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Ecosystem Ecology

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Ecosystem Ecology I. Introduction II. Energy Flow III. Biogeochemical Cycles IV. Productivity, Diversity, and Stability C. Stability 1. Types 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecosystem Ecology


1
Ecosystem Ecology   I. Introduction II. Energy
Flow III. Biogeochemical Cycles IV. Productivity,
Diversity, and Stability
2
A. Productivity
3
A. Productivity 1. Gross Primary Productivity?
4
A. Productivity 1. Gross Primary
Productivity Total photosynthetic
productivity CO2 H20 -----gt Glucose O2
5
A. Productivity 2. Net Primary Productivity?
6
A. Productivity 2. Net Primary Productivity
NPP GPP - respiration (Plants use some of the
energy they absorb it is not stored as biomass.
NPP is only the amount stored as new biomass.)
7
B. Diversity - Relationships with Productivity
8
B. Diversity - Relationships with Productivity
1. Productivity increases diversity
9
B. Diversity - Relationships with Productivity
1. Productivity increases diversity
- QUANTITATIVE EFFECT If you have more
productivity at the base of a food web, then you
can build a longer food chain (adding additional
levels AND species). And then get keystone
effects.
10
B. Diversity - Relationships with Productivity
1. Productivity increases diversity
- QUALITATIVE EFFECT An increase in
productivity may also occur because more types of
food have been added. This may allow for more
specialization at the next trophic level - and
the coexistence of more species.
11
B. Diversity - Relationships with Productivity
1. Productivity increases diversity 2.
Diversity increases productivity
12
- Sampling Effects More diverse communities
are more likely to contain the most productive
species, and thus raise the total productivity.
13
- Niche Complementarity More diverse
communities are more likely to contain different
types of species that use different types of
energy... thus more efficiently harvesting the
available energy
14
Monoculture
Polyculture
They all need the same things at the same
concentrations have to place them far apart to
reduce competition.
Combinations of different plants can be planted
at higher density, and they use different
"niches" and coexist. Even if abundance of "most
productive" species, drops, this loss can be
offset.
15
- Positive Interactions More diverse
communities may contain species that benefit
other species, and thus increase the productivity
of the whole community
16
Monoculture
Polyculture
without beans
with beans
They all need the same things at the same
concentrations have to place them far apart to
reduce competition.
Nitrogen fixing legumes (beans) nutrify the soil,
increasing the growth of other plants
17

Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term
Grassland Experiment Tilman, et al. 2001. Science
294. 843 - 845
Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve
- 168 9 m x 9 m plots - 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16
species randomly chosen from a pool of 18
species 4 species, each, of C4 grasses, C3
grasses, legumes, non-legume forbs 2 species of
woody plants. - 35 replicates of each treatment
18

Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term
Grassland Experiment Tilman, et al. 2001. Science
294. 843 - 845 Dotted line is biomass in a
monoculture of the most productive species.
Higher productivity than this, at higher richness
values, means niche complementarity or positive
effects must be occurring.
19

Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term
Grassland Experiment Tilman, et al. 2001. Science
294. 843 - 845 Dotted line is biomass in a
monoculture of the most productive species.
Higher productivity than this, at higher richness
values, means niche complementarity or positive
effects must be occurring.
So, many random assemblages of multiple species
have biomass above that of the most abundant
monoculture (cant just be sampling effect).
20

Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term
Grassland Experiment Tilman, et al. 2001. Science
294. 843 - 845 Dotted line is biomass in a
monoculture of the most productive species.
Higher productivity than this, at higher richness
values, means niche complementarity or positive
effects must be occurring.
So, many random assemblages of multiple species
have biomass above that of the most abundant
monoculture. And we might expect greater niche
complementarity in natural systems
21
Additional Experiments and Results - Foliar
fungal disease incidence decreased at higher
diversity because of greater distance between
individuals of a species, and resultant lower
rates of disease spread (Mitchell et al. 2002).
(Dilution Effect) - Greater plant diversity
led to greater diversity of herbivorous insects,
and this effect continued up the food web to
predator and parasitoid insects (Haddad et al.
2001). (Qualitative Effects of Diversity)
22
Additional Experiments and Results - Fewer
novel plant species invaded higher diversity
treatments because of their lower soil NO3
levels, greater neighborhood crowding and
competition, and greater chance that functionally
similar species would occur in a given
neighborhood (Figs 3 Naeem et al. 2000, Kennedy
et al. 2002, Fargione et al. 2003, Fargione and
Tilman 2005a, 2005b). Greater plant species
numbers led to greater ecosystem stability (lower
year-to-year variation in total plant biomass)
but to lower species stability (greater
year-to-year variation in abundances of
individual species), with the stabilizing effect
of diversity mainly attributable to statistical
averaging effects and overyielding effects (Fig
4 Tilman et al, submitted). Data gathered this
past field season shows that soil total C has now
become an increasing function of plant species
numbers (Fig 5).
23
Additional Experiments and Results - Greater
plant species numbers led to greater ecosystem
stability (lower year-to-year variation in total
plant biomass) but to lower species stability
(greater year-to-year variation in abundances of
individual species).
24
Additional Experiments and Results - Stored
soil carbon increases with diversity.
25
- Effects of Genetic Diversity Example
Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Methods - 63 1m2 plots, each
containing 12 plants of all goldenrod. - The
plants in a plot represent either 1, 3, 6, or 12
genotypes, randomly selected from a pool of 21
genotypes.
26
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Results 1 ANPP correlated with number
of genotypes in plot.
27
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Results 1 ANPP correlated with number
of genotypes in plot. 2 Total insect species
diversity, and diversity of herbivores and
predators, correlate with ANPP and number of
genotypes per plot.
28
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Results 3. The effects were
non-additive there were more arthropods (and
herbivores and predators) in 6 and 12 species
plots than predicted by adding the richness
values of the monocultures.
29
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Results 4 ANPP increase is NOT due to
a sampling effect. Evidence favors niche
complementation (p 0.07).
30
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Results 5 Increase in herbivorous
insects due to both MORE food (ANPP -
quantitative effect) and DIFFERENT food (niche
differentiation - qualitative effect).
31
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Results 6 Increase in predator
richness due to increase in herbivore richness,
not AMOUNT of food. Some herbivores were only
associated with some genotypes.
32
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Conclusions ANPP increased with
genetic diversity, probably as a function of
niche complementarity.
33
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Conclusions ANPP increased with
genetic diversity, probably as a function of
niche complementarity. Diversity in higher
trophic levels increased with increased ANPP and
greater genetic diversity. Herbivore richness is
a function of both increased abundance and niche
complementarity. Predators increase largely due
to a greater variety of herbivores.
34
- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313
966-968. Conclusions ANPP increased with
genetic diversity, probably as a function of
niche complementarity. Diversity in higher
trophic levels increased with increased ANPP and
greater genetic diversity. Herbivore richness is
a function of both increased abundance and niche
complementarity. Predators increase largely due
to a greater variety of herbivores. So, genetic
variation WITHIN species, and not just diversity
among species, may be critical to the
conservation of productive and species-rich
communities.
35
C. Effects on Stability
36
C. Effects on Stability 1. Types -
"resistance to change" - "resilience after
change"
37
C. Effects on Stability 1. Types 2.
Relationships with diversity - more diverse
communities are less susceptible to single "types
of disturbance" - (a pest, a flood, a drought) -
because the many species are unlikely to be
sensitive to the same thing.
38
C. Effects on Stability
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Current
Knowledge and Future Challenges. Loreau, et al.
2001. Science 294 804 - 808
As richness increases, communities become less
variable (more stable).
39
C. Stability 1. Types 2. Relationships with
diversity - diverse communities may recover more
rapidly, too (resilience).... but they may
not. Fisheries ... yes Rain forest... maybe not
40
Stimulate condensation and precipitation
Volatiles released
Rainforests feed themselves and water themselves.
Decomposition rapid
Absorption rapid
41
CUT FOREST DOWN
Select for fire-adapted grasses.... rainforest
doesn't come back....
REDUCE RAINFALL... REDUCE NUTRIENTS INCREASE FIRE
42
RAINFOREST (wet, few fires)
"Multiple Stable States"
GRASSLAND (dry, many fires)
43
We are dependent on the environment for food and
resources. Ideally, we would like a STABLE,
PRODUCTIVE supply of these resources.... right??
FEAST
FAMINE
44
(We don't want "boom and bust", "feast and
famine" scenarios....)
FEAST
FAMINE
45
We are dependent on the environment for food and
resources. Ideally, we would like a STABLE,
PRODUCTIVE supply of these resources....
right?? (We don't want "boom and bust", "feast
and famine" scenarios....)
STABILITY
?
PRODUCTIVITY
46
We are playing jenga with our life support
systems...
de Ruiter et al. 2005. Food Web Ecology Playing
Jenga and Beyond Science 30968 - 71
47
de Ruiter et al. 2005. Food Web Ecology Playing
Jenga and Beyond Science 30968 - 71
48
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49
The pale blue dot . Earth from the Voyager
spacecraft, gt 4 billion miles away http//solarsys
tem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID2148
50
http//www.solstation.com/stars/earth.htm
http//nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/photogall
ery-mars.html
51
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52
http//www.thew2o.net/
53
http//www.misterteacher.com/rainforestwebquest.ht
ml
54
Earth Mars
CO2 0.035 95
N2 77 2.7
H2O 1 0.007
Ar 0.93 1.6
O2 21 trace
http//www.misterteacher.com/rainforestwebquest.ht
ml
55
http//science.kennesaw.edu/jdirnber/BioOceanogra
phy/Lectures/LecPhysicalOcean/LecPhysicalOcean.htm
l
56
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57
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58
Earth History
4.5 million to present
(1/1000th of earth history)
2.3-2.0 bya Oxygen
1.8 bya first eukaryote
0.9 bya first animals
0.5 bya Cambrian
0.24 byaMesozoic
0.065 byaCenozoic
4.5 bya Earth Forms
4.0 bya Oldest Rocks
3.4 bya Oldest Fossils
59
All genera
well described genera
The big five Mass Extinction Events
Thousands of Genera
Millions of Years Ago
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FilePhanerozoic_biod
iversity_blank_01.png
60
Permian mass extinction 96 of all marine
species and 70 of terrestrial vertebrate species
( of Genera)
61
WHY?
62
WHY?
63
WHY?
64
WHY?
65
WHY?
66
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67
http//science.nationalgeographic.com/science/preh
istoric-world/mass-extinction/
68
ecological collapse Almost all animals over
25kg (55 lbs) went extinct.
(The things that require the most energy to
survive)
http//we.vub.ac.be/dglg/Web/Claeys/Chicxulub/Chi
xproject.html
69
BIODIVERSITY NOW
http//www.coral.org/node/3230
70
Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2006)
http//englishontour.blogspot.com/2011/03/beetles.
html
71
http//www.illuminatedorigin.com/The_Illuminated_O
rigin_of_Species/Blog/Entries/2011/9/22_Beetles!.h
tml
Detritivores Pollinators Insect
predators Herbivores
http//www.sbs.utexas.edu/jcabbott/abbottlab/
72
http//www.dendroboard.com/forum/photography/42636
-incredible-costa-rican-euglossine-bees.html
Pollinators Insect Parasitoids (lay eggs on other
insects) Insect Predators
73
http//magicbelles.com/flutterbudclub/special-wond
ers/beetles
Jewel Bug
Herbivores Pollinators Parasites Detritivores
Malagasy Sunset Butterfly
http//buggirl.tumblr.com/post/12568644622/bugs-th
at-break-the-rules-the-madagascar-sunset
http//www.brisbaneinsects.com/brisbane_flies/imag
es/PWC_8410.jpg
74
Herbivores Detritivores
http//www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/South_Afri
ca/West/Eastern_Cape/Kob_Inn/photo915391.htm
75
http//www.flowersociety.org/Redwood-profile.htm
PRODUCERS
http//www.paulsanghera.com/infonential-Contact.ht
ml
76
Most vertebrate species are fishes
http//www.elp.manchester.ac.uk/pub_projects/2003/
MNZO0MLK/lecture1.htm
77
http//ambergriscaye.com/critters/redeyedtreefrog.
html
http//australian-animals.net/plat.htm
http//freakz.info/2011/09/21/10-interesting-seaho
rse-facts/
http//www.pbase.com/image/37557333
http//www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Blue_Whale
Herbivores, Predators, Detritivores, Pollinators
http//www.hodag.info/whatE28099s-going-on-here
-then-100
78
But do we NEED all these species??
79
Theres a lot of redundancy in nature
http//katherinegerdes.com/portfolio/11/rainy-day-
jewels
80
Are all species equally important? If not, which
ones are critical?
81
with
without
82
We dont know which species are critical
So we need to save them all to maintain ecosystem
function
83
But what does biodiversity do??
84
1) Biodiversity increases productivity ... FOOD

85
Monoculture
They all need the same things at the same
concentrations they compete.
86
Niche Complementarity
Monoculture
Polyculture
Combinations of different plants can be planted
at higher density, and they use different
"niches" and coexist. Even if abundance of "most
productive" species drops, this loss can be
offset.
They all need the same things at the same
concentrations they compete.
87
Positive Effects
Monoculture
Polyculture
without beans
with beans
They all need the same things at the same
concentrations they compete.
Nitrogen fixing legumes (beans) nutrify the soil,
increasing the growth of other plants. And you
have beans!
88
2) Biodiversity improves ecosystem services
Estimates of various Ecosystem Services - U.S. trillions Estimates of various Ecosystem Services - U.S. trillions
Ecosystem services Value (trillion US)
Soil formation 17.1
Recreation 3.0
Nutrient cycling 2.3
Water regulation and supply 2.3
Climate regulation (temperature and precipitation) 1.8
Habitat 1.4
Flood and storm protection 1.1
Food and raw materials production 0.8
Genetic resources 0.8
Atmospheric gas balance 0.7
Pollination 0.4
All other services 1.6
Total value of ecosystem services 33.3
Source Adapted from R. Costanza et al., The Value of the Worlds Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Nature, Vol. 387 (1997), p. 256, Table 2. TOTAL GLOBAL GNP (1997) 18 trillion. Source Adapted from R. Costanza et al., The Value of the Worlds Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Nature, Vol. 387 (1997), p. 256, Table 2. TOTAL GLOBAL GNP (1997) 18 trillion.
89
3) Aesthetics and Inspiration Biodiversity
enriches our cultures
90
3) Aesthetics and Inspiration Biodiversity
enriches our cultures
91
How is our biodiversity doing?
Genetic diversity within species Species
diversity in communities Ecosystem diversity
92
How is our biodiversity doing?
Humans used hundreds of crop species worldwide
now 3 species (rice, wheat, corn) provide 60 of
our calories from crop plants. According to the
FAO of the UN, 70 of the genetic diversity of
crop plants has been lost in the last 75 years as
weve shifted to industrial farming and the use
of GM strains.
93
How is our biodiversity doing?
2000 Pacific Island bird species (15 of global
total) have gone extinct after human
colonization 20 of the 297 mussel species in
N.A. have gone extinct in the last 100 years 60
are endangered 40 of 950 fish species in N. A.
have gone extinct in the last century 35 are
threatened or endangered http//www.americanscien
tist.org/issues/pub/the-real-biodiversity-crisis/1

Yellow-finned cutthroat trout
http//www.nps.gov/sacn/planyourvisit/st-croix-cur
rents.htm?customel_dataPageID_206517289024
http//www.fishdecoys.net/pages/LDC_Collection/Ben
zieJoDecoys.htm
94
How is our biodiversity doing? 1 in 4 mammal
species is endangered 1 in 8 bird species is
endangered 1 in 3 amphibian species is
endangered 48 of primate species are threatened
Data from http//iucn.org/what/tpas/biodiversity
/
95
How is our biodiversity doing?
35 of mangrove habitat has been lost in the last
20 years In the Caribbean, hard coral cover has
declined from 50 to 10 in the last 20
years Since 2000, 232,000 sq miles of old growth
forest have been lost (size of Texas).
96
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97
WHY?
98
7 billion in 2011 (12 years later)
99
http//news.mongabay.com/2011/1009-amazon_deforest
ation_revised.html
13,000 sq kilometers is about the size of
Connecticut
100
Extent of Virgin Forest, Contiguous U. S.
http//mvh.sr.unh.edu/mvhinvestigations/old_growth
_forests.htm
101
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102
Millenium Assessment 2006
103
Humans use/control 40 of the food produced on
the planet.
1
10 million?
104
Fragmentation
105
Fragmentation

Area Effects
CARNIVORES
HERBIVORES
PLANTS
LARGE AREA OF HABITAT
106
Fragmentation
HABITAT FRAGMENTATION
107
Fragmentation
  1. Carnivores lost - (reduce diversity)
  2. Herbivores compete (reduce diversity)
  3. Plants overgrazed (reduce diversity)

HABITAT FRAGMENTATION
108
We are a geological force, operating on an
ecological timescale
Mountaintop removal in West Virginia
109
We are a geological force, operating on an
ecological timescale
Gold mining in Peruvian Amazon
110
We are a geological force, operating on an
ecological timescale
111
We are a geological force, operating on an
ecological timescale
112
We are a geological force, operating on an
ecological timescale
Hmmmm.
113
Sixth major mass extinction event - NOW
All genera
well described genera
The big five Mass Extinction Events
Thousands of Genera
Millions of Years Ago
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FilePhanerozoic_biod
iversity_blank_01.png
114
22 May 2010 Secretary-General Ban
Ki-moon Biodiversity loss is moving ecological
systems ever closer to a tipping point beyond
which they will no longer be able to fulfill
their vital functions.
115
What Can We Do?
We need to protect and preserve large intact,
biodiverse ecosystems.
116
This is great, but it aint gonna do it
117
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118
We need to rethink our model of community
nature
nature
Development
Development
Development
Development
119
We need to find out whats out there!
120
We need to appreciate the societal and economic
value of biodiversity
Corporate Social Responsibility
(CSR) http//www.justmeans.com/Stop-Loss-CSR-Biodi
versity/28856.html Protection of biodiversity
should be the underlying reason for every CSR
effort. Biodiversity loss is the most severe
threat to human-wellbeing on the planet. It rates
even higher than climate change and related
problems. The head of Deutsche Bank's Global
Markets predicts that our current rate of
biodiversity loss could see 6 of global GDP
wiped out as early as 2050. The Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity executive summary
(2010) reports that over 50 of CEOs surveyed in
Latin America and 45 in Africa see declines in
biodiversity as a challenge to business growth.
In contrast, less than 20 of their counterparts
in Western Europe share such concerns
121
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122
If we recognize the grandeur of life, we might
appreciate it
123
If we appreciate it, we might value it
124
If we value it, we might sustain it
125
If we sustain it, we might be able to sustain our
societies and economies, as well.
126
If we dont, we wont
Thylacine - 1936
Tecopa Pupfish - 1981
Quogga - 1883
Vietnamese Rhinoceros - 2010
Yangtze River Dolphin - 2006
Golden Toad - 1989
A few extinct animal species.
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