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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 15 Fire Control Firefighter I
2
Chapter 15 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to attack various types of fires, using
    effective attack tactics, following the policies
    and procedures set forth by the authority having
    jurisdiction (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Describe initial factors to consider when
    suppressing structure fires.
  • 2. Summarize considerations prior to entering a
    burning building.
  • 3. Explain the gas cooling technique.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Describe direct attack, indirect attack, and
    combination attack.
  • 5. Discuss deploying master stream devices.
  • 6. Describe aerial devices used to deliver
    elevated master streams.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 7. Describe actions and hazards associated with
    suppressing Class C fires.
  • 8. List electrical hazards and guidelines for
    electrical emergencies.
  • 9. Discuss responsibilities of companies in
    structural fires.

(Continued)
6
Specific Objectives
  • 10. Explain actions taken in attacking fires in
    upper levels of structures.
  • 11. Explain actions taken in attacking fires
    belowground in structures.
  • 12. Discuss structure fires in properties
    protected by fixed systems.

(Continued)
7
Specific Objectives
  • 13. Explain actions taken when attacking a
    vehicle fire.
  • 14. Explain actions taken when attacking trash
    container fires.
  • 15. Explain actions taken when attacking fires
    in confined spaces.

(Continued)
8
Specific Objectives
  • 16. Summarize influences on wildland fire
    behavior fuel, weather, and topography.
  • 17. Describe parts of a wildland fire.
  • 18. List wildland protective clothing and
    equipment.

(Continued)
9
Specific Objectives
  • 19. Describe methods used to attack wildland
    fires.
  • 20. List ten standard fire fighting orders when
    fighting wildland fires.
  • 21. Attack a structure fire Exterior attack.
    (Skill Sheet 15-I-1)

(Continued)
10
Specific Objectives
  • 22. Deploy and operate a master stream device.
    (Skill Sheet 15-I-2)
  • 23. Turn off building utilities. (Skill Sheet
    15-I-3)
  • 24. Attack a structure fire (above, below, and
    grade level) Interior attack. (Skill Sheet
    15-I-4)

(Continued)
11
Specific Objectives
  • 25. Attack a passenger vehicle fire. (Skill
    Sheet 15-I-5)
  • 26. Extinguish a fire in a trash container.
    (Skill Sheet 15-I-6)
  • 27. Attack a fire in stacked/piled materials.
    (Skill Sheet 15-I-7)
  • 28. Attack a ground cover fire. (Skill Sheet
    15-I-8)

12
Coordination When Suppressing Structure Fires
  • Fire attack on burning structure must be
    coordinated
  • When fighting any fire, firefighters should
    always work as a team under direction of a
    supervisor

13
Actions to Take
  • Advancing hoseline teams should carry equipment
    needed to perform a variety of tasks
  • Certain equipment carried by teams advancing
    hoselines
  • Person at nozzle has responsibilities before
    entering building/area

(Continued)
14
Actions to Take
  • When structure/major contents are involved in
    fire, firefighters should wait at entrance,
    staying low, out of doorway until fire officer
    gives order to advance
  • Before entry, extinguish fires showing in
    exterior overhangs/around entry or egress points

(Continued)
15
Actions to Take
  • Whenever possible, approach and attack fire from
    unburned side to keep it from spreading
    throughout structure
  • Once fire is contained, determine area of origin,
    protect evidence before overhaul and
    extinguishment

(Continued)
16
Actions to Take
  • Breathing apparatus must be worn during overhaul,
    extinguishment
  • Valuables found during overhaul should be turned
    in to supervisor

17
Pre-Entry Considerations
  • Conduct quick size-up
  • Maintain high level of situation awareness
  • Read fire behavior indicators
  • Understand crews tactical assignment

(Continued)
18
Pre-Entry Considerations
  • Identify potential emergency escape routes
  • Assess forcible entry requirements
  • Identify hazards
  • Verify that radios are working, on right channel,
    being received

19
Opening Doors
  • If door to fire area must be opened, all
    members should stay low and to one side of
    doorway
  • Check door for heat before opening

20
Gas Cooling
  • Not a fire extinguishment method way of reducing
    hazard presented by hot gas layer
  • Effective when faced with shielded fire

21
Hot Gas Layer
  • Hot gas layer accumulating in upper levels of
    compartment presents problems
  • Cooling hot gas layer mitigates hazards by
    slowing transfer of heat to other combustibles

22
Cooling Hot Gas Layer
  • Apply short pulses of water fog onto it
  • Repeat technique as necessary while hose team
    advances under gas layer toward fire

23
Direct Attack
  • Most efficient use of water on free-burning fires
    made by direct attack

(Continued)
24
Direct Attack
  • Usually from straight or solid stream
  • Techniques
  • Water should not be applied long enough to upset
    thermal layering

25
Indirect Attack
  • Used when firefighters unable to enter burning
    building/compartment
  • Can be made from outside compartment through
    window or other small opening

Courtesy of Dick Giles
(Continued)
26
Indirect Attack
  • Not ideal method of attack where building
    occupants may still be inside
  • May be only method of attack until temperatures
    reduced
  • Procedures for making indirect attack

27
Combination Attack
  • Uses heat-absorbing technique of cooling hot gas
    layer followed by heat-reducing direct attack on
    materials burning near floor level

28
Master Streams
  • Usually deployed in situations where fire is
    beyond effectiveness of handlines or there is
    need for fire streams in areas that are unsafe
    for firefighters
  • Main uses for master stream

29
Positioning Master Stream
  • Must be properly positioned to apply effective
    master stream on fire
  • Master stream can be adjusted up, down and left,
    right
  • Once line in operation, must be shut down if
    device is to be moved

(Continued)
30
Positioning Master Stream
  • Stream should be aimed so it enters structure at
    upward angle, deflects off ceiling or other
    overhead objects

(Continued)
31
Positioning Master Stream
  • Desirable to place master stream device in
    location that allows stream to cover most surface
    area of building

32
Supplying Master Streams
  • Master stream devices can have high friction loss
    in supply hose
  • Because master stream devices used primarily in
    defensive fire fighting, desirable to shut down
    handlines to keep from reducing water supply
    available for master streams

(Continued)
33
Supplying Master Streams
  • Always follow SOPs in operation of master
    streams, handlines

34
Staffing Master Stream Devices
  • Usually takes minimum of two firefighters to
    deploy master stream device, supply water to it
  • Once portable master stream device in place, can
    be operated by one firefighter

(Continued)
35
Staffing Master Stream Devices
  • Some situations may be too dangerous to have
    firefighters stationed at master stream device

36
Elevated Master Stream Devices
  • Used to apply water to upper stories of
    multistory buildings, either in direct attack or
    to supply handlines
  • Delivered by aerial devices

37
Quints
  • Engines equipped with hydraulically operated
    extension ladder or aerial apparatus equipped
    with pump
  • Main ladders range in length

(Continued)
38
Quints
  • Have waterways pre-plumbed to pumps
  • Only external support Water supply
  • Main ladder can be used for rescuing people from
    exterior windows, ledges, and rooftops within
    reach of main ladder

39
Aerial Ladders
Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mikal, NOFD
Photo Unit.
  • Apparatus equipped with hydraulically operated
    extension ladders

(Continued)
40
Aerial Ladders
  • In North America, usually 50-135 feet (15-41 m),
    but in Europe sometimes as much as 300 feet (100
    m)
  • Newer aerial ladders equipped with built-in
    waterways that supply master stream nozzle

(Continued)
41
Aerial Ladders
  • Master stream nozzles of both types of apparatus
    can be operated by firefighters at ladder tip/on
    ground
  • Can be used for rescuing people from exterior
    windows, ledges, rooftops within reach

42
Aerial Platforms
  • Available in two configurations
  • Aerial ladder platforms
  • Articulating aerial platforms

(Continued)
43
Aerial Platforms
  • All equipped with built-in waterways, some with
    narrow escape ladders
  • Can be used for rescuing people

44
Water Towers
  • Engines equipped with hydraulically operated
    booms that are dedicated to applying water
  • Most range from 50-130 feet (15-40 m) in length

Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mikal, NOFD
Photo Unit.
(Continued)
45
Water Towers
  • Some have narrow escape ladders attached to boom
  • Not designed for rescue operations

46
Class C Fires
  • Involve energized electrical equipment
  • Major safety hazard Firefighters fail to
    recognize danger and take appropriate steps for
    protection
  • Once electrical power turned off, may
    self-extinguish or fall into Class A or B

(Continued)
47
Class C Fires
  • In many commercial and high rise buildings,
    electrical power necessary to operate essential
    systems not to be shut off until ordered
  • When handling fires in delicate
    electronic/computer equipment, clean
    extinguishing agents should be used

(Continued)
48
Class C Fires
  • Multipurpose dry-chemical agents effective, but
    some chemically reactive with components
  • Using water inappropriate because of shock hazard

(Continued)
49
Class C Fires
  • Fire suppression techniques needed for fires
    involving transmission lines and equipment,
    underground lines, commercial high-voltage
    installations
  • Departmental operating procedures

50
Class C Fires Transmission Lines and Equipment
  • Relatively small number of electrical emergencies
    involve fires in electrical substations,
    transmission lines, associated equipment

(Continued)
51
Class C Fires Transmission Lines and Equipment
  • Electrical power lines sometimes break, start
    fires in grass/other vegetation
  • Fires in electrical transformers common

52
Class C Fires Underground Transmission Lines
  • Consist of conduits, vaults below grade
  • Most serious hazards presented are explosions
    caused by fuses blowing or short-circuit arcing
    that ignites accumulated gases
  • Electrical utility vault

53
Class C Fires Commercial High-Voltage
Installations
  • Many commercial/industrial complexes have
    electrical equipment requiring 600 volts
  • High-voltage signs may be on doors
  • Some transformers use flammable coolants that are
    hazardous

(Continued)
54
Class C Fires Commercial High-Voltage
Installations
  • Water should not be used because of potential
    damage to electrical equipment uninvolved in fire
  • Because of toxic chemicals, smoke is additional
    hazard
  • Firefighters should only enter for rescue

55
Controlling Electrical Power
  • Advantageous for electrical power to remain on
    for lighting, fire pumps, other essential
    systems
  • Decision made by IC and Incident Safety Officer

(Continued)
56
Controlling Electrical Power
  • When power turned off, should be turned off at
    main panel by power utility employee
  • Always follow departmental SOP

(Continued)
57
Controlling Electrical Power
  • Removing meter may not completely stop flow of
    electricity because of emergency power
    capabilities
  • Considerations for clandestine drug labs, indoor
    marijuana-growing operations

58
Electrical Shock
  • Consequences of electrical shock
  • Factors most affecting seriousness of electrical
    shock

59
Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
  • Establish exclusion zone equal to one span all
    directions from downed power lines

(Continued)
60
Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
  • Be aware other wires may have been weakened by
    short circuit, may fall at any time
  • Wear full protective clothing, use only tested
    and approved tools with insulated handles

(Continued)
61
Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
  • Guard against electrical shocks, burns, eye
    injuries from electrical arcs
  • Wait for utility workers to cut power lines

(Continued)
62
Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
  • Use lockout/tagout devices when working on
    electrical equipment
  • Be very careful when raising/lowering ladders
    near power lines

(Continued)
63
Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
  • Do not touch any vehicle/apparatus in contact
    with electrical wires
  • Jump clear of apparatus that may be energized by
    contact with power lines
  • Do not use solid, straight streams on fires in
    energized electrical equipment

(Continued)
64
Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
  • Use fog streams with at least 100 psi (700 kPa)
    nozzle pressure
  • Be aware wire mesh or steel rail fences can be
    energized by wires outside field of view

(Continued)
65
Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
  • Where wires are down, heed any tingling sensation
    felt in feet, back away
  • Avoid ground gradient hazards by maintaining
    large safety zone around downed electrical wires

66
Company-Level Fire Tactics
  • Standard tactical priorities Life safety,
    incident stabilization, property conservation
  • Order of priorities same, but actions taken on
    fireground may/may not be performed in that order

67
Responsibilities First Due Engine Company
  • If smoke/fire visible, may be departmental SOP to
    stop, lay supply line from hydrant or end of
    driveway into scene
  • Company officer will conduct rapid initial
    assessment of situation

(Continued)
68
Responsibilities First Due Engine Company
  • Assessment determines further actions taken by
    first-due engine company
  • If by taking immediate action company can save 1
    lives, will do so even if not enough firefighters
    on scene to form rapid intervention crew (RIC)

(Continued)
69
Responsibilities First Due Engine Company
  • If no obvious, immediate life-safety concerns,
    and fire threatening to extend to another nearby
    structure, officer may order lines pulled to
    apply water to exposure
  • Officer may call for more resources

(Continued)
70
Responsibilities First Due Engine Company
  • Given a small interior fire, company officer
    usually assumes Command of incident
  • Once location of fire known, first-due engine
    company will position initial attack hoseline to
    cover priorities

71
Responsibilities Second Due Engine Company
  • Must make sure adequate water supply established
    to the fireground,
  • May finish hose lay, lay additional line, connect
    to hydrant
  • Proceeds according to priorities

72
Responsibilities Fireground Support Company
  • Responsible for performing tasks in order
    dictated by situation
  • Functions may be performed by engine personnel
    when support companies not available
  • May assist in making fire attack

73
Responsibilities Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
  • Consists of 2 members wearing appropriate PPE,
    radio equipped with special rescue tools,
    equipment necessary to effect rescue of other
    emergency personnel

(Continued)
74
Responsibilities Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
  • May be assigned other emergency scene duties
    must be prepared to drop those immediately if
    needed
  • Exact number determined by IC

75
Responsibilities Chief Officer/Incident
Commander
  • Upon arriving at scene, chief officer may choose
    to assume Command from original IC, take
    responsibility for all on-scene operations

(Continued)
76
Responsibilities Chief Officer/Incident
Commander
  • If original IC has incident well organized,
    progress toward incident stabilization being
    made, chief officer may assume another role

77
Fires in Upper Levels of Structures
  • Typical residential response consisting of 2-3
    engines one truck usually inadequate
  • Large number of firefighters needed

78
Attacking Fires in Upper Levels
  • Fire attack typically initiated from floor below
    fire floor
  • Crews should check floors above main fire floor
    for fire extension, victims

(Continued)
79
Attacking Fires in Upper Levels
  • Staging usually established two floors below fire
    floor
  • Personnel must exercise caution in streets around
    outside perimeter of high-rise building

80
Fires Belowground in Structures
  • Can expose firefighters to extremely hostile
    conditions
  • May be possible to control fire without entering
    basement

(Continued)
81
Fires Belowground in Structures
  • If cellar nozzle unavailable, firefighters may
    have to enter burning basement
  • Good ventilation techniques extremely important
  • Heavy objects on floor above fire floor can
    increase chance of floor collapse

82
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
  • Firefighters should be familiar with systems in
    buildings protected by their department
  • Supporting systems critical during fire

(Continued)
83
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
  • Types of systems
  • Dangers involved with fires in occupancies with
    fixed systems

84
Preincident Plans
  • Often contain SOPs used at these occupancies
  • Include detailed descriptions of construction
    features, contents, protection systems,
    surrounding properties

(Continued)
85
Preincident Plans
  • May specify procedures for each company
  • Contain building map
  • Must be updated regularly

86
Sprinklered Buildings
  • Support company personnel often used to manage
    systems operation
  • Must always follow departmental SOPs regarding
    actions taken
  • Some possible actions

87
Fires in Small Passenger Vehicles
  • Among most common types of fires to which
    firefighters called
  • Dictate firefighters wear full PPE, SCBA

Courtesy of Bob Esposito
(Continued)
88
Fires in Small Passenger Vehicles
  • Attack line at least 1½-inch (38 mm) hoseline
  • Booster lines do not provide protection of rapid
    cooling needed to effectively, safely fight
    vehicle fire

(Continued)
89
Fires in Small Passenger Vehicles
  • Attack fire from the side and upwind, uphill when
    possible
  • Portable extinguishers can suppress some fires in
    vehicles engine compartment/electrical system

90
Basic Procedures
  • One of first actions is to establish safe working
    zone following U.S. DOT guidelines
  • Once scene safety established, firefighters can
    focus on saving vehicle occupants, fighting fire

(Continued)
91
Basic Procedures
  • Firefighters should stay out of potential travel
    path of front, rear bumpers
  • Basic firefighting procedures

(Continued)
92
Basic Procedures
  • When attacking fire in passenger compartment, use
    most appropriate nozzle/pattern for situation
  • Fires in undercarriage
  • Overhaul

93
Hazards
  • In addition to hazards associated with other
    fires, there are hazards specific to vehicle
    fires
  • Catalytic converters can act as ignition source
    to dry grass/other fuels under vehicle

(Continued)
94
Hazards
  • Interior components on vehicle mainly plastic,
    which burns rapidly at high temperatures and
    emits toxic gases
  • Air bags can deploy from steering wheel,
    dashboard, door of vehicle

(Continued)
95
Hazards
  • Hybrid vehicles incorporate high-voltage cables,
    components
  • Do not assume any vehicle is without
    extraordinary hazards

96
Trash Container Fires
  • Possibility of exposure to toxic products of
    combustion ever-present
  • May include hazardous materials or plastics
  • Full PPE, SCBA should be worn when attacking any
    trash container fire

97
Attacking Trash Container Fires
  • Size of attack line depends on size of fire and
    proximity to exposures
  • Fires in small piles of trash, garbage cans,
    small containers can often be extinguished with
    booster line

(Continued)
98
Attacking Trash Container Fires
  • Larger piles, larger containers, fires close to
    exposures should be attacked with at least
    1½-inch (38 mm) line
  • Master streams may be needed to keep trash
    container fires from spreading

(Continued)
99
Attacking Trash Container Fires
  • Once fire has been controlled, may be possible to
    use standard overhaul techniques to complete
    extinguishment
  • May be advantageous to attack fire using Class A
    foam

100
Confined Spaces
  • Below grade or otherwise without natural/forced
    ventilation
  • Atmospheric hazards
  • Physical hazards

(Continued)
101
Confined Spaces
  • Where to find information on fire
  • Hazard mitigation plans
  • Because of hazards, command post and staging area
    must be established outside hot zone

102
Fire Attack
  • Fires may also be attacked indirectly with
    penetrating nozzles, cellar nozzles, distributor
    nozzles
  • Effective air-management system should be part of
    IAP

103
Wildland Fires
  • Include those in weeds, grass, field crops,
    brush, forests, similar vegetation
  • Have characteristics not comparable to fires in
    buildings
  • Main influences on wildland fire behavior

Courtesy of National Interagency Fire Center
(NIFC).
104
Wildland Fires Fuel
  • Classified by grouping those with similar
    burning characteristics together
  • Factors affecting burning characteristics of fuels

(Continued)
105
Wildland Fires Fuel
106
Wildland Fires Weather
  • Wind
  • Temperature
  • Relative humidity
  • Precipitation

107
Wildland Fires Topography
  • Steepness of slope affects both rate, direction
    of wildland fires spread
  • Fires will usually spread faster uphill than
    down steeper the slope, faster fire spreads

(Continued)
108
Wildland Fires Topography
  • Aspect
  • Local terrain features
  • Drainages

109
Parts of Wildland Fire
110
Wildland PPE
  • Firefighters need to wear wildland fire
    protective clothing because standard structural
    turnout clothing inappropriate can be dangerous

(Continued)
111
Wildland PPE
  • PPE should meet NFPA 1977
  • NFPA 1500 specifies minimum PPE
  • Most wildland fire agencies provide additional
    materials

112
Attacking Wildland Fires
  • Methods revolve around perimeter control
  • Control line may be at burning edge, next to it,
    or a distance away
  • Objective is to establish control line that
    completely encircles fire

113
Wildland Fire Approaches
  • Direct attack is action taken directly against
    flames at edge or closely parallel
  • Indirect attack used at varying distances from
    advancing fire

(Continued)
114
Wildland Fire Approaches
  • Because wildland fire constantly changing, attack
    methods may change

115
Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting
Wildland Fires
  • Keep informed on fire weather conditions,
    forecasts
  • Know what fire doing at all times
  • Base all actions on current, expected behavior of
    fire

(Continued)
116
Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting
Wildland Fires
  • Identify escape routes and safety zones, make
    them known
  • Post lookouts when possible danger
  • Be alert, keep calm, think clearly, act
    decisively

(Continued)
117
Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting
Wildland Fires
  • Maintain prompt communications with your forces,
    your supervisor, adjoining forces
  • Give clear instructions, ensure they are
    understood

(Continued)
118
Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting
Wildland Fires
  • Maintain control of forces at all times
  • Fight fire aggressively, providing for safety
    first

119
Summary
  • Attacking fires early in their development is an
    important aspect of a successful fire fighting
    operation. Likewise, selecting and applying the
    most effective fire attack strategy and tactics
    are also important.

(Continued)
120
Summary
  • Failing to do any of these things can result in a
    fire growing out of control, an increase in fire
    damage and loss, and possibly in firefighter
    injuries.

(Continued)
121
Summary
  • Firefighters need to know how to use the fire
    fighting tools and techniques adopted by their
    departments. They need to know how to safely and
    effectively attack and extinguish structure
    fires, vehicle fires, refuse fires, and wildland
    fires.

122
Review Questions
  • 1. What initial actions should firefighters take
    when suppressing a structural fire?
  • 2. What are the differences among a direct
    attack, an indirect attack, and a combination
    attack?

(Continued)
123
Review Questions
  • 3. When are master streams usually deployed?
  • 4. What are three guidelines for electrical
    emergencies?
  • 5. What are the parts of a wildland fire?
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