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Prenatal Influences on Development

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Title: Understanding Intellectual Development of Infants Author: User Last modified by: Loni_Lambeth Created Date: 3/4/2009 4:58:17 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prenatal Influences on Development


1
Prenatal Influences on Development
2
Prenatal Influences on Development
  • Nutrition
  • Anxiety
  • Mothers General Health
  • Maternal Age
  • Teratogens Any agent that causes a birth defect
  • Ex. Drugs, Alcohol, Radiation, Viruses)
  • Disease
  • Birth Complications

3
Understanding Intellectual, Social, and
Emotional Development of Infants
  • Intellectual Development Slides Created ByMrs.
    Eberwine
  • Additions and Changes Made By Ms. Bauerle

4
Intellectual Development
5
Learning in the First Year
  • Right from birth- babies have a number of
    capabilities.
  • Hear, see, taste, smell, and feel
  • REFLEXES
  • A babys ability to learn from the senses is
    called perception.
  • Newborns CANT see objects in 3D, but
    3-month-olds can.
  • In time newborns develop the hand-eye
    coordination to grasp and handle objects.

6
  • Babies also develop four abilities that show
    growing thinking power
  • Remembering- In the first few months they develop
    this ability.
  • Ex A 2 or 3 month old may stop crying when
    someone enters the room because he/she knows they
    are likely to be comforted.
  • Making associations
  • Ex Baby associates a parent or other caregiver
    with receiving comfort (baby stops crying when
    parent walks in room).

7
  • 3. Understanding Cause/Effect- the idea that one
    action results in another action or condition.
  • Ex When a baby closes his/her eyes, it gets
    dark- when they open them, it gets light.
  • Ex Sucking causes milk to flow (if baby stops
    sucking, milk stops)
  • As baby motor skills develop, cause/effect
    learning changes. (7-8 months, babies can throw
    things deliberately, they can pull a string on a
    toy to make it move).
  • Paying attention
  • A babys attention span- the length of time a
    person can concentrate on a task without getting
    bored, grows longer.
  • If the same object is presented over and over
    again, the babys response to the object will
    eventually become less enthusiastic.

8
Discriminating Sounds
  • Seem to be able to discriminate between
    individual voices
  • React to sounds turn head towards sounds
  • Infants pay attention to patterns or sequences of
    sounds from birth.
  • Schematic Learning
  • Organization of experiences into expectancies
    that enable infants to distinguish between
    familiar and unfamiliar stimuli

9
Piaget The Sensorimotor Period
  • First stage
  • From birth to age two
  • First stage of learning.
  • Babies learn primarily through their senses and
    their own actions.
  • By 10 months, babies realize that objects
    continue to exist even when they are out of sight
    (Object permanence)
  • Ex Age 4 months, Maria drops her rubber ring
    toy and it rolls behind her. At 11 months, when
    her ball rolls out of sight, Maria actively looks
    for it.

10
Freud Psychosexual Theory
  • Infancy Stage
  • ORAL STAGE
  • Get basic pleasures out of oral stimulations
  • Examples Sucking, Teething

11
Basic States of Infant Sleep and Wakefulness
(States of Consciousness)
  • Deep Sleep
  • Eyes Closed, Regular Breathing, no movement
    except occasional startle
  • Active Sleep
  • Eyes Closed, Irregular Breathing, Small twitches,
    no gross body movement
  • Quiet Awake
  • Eyes Open, No Major Body Movement, Regular
    Breathing
  • Active Awake
  • Eyes open, movements of the head, limbs, and
    trunk, irregular breathing.
  • Crying, Fussing
  • Eyes partially or entirely closed, vigorous
    diffuse movements with crying or fussing sounds.

12
SIDS
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • A phenomenon in which an apparently healthy
    infant dies suddenly and unexpectedly.

13
Social and Emotional Development
14
Social and Personality Development
  • Temperament
  • Inborn predisposition to consistently behave and
    react in a certain way
  • Easy Adaptable, positive, regular habits
  • Slow to Warm Low Activity, somewhat slow to
    adapt, generally withdraw from new situations
  • Difficult- intense emotions, irritable, cry
    frequently
  • Average able to classify (1/3 of all children)

15
Anxieties
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • Expression of discomfort, such as clinging to the
    mother, in the presence of strangers
  • Separation Anxiety
  • Expressions of discomfort, such as crying, when
    separated from attachment figure.

16
Erikson Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Attachment
  • Emotional bond between infant and caregiver
  • 36 Month Window of Opportunity (First 3 years of
    Life)
  • Foundation of Emotional and Social Behaviors in
    Life
  • Quality of Attachment
  • Parents who are consistently warm, responsive,
    and sensitive to the infants needs usually have
    infants who are securely attached.
  • Parents who are neglectful, inconsistent, or
    insensitive to infants needs usually have infants
    who are insecurely attached.

17
Attachment Affects
  • Developing relationships with others.
  • Organization of the brain and nervous system.
  • Identity and self-esteem.
  • Speech and language development.
  • Attaining full intellectual potential.
  • Regulation of feelings and behavior.
  • Acquiring a conscience.
  • Developing a sense of time as continuous and
  • sequential.

18
Attachment Disorder
  • In the first two years of life, children go
    through healthy attachment cycles - the first
    year and second year attachment cycles. A healthy
    first year attachment cycle looks like this

19
Attachment Disorder
  • Now, take a look at the disturbed attachment
    cycle 

20
Attachment Disorder
  • Instead of learning to trust as the baby who
    experiences the Healthy Attachment Cycle, this
    baby learns that the world is an unsafe place,
    that he must take care of himself, that he can
    trust no one to meet his needs.
  • He learns that he cannot depend on adults.
  • Instead of trust developing, rage develops and is
    internalized.
  • He learns that he must be in charge of his life
    for his very survival.

21
Attachment Disorder
  • If the child has been able to successfully go
    through the Healthy Attachment Cycle during his
    first year of life, then he most likely will be
    able to go through the next which is the Second
    Year Secure Attachment Cycle

22
Attachment Disorder
  • It is by going through these two healthy
    attachment cycles that the child learns to trust,
    engage in reciprocity, to regulate his emotions.
  • It is back there that he starts to develop a
    conscience, self- esteem, empathy, the
    foundations for logical thinking are laid down,
    etc.

23
Attachment Disorder
  • The quality of the initial attachment is
    enormously important, for it contours all
    subsequent development. Attachment has been
    identified as playing a vital role in all of the
    following Developing relationships with
    others.Organization of the brain and nervous
    system.Identity and self-esteem.Speech and
    language development.Attaining full intellectual
    potential.Regulation of feelings and behavior.
    Acquiring a conscience. Developing a sense of
    time as continuous and sequential.

24
Attachment Disorder
  • When the attachment process does not go well, it
    is almost never because of any single cause  but
    because of multiple influences interacting.   A
    number of risk factors have been identified as
    increasing the probability of attachment
    difficulties

Prenatal rejection of the infant.Intrauterine
exposure to alcohol and /or drugs.An early
history of loss / abandonment.A history of
multiple caretakers, and/or multiple changes in
living location early in the child's
life.Failure to thrive chronic illness or
pain.Sensory processing deficits and
developmental disorders that obstruct interaction
with the environment.Physical and/or sexual
abuse.  Neglect.Extended or repeated
hospitalizations mother and / or child during
the child's first three years.Significant
parental mental health problems including
substance abuse.A history of harsh,
overindulgent, or extremely inconsistent
parenting.Chronic severe marital
conflict.Domestic violenceA significant
temperamental misfit between parent and
child.Excessive parental unavailability. 
Insufficient empathy / attunement.
25
Attachment Disorder
  • Attachment Disordered AD children are a
    diagnostic collage. Aspects of their functioning
    can be found in all of the following diagnostic
    categories
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
    DisorderOppositional Defiant DisorderConduct
    DisorderSeparation Anxiety DisorderGeneralized
    anxiety disorderPost Traumatic Stress
    DisorderDysthymic Disorder / Major
    DepressionBipolar Disorder / Cyclothymic
    DisorderSensory Integration Disorder

26
Genie Secret of a Wild Child
  • Part 1 814 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vdEnkY2iaKisfeature
    related
  • Part 2 345 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vjqqanfbK1H0feature
    related

27
Child of Rage
  • Clip 1 957 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vFJ5d5VYJ5z4
  • Clip 2 851 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vEZwwU_DyLK4feature
    related
  • Clip 3 950 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v5XTo2wg7ZmQfeature
    related
  • Clip 4 338 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vOLqcvp60L0Efeature
    related
  • Clip 5 805 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v2sJYaE8BCU4feature
    related
  • Clip 6 838 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vLjI6bSxb6Vsfeature
    related
  • Clip 7 957 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v1owzVVSJJT4feature
    related
  • Clip 8 930 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vxKDZLpc0qFIfeature
    related
  • Clip 9 959 mins
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vUiT36XBJtuAfeature
    related
  • Clip 10 942 mins

28
Attachment
  • Attachment Disorders
  • http//www.attachmentdisorder.net/What_is_attachme
    nt_disorder.htm
  • http//www.attachmentdisordermaryland.com/intro.ht
    m
  • http//www.attachmentdisorder.net/Informative_Link
    s.htm
  •  
  • Child of Rage Video
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?voRoUi673lz8feature
    related
  • http//www.youtube.com/results?search_queryChild
    ofRagesearch_typeaqf
  • (10 Video Clips)
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