. physical beauty syn loveliness allure ant
ugliness repulsiveness
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Lesson Twelve
wizened
A wizened old bum emerged from the alley and told
Eileen the secret of life.
adj. shriveled or withered from age or
illness syn shrunken gnarled ant sturdy
robust stalwart
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Lesson Twelve
rhapsodize
Though the critic rhapsodize about the play, it
still closed after one performance.
v. to express oneself enthusiastically syn rave
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Lesson Twelve
physiognomy
Years of squinting at the sun and salty wind had
given the sea captain a physiognomy full of
wrinkles and character.
n. facial features syn countenance visage
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Lesson Twelve
voluble
Usually a quiet soul, Ed became annoyingly
voluble when the subject of English grammar and
usage came up.
adj. talkative syn garrulous fluent ant
quiet introverted
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Lesson Twelve
revel
Stella reveled in the wealth of luxury items that
decorated every corner of her five-star luxury
suite.
v. to enjoy to take pleasure in syn bask
delight indulge ant grieve lament
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Lesson Twelve
umbrage
Oversensitive Harold took umbrage at the
slightest real or imagined put-down.
n. feeling of offense resentment syn
displeasure ire anger ant delight pleasure
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Lesson Twelve
epiphany
An unexpected epiphany helped Sandra instantly
understand everything about her boyfriend.
n. a revelation sudden knowledge or insight
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Lesson Twelve
assiduous
Since the fifth century BC, countless assiduous
workers have built and rebuilt the Great Wall of
China.
adj. diligent persistent syn persevering
industrious ant lazy negligent
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Lesson Twelve
panacea
After pocketing his two dollars, the con man
handed the bumpkin a supposed panacea that looked
suspiciously like useless colored water.
n. a cure-all a remedy for all diseases syn
elixir nostrum
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Lesson Thirteen
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Lesson Thirteen
implicate
The evidence implicated many high officials in
the conspiracy.
v. to involve or connect unfavorably syn
entangle incriminate ant extricate dissociate
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Lesson Thirteen
analgesic
Instead of an efficacious analgesic, the doctor
gave Seth a lollypop and told him to stop whining.
n. a medication to reduce or eliminate pain syn
painkiller ant irritant
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Lesson Thirteen
turpitude
Censors fear that the unchecked portrayal of sex,
violence, and crime in movies and on television
will foster turpitude among younger viewers.
n. wickedness vileness syn depravity
wantonness decadence ant purity goodness
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Lesson Thirteen
discretionary
Marketers love consumers loaded with
discretionary income who buy far more than they
really need.
adj. left to ones own judgment syn elective
nonobligatory unrestricted ant mandatory
obligatory
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Lesson Thirteen
flummox
Greek philosopher Socrates flummoxed authorities
by asking them questions they were unable to
answer.
v. to confuse to perplex syn bewilder baffle
perplex ant clarify simplify
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Lesson Thirteen
unpalatable
Jimmy hid his unpalatable turnips unsuccessfully
under a wide, white covering of mashed potatoes.
adj. unpleasant to the taste or the mind syn
displeasing objectionable offensive ant
pleasing agreeable
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Lesson Thirteen
histrionics
The actors histrionics made his performance
appear forced.
n. exaggerated emotional behavior syn theatrics
dramatics hysterics
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Lesson Thirteen
draconian
Winners of the first war imposed draconian
reprisals on the losers and thus unwittingly
helped to cause the second.
adj. extremely harsh very severe syn callous
merciless ant lenient
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Lesson Thirteen
noisome
Odors of decay mingled in an especially noisome
manner and drove swamp residents from their homes.
adj. disgusting offensive to the senses syn
nauseating fetid ant delightful pleasing
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Lesson Thirteen
punctilious
The punctilious coach ordered players to run one
lap for each minute they were late to practice.
adj. attentive to details in conduct or
action syn conscientious particular meticulous
ant careless inattentive
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Lesson Thirteen
veritable
Expensive cargo from the wrecked ship washed up
on the beach and gave looters a veritable
department store on the shore.
adj. authentic genuine syn indubitable bona
fide ant bogus counterfeit
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Lesson Thirteen
florid
Years of excessive alcohol consumption gave Grace
a florid complexion.
adj. rosy or red in color syn ruddy reddish
flushed
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Lesson Thirteen
fractious
The arbitrator had a natural talent for
convincing fractious groups to work together.
adj. unruly disruptive syn stubborn difficult
ant temperate
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Lesson Thirteen
moribund
I may be moribund, but Im not gone yet, said
the old man to his greedy family waiting for
their inheritance.
adj. near death about to die syn dying
perishing ant thriving flourishing
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Lesson Thirteen
conflagration
In the latest action movie, a helicopter crashes
into a fuel tank, and the hero leaps away from
the resulting conflagration just in time.
n. a large, destructive fire syn blaze inferno
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Lesson Fourteen
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Lesson Fourteen
protégé
Though the mentor got the recognition, his
protégé quietly did all the work and gradually
emerged from his shadow.
n. a person under the guidance or training of
another syn apprentice ant mentor
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Lesson Fourteen
indiscernible
The indiscernible scar on Waynes neck was the
only remnant of what had been a major surgical
procedure.
adj. difficult or impossible to discern or
perceive syn imperceptible indistinguishable
subtle ant evident noticeable obvious
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Lesson Fourteen
virulent
The evil microbiologist engineered an especially
virulent form of plague for which there was no
vaccine.
adj. extremely infectious or poisonous syn
venomous toxic ant harmless
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Lesson Fourteen
phlegmatic
The phlegmatic scientist dryly recited the
controversial facts.
adj. calm and unemotional syn apathetic cold
unfeeling ant lively excited
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Lesson Fourteen
artisan
After smashing her thumb with the hammer again,
Sarah hired an artisan to finish remodeling her
living room.
n. a skilled manual worker a craftsperson
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Lesson Fourteen
reciprocate
After the thief kicked the dog, the animal
reciprocated by biting the intruders knee.
v. to give in response to receiving
something syn match
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Lesson Fourteen
tenable
As much as he tried, Dan could not find one
tenable reason to trade in his ugly, old,
paid-for car because it ran just fine.
adj. rationally defensible syn sound viable
credible ant questionable unbelievable
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Lesson Fourteen
boondoggle
Twenty years and twenty billion dollars later,
the boondoggle somehow produced a five-mile
tunnel.
n. an unnecessary, wasteful project
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Lesson Fourteen
curmudgeon
Mel became a curmudgeon at a young age, draining
the pleasure out of everyone elses life.
n. a stubborn, ill-tempered person syn grouch
bellyacher killjoy
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Lesson Fourteen
moiety
The greedy real estate agent always made sure he
got the largest moiety from every deal.
n. a portion or part of something syn division
piece
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Lesson Fourteen
inculcate
Belinda inculated high standards into her
employees until top performance became second
nature to them.
v. to impress upon or teach someone by repetition
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Lesson Fourteen
fiduciary
The accountant took a fiduciary, but not a
personal, interest in his sisters estate.
adj. relating to the governing of property or
estate on behalf of others
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Lesson Fourteen
repugnant
The repugnant stand-up comedian had an insult for
each person in the front row of the audience.
adj. offensive repulsive syn abhorrent
obnoxious ant appealing enjoyable nice
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Lesson Fourteen
opprobrium
The judges earned public opprobrium for rendering
an extremely unpopular decision.
n. disgrace extreme dishonor syn obloquy
ignominy shame ant esteem honor respect
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Lesson Fourteen
potentate
Most employees simply took the train or the bus
the potentate, however, jumped aboard her private
helicopter parked on the roof of her downtown
headquarters building.
n. a monarch one who has great power syn
sovereign magnate king ant peasant plebian
serf
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Lesson Fifteen
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Lesson Fifteen
prominent
Any publicity is good publicity, according to the
prominent real estate mogul, whose picture can be
found on every other billboard and poster in the
city.
adj. very noticeable or obvious syn conspicuous
clear ant inconspicuous
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Lesson Fifteen
autonomy
After working in a huge, bureaucratic
corporation, Rhonda enjoyed the autonomy of
writing a gossip column from home.
n. independence syn self-rule license
sovereignty ant subordination
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Lesson Fifteen
gustatory
As a restaurant critic, Craig savored the
gustatory delights of free food from venues
trying to please him.
adj. relating to the sense of taste
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Lesson Fifteen
chthonian
The chthonian devils sprang at her and tried to
drag her back into their hellish world.
adj. pertaining to the underworld dwelling in or
beneath the surface of the earth
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Lesson Fifteen
extirpate
The DEA tried to extirpate illegal
methamphetamine labs by destroying each one they
discovered.
v. to root out or eradicate to destroy
completely syn expunge uproot exterminate
ant generate propagate
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Lesson Fifteen
coagulate
In three months time, the milk in Peters
refrigerator had coagulated into something smelly
and scary.
v. to change or be changed from liquid into a
thickened or solid mass syn congeal solidify
curdle ant liquefy
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Lesson Fifteen
puissance
The puissance of the kings army did not offset
its poor organization.
n. power might syn strength vigor ant
frailty weakness
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Lesson Fifteen
appellation
Among the amusing appellations of Charles
Dickens fictional characters is Mr. Gradgrind,
an unimaginative bore.
n. name, title, or designation syn denomination
classification
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Lesson Fifteen
peripatetic
The peripatetic nomad walked all day and sold his
homemade trinkets in the markets at night.
adj. traveling, especially by foot syn ambulant
vagabond nomadic ant stationary
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Lesson Fifteen
misanthrope
Believing that only he spoke the truth, the
misanthrope started writing angry, brutal, and
honest essays.
n. one who hates or mistrusts humankind ant
samaritan
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Lesson Fifteen
tutelary
Because the parents were rarely home, the nanny
became the main tutelary figure in the childrens
lives.
adj. pertaining to guardianship syn custodial
guardian
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Lesson Fifteen
scion
The scions of the railroad fortune lacked the
work ethic that had enabled their grandfather to
build the familys empire.
n. descendant heir syn successor progeny ant
predecessor ancestor
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Lesson Fifteen
jurisprudence
American jurisprudence tends to favor those who
can afford teams of highly effective lawyers.
n. the science, philosophy, and application of
the law
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Lesson Fifteen
supercilious
The supercilious food critic had a knack for
identifying the subtle faults of even the finest
cuisine.
adj. contemptuous arrogant syn haughty
condescending conceited ant modest humble
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Lesson Fifteen
malevolent
The bullfighter looked across the ring at the
pawing, snorting animal and sensed malevolent
intent.
adj. having ill-will wishing harm evil syn
malicious sinister menacing ant benevolent
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Lesson Sixteen
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Lesson Sixteen
trenchant
While others circled around the issue, Antoinette
issued trenchant remarks that struck at the heart
of the matter.
adj. effectively keen and forceful in thought or
expression syn cutting forthright ant
ambiguous lenient insipid
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Lesson Sixteen
bourgeois
Keeping up with the Joneses has long been
considered a habit of bourgeois life.
adj. relating to the middle class
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Lesson Sixteen
nascent
In 1983, the Internet was a nascent network
created for limited university use.
adj. emerging coming into existence syn
blooming fledgling ant dying withering
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Lesson Sixteen
indefeasible
The watchdog group warned citizens to protect the
indefeasible rights that the constitution affords
them.
adj. not capable of being undone or voided syn
immutable unremitting constant ant varying
irregular temporary
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Lesson Sixteen
paladin
In compliance with the knightly code of honor,
the paladin engaged only the largest, bravest
opponents during the skirmish.
n. a heroic champion or leader ant villain
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Lesson Sixteen
sine qua non
Politeness is the sine qua non of a civilized
society.
n. something essential a prerequisite syn must
requirement necessity ant option
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Lesson Sixteen
arcane
The adventurers took the ancient scroll to the
oracle for translation of the arcane text.
adj. known or understood by only a few
mysterious syn secret obscure esoteric ant
famous obvious exoteric
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Lesson Sixteen
tangential
During business sessions with colleagues, Senator
Bluster delighted in tangential gossip about his
opponents indiscretions.
adj. merely touching or slightly connected
digressing from the main point syn nonessential
peripheral ant vital crucial relevant
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Lesson Sixteen
mercurial
Marys mercurial tendencies were a boon to her
acting career because they made her characters
seem unpredictable.
adj. quickly changing volatile syn fickle
unstable ant unchanging stable
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Lesson Sixteen
exculpate
The district attorney exculpated Joey Fingers
in exchange for his testimony against mobster
Nice Guy Eddie.
v. to clear of guilt to declare innocent syn
exonerate acquit vindicate ant condemn
accuse indict
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Lesson Sixteen
salubrious
In the 1800s, the treatment of deadly
tuberculosis was usually limited to salubrious
stays in the country.
adj. healthful syn salutary wholesome ant
harmful useless
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Lesson Sixteen
vicissitude
What didnt kill us made us strong, said the
old man, remarking on the many vicissitudes of
his familys journey west.
n. a sudden change or shift in ones life or
circumstances syn alteration variation
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Lesson Sixteen
squelch
Some kids consider whatever the best word to
squelch pushy grownups.
v. to suppress squash syn extinguish muffle
thwart ant promote support enact
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Lesson Sixteen
tyro
Touristy tyros are conspicuous for their
Im-lost looks and ever-present cameras.
n. a beginner novice syn amateur neophyte
rookie ant expert master guru
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Lesson Sixteen
matriculate
Kims unique knowledge of caves allowed her to
matriculate into the spelunking program at
Montana State.
v. to admit or be admitted into a group or a
college
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Lesson Seventeen
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Lesson Seventeen
depravity
Suddenly wealthy and famous, the undisciplined
actor lived a life of depravity and succumbed to
his drug and alcohol addictions before he had
reached the age of thirty.
n. moral corruption perversion syn immorality
debauchery vice ant virtue goodness decency
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Lesson Seventeen
megalomania
Consumed by megalomania, the doughnut magnate
refused to rest until he had built a shop in
every nation on Earth.
n. having delusions of grandeur an obsession
with grandiose things
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Lesson Seventeen
attribute
Sondra attributed her skills not to practice, but
perfect practice.
v. to relate to a particular cause to
ascribe syn credit blame impute ant dismiss
absolve
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Lesson Seventeen
celerity
When the assembly line exceeded the factory
workers celerity, auto parts began falling off
the rollers and rattling across the floor.
n. swiftness of action speed syn haste
rapidity alacrity ant delay procrastination
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Lesson Seventeen
alimentary
John, whose dogs had always lived on table
scraps, never understood why pet owners worried
about their animals
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