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Classical Era

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Title: Classical Era


1
Classical Era
  • The Age of Enlightenment

2
Things are a-changin
  • Baroque Era
  • Louis XIV, XV
  • Frederick the Great
  • Catherine the Great
  • POWER
  • WEALTH
  • Classical Era
  • French and American Revolutions
  • Middle class becomes more influential
  • The first law is to enjoy oneself.

3
The Enlightenment
  • Whats IN?
  • rational, logical, empirical, reasoned
  • Whats OUT?
  • Status quo, supernatural (What comes into
    question?)
  • The brotherhood of man becomes a popular theme,
    and Freemasonry grows. Both of these are, to
    some degree, at odds with the principals of
    enlightenment thinking.
  • Contradiction, inconsistency, paradox quite
    acceptable, almost the norm.

4
The Classical Era
  • European society is becoming more cosmopolitan.

5
The Classical Era
  • Classical, classic, classicism very broad
    terms not particularly well suited to describe
    this time in history. Interest in clean, simple
    lines of classical Greek architecture may provide
    connection.
  • Approximately the 18th Century

6
Classicism Defined
  • The period of the ancient Greeks and Romans
  • A standard (enduring)
  • Genre of music
  • Time period

1750-1820
7
The Classical Era
  • Cultural, societal adolescence--much change
    (often violent) growth
  • Industrial revolution
  • move from agrarian to industrial economy
  • migration from country to cities
  • huge cities--e.g., 1800 Vienna 250,000!!
  • American and French Revolutions
  • Europe in turmoil caused by Napoleons
    expansionism after French Revolution
  • redefine relationship of government and people

8
The Classical Era
  • How is the relationship of government/aristocracy
    and common people redefined?
  • IndIvIdual becomes central. Government exists to
    serve ME I do not exist to serve government
    (and, no, I will NOT eat cake...).
  • The American and French Revolutions illustrate
    the point.

9
The Rise of the Middle Class
  • a VIMP sociological process
  • industrialization produces more money for lower
    classes
  • eventually more wealth produces more leisure
    time
  • more leisure time leads to search for
    entertainment that produces . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . .
  • fundamental changes in the arts
  • music functions mostly as Entertainment (not
    worship as in Baroque era)

10
Classical Thinking
  • Reason was supreme
  • Sought the perfect society
  • Enlightenment
  • Beauty
  • Rules were valuable

11
Classical Period Art
12
Rococo
  • Emphasis on ultra beauty and nature
  • Less dramatic (more sweet) than Baroque
  • Themes aimed at the wealthy class
  • Lighter, frivolous
  • Picnics, lovers, Greek gods
  • Portraits

13
Jean-Honore Fragonard, The Swing, 1768-9
14
Art in the 18th Century
  • Baroque had been the style from 1600 to 1750
  • Elaborate, impressive
  • Show glory of church and/or state
  • New direction was disputed

Baroque
Classical (Simpler)
Rococo (Sweeter, nature)
15
Jacques Louis David
  • Napoleon Crossing
  • the Alps

16
Jacques Louis David
Coronation of Napoleon
17
Jacques Louis David
Napoleon in his study
18
Sculpture and Architecture
  • Horatio Greenough
  • Washington

University of Virginia (Designer T. Jefferson)
19
Architecture
  • Recalled ancient classical
  • U.S. Capital
  • Monticello

20
Petit Trianon, Versailles, France 1764 (Louis
XVI) NEO-CLASSICAL
21
Fragonard,The Swing,1769
Rococo
22
David, The Death of Socrates, 1787
NEO-CLASSICAL
23
Date data
Caravaggio, The Calling of St Matthew Baroque
beginnings
1600 1742
Handels Messiah oratorio
1776 Amer. Rev.
1787
J.L. DavidDeath of Socrates (Mozart, Don
Giovanni)
1789 French Rev.
24
Age of Enlightenment
  • Literature and Philosophy

25
The Enlightenment
  • Application of the scientific method to social
    problems
  • Parallel to the scientific awakening
  • Foundation of Classical art and music
  • The world behaves according to patterns and these
    ought to be obeyed

26
Basic Premises
  • Scientific method can answer fundamental
    questions about society
  • Human race can be educated and all people are
    important
  • Emergence of the middle class
  • Belief in God based on reason

27
Growth of Deism
  • Intellectuals believe in God but see him as a
    "watchmaker"
  • Deists skeptical of organized religion
  • Catholic church was attacked
  • Deists struggle with personal standards
  • Denial of providence (Voltaire) disputed by
    others (Pope, Rousseau)
  • Denial of evil

28
Thomas Hobbes
  • Empiricism
  • "All that is real is material, and what is not
    material is not real." Hobbes

29
Thomas Hobbes
  • Government
  • "Early man was solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
    and short... and in a constant state of warre,
    living in continual fear and danger of violent
    death. Leviathan
  • Absolute monarchy sent by God to help mankind
  • Hobbes' concepts used to justify colonialization

30
John Locke
  • The forefather of our forefathers
  • Attacked by Charles II
  • Friend of Newton
  • Influential in American
  • revolution

31
John Locke
  • Government
  • Second treatise of Civil Government
  • Chaos without government
  • God gave mankind natural rights
  • Life, liberty, pursuit of property
  • Innate goodness of mankind led to formation of
    governments
  • Governments, which were formed by the people,
    must guarantee the rights of the people
  • People have a right to rebel against tyrannies

32
John Locke
  • Theory of Knowledge
  • Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Reasoning puts man above animals
  • Rejected concept that ideas are innate
  • Outer ideas from experience
  • Inner ideas from contemplation
  • Mankind can attain all knowledge

33
Alexander Pope
  • English Poet
  • Contributed to political thought and love of
    language
  • Believed that God was in control of the earth and
    that all things were ultimately for our good
  • Essay on Man
  • Essay on Criticism
  • Many famous sayings came from these books

34
  • Trust not yourself but your defects to know,
  • Make use of every friend and every foe.
  • A little learning is a dangerous thing
  • Alexander Pope from Essay on Criticism

35
Jonathan Swift
  • Hated injustice
  • Politically active
  • Satirist
  • Gullivers Travels
  • A Modest Proposal

36
  • For of what use is freedom of thought if it
    does not produce freedom of action?
  • Swift, On Abolishing Christianity (1708)
    Quoted in Barzun, From Dawn to Decadence, 2000,
    p.273

37
Philosophe
  • French name for philosopher
  • Enlightenment reached height in France

38
Voltaire
  • Pen name
  • Critical of Catholic church
  • Influenced others by letters
  • Denied writings to avoid problems
  • Exiled to England for a while
  • Returned to live on Swiss border

39
  • The individual who persecutes another because
    he is not of the same opinion is nothing less
    than a monster.
  • Voltaire

40
  • I do not agree with a word you say, but I will
    defend to the death your right to say it.
  • Voltaire

41
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Contest "Does progress in the arts and sciences
    correspond with progress in morality?"
  • No!
  • As civilizations progress, they move away from
    morality
  • Examples Romans, Greeks, Egyptians
  • Civilization itself leads away from true
    fundamentals
  • Technology and art give false desires
  • Social Contract
  • Noble Savage

42
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Influence on French and American revolutions
  • "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
  • Invest all rights and liberties into a society
  • Compare to a corporation

43
  • Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in
    chains.
  • Rousseau

44
Summary of Rousseau's Teachings
Old System (Powerful Ruler or Chaos) New System (Social Contract Concepts)
Instinct Justice
Strength and intelligence People equal on moral rights
Might Right
Natural inclinations Reason
Personal liberty Civil liberty
45
Denis Diderot
  • Encyclopedia
  • Teach people how to think critically
  • Solicited articles from many experts
  • Controversial articles brought criticism
  • Overall, moved forward the ideas of Enlightenment

46
  • "The good of the people must be the great
    purpose of government. By the laws of nature and
    of reason, the governors are invested with power
    to that end. And the greatest good of the people
    is liberty. It is to the state what health is to
    the individual."
  • - Diderot in L'Encyclopedie Article on
    Government, quoted in Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn
    to Decadence, Perennial, 2000, p370.

47
Immanuel Kant
  • From Germany
  • Strict habits
  • The Critique of Pure Reason and Practical Reason
  • Weakness of Empiricism
  • Transcendentalism
  • Empiricism and other knowledge
  • Ex infinity
  • Categorical Imperative

48
  • "You should behave with only those types of
    behavior that are dictated by the absolute nature
    of the basic principle on which the act is
    based."
  • "Act as if your actions would become a moral
    maxim (principle or model) for all others and at
    all times."
  • From Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative

49
David Hume
  • Scottish philosopher
  • Leader of empiricism movement
  • Grew to distrust all

50
Adam Smith
  • Scottish professor
  • Wealth of Nation (1776)
  • Free trade/capitalism
  • Devised capitalism
  • Laissez Faire la nature
  • Literally, "let do" a philosophy that advocates
    minimal government interference in the economy.

51
Edward Gibbon
  • Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Urged reform in England
  • Anti-religious bias

52
Effects of the Enlightenment
  • England
  • Civil war and establishment of a limited monarchy
  • Anger in the colonies because they are treated
    differently than "mother England"
  • France
  • No immediate change but seething discontent that
    will lead to revolution
  • Other countries
  • Attempts to adopt Enlightenment principles

53
Enlightened Despots
  • Frederick II of Prussia (r. 1740-1786)
  • Rebelled against father
  • Later developed finest army
  • Built Sans Souci (Potsdam)
  • Invited Voltaire to the court

54
Enlightened Despots
  • Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796)
  • German born wife of Czar Peter III
  • Controlled government after Peter IIIs
    accidental(?) death
  • Increased European culture in Russia
  • Peasant Reforms
  • Territorial Expansion
  • Corresponded with Diderot

55
Enlightened Despots
  • Gustav III of Sweden (r. 1771-1792)
  • Forced Parliament to accept new constitution
  • Stimulated literature
  • Charles III of Spain (r. 1759-1788)
  • Bourbon family
  • Improved life for Spanish
  • Suppressed Jesuits

56
Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria (r.
1740-1780)
  • 16 children
  • Economic reforms
  • Limited power of the Pope
  • Reduced power of the lords
  • Joseph abolished serfdom
  • Poland divided

57
Enlightened Despots vs. Absolute Rulers
  • Reluctant to change
  • Economic disasters
  • Dictated
  • Focused on
  • improving country
  • Economic
  • reform
  • Sought advise

58
French Revolution
59
Causes and Attitudes
  • The Enlightenment
  • Anglophile feeling in France
  • The American Revolution
  • French systems lack of change
  • Louis XVI clung to Absolutism
  • Kings response to the poor
  • Class resentment
  • Economic problems

60
First Stage (1789-1793)
  • King desired new tax to stabilize economy
  • Estates General (3 estates)
  • Not met for 150 years
  • Needed to meet
  • Certified by Parlement (high court)
  • Election in early 1789
  • Finally met in Spring 1789
  • 3rd Estate walked out

61
First Stage
  • National Assembly (1789-1793)
  • 3rd estate met in indoor tennis court
  • Resolved to stay in session until constitution
    could be written
  • King couldn't get money
  • King instructed 1st and 2nd estates to meet with
    National Assembly
  • 3rd estate doubled their numbers
  • 1st and 2nd sat on right, 3rd sat on left
  • Formed municipal government

62
First Stage
  • Events at Bastille
  • July 14, 1789
  • Municipal government trying to get arms
  • Revolts in the countryside

63
Actions of the National Assembly
  • Destruction of privilege
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man
  • Secularization of the church
  • New constitution

64
Second StageRadical revolution
  • Disillusionment of the lower class (inflation)
  • Girondists (moderates) had no strong leader
  • France drawn into war with Europe
  • Failure in wars (1st coalition, 1792-1797)
  • Moderates removed as leaders of National Assembly
  • Counter-revolutions
  • King and queen arrested
  • Jacobins take control

65
Second StageReign of Terror (1793-1794)
  • Committee for Public Safety
  • France losing war with others in Europe
  • Reforms
  • Metric system
  • New calendar
  • Universal suffrage
  • Slavery eliminated
  • Paris commune
  • Land redistribution
  • Defaced churches
  • Guillotine
  • 20,000 die
  • King and queen die

66
Third StageReturn of the moderates (1794-1799)
  • Thermidorian reaction
  • Counter-revolution
  • "Whiff of grapeshot"(1795)
  • Death of Marat, Danton, Robespierre
  • Moderates gained control of National Convention
  • Return of expatriate noblemen allowed (money)
  • National Assembly re-elected
  • Adoption of new constitution
  • Rule by the Directory

67
Third StageReturn of the moderates
  • The Directory governed
  • Some military successes (Napoleon)
  • Directory criticized for poor leadership
  • Directory desperate for a popular leader
  • 2nd Coalition (1799-1801) formed
  • Napoleon invited to be consul

68
(No Transcript)
69
You Went The Wrong Way, Old King Louieby Allan
Sherman
  • Louis the Sixteenth was the King of France in
    1789.He was worse than Louis the Fifteenth.He
    was worse than Louis the Fourteenth.He was worse
    than Louis the Thirteenth.He was the worst since
    Louis the First.King Louis was living like a
    king,
  • but the people were living rotten.So the
    people, they started an uprising which they
    called theFrench Revolution, and of course you
    remember their battle cry, which will never be
    forgotten
  • You went the wrong way, Old King Louie.You made
    the population cry.'Cause all you did was sit
    and petWith Marie AntoinetteIn your place at
    Versailles.
  • And now the country's gone kablooie.So we are
    giving you the air.That oughta teach you not
    toSpend all your time fooling 'roundAt the
    Folies Bergere.
  • If you had been a nicer king,We wouldn't do a
    thing,But you were bad, you must admit.We're
    gonna take you and the QueenDown to the
    guillotine,And shorten you a little bit.
  • You came the wrong way, Old King Louie.And now
    you ain't got far to go.Too bad you won't be
    here to seeThat great big Eiffel Tower,Or
    Brigitte Bardot.
  • To you King Louie we say fooey.You disappointed
    all of France.But then what else could we
    expectFrom a king in silk stockingsAnd pink
    satin pants.
  • You filled your stomach with chop suey.And also
    crepe suzettes and steak.And when they told your
    wife MarieThat nobody had bread, she said"Let
    'em eat cake."
  • We're gonna take you and the QueenDown to the
    guillotine,It's somewhere in the heart of
    town.And when that fella's throughWith what
    he's gonna do,You'll have no place to hang your
    crown.
  • You came the wrong way Old King Louie.Now we
    must put you on the shelf.That's why the people
    are revolting, 'cause Louie,You're pretty
    revolting yourself!

70
NOT
V.
71
NOT
HEART vs. HEAD EMOTION vs. INTELLECT
ITS ALL EMOTIONS IT IS A QUESTION OF WHAT
KINDS OF EMOTIONS
72
Music of the Classical Era
  • Began death of Bach
  • Ended Beethoven (mid-life)

73
Music changes to meet Middle Class needs
  • more music-making in the home creates needs
  • simpler music for less skilled musicians
  • music industry (instrument manufacture,
    publishing, performing organizations)
  • music education (instrument voice lessons,
    composition, appreciation)
  • opera characters and plots revolve around
    commoners, not the aristocracy or mythology as in
    the Baroque era. Plots often ridicule the
    aristocracy.

74
Music in the Classical Era
  • Austria (particularly Vienna) and Germany are the
    cultural centers.
  • Patronage, an important music/economic
    institution in the mid-1700s breaks down by 1790.
    Why?
  • Concert Halls and opera houses flourish providing
    entertainment for middle class audiences.
  • Publishers influence what composers write.Why?
    What is the connection to middle class
    music-making?

75
Music in the Classical Era
  • Much more secular music is composed and
    performed. The religious fervor of earlier
    Baroque composers such as Bach is gone.

76
Music in the Classical Era
  • Function of Music Entertainment
  • in the concert hall, opera hall, theater, estate
    drawing room
  • In the home--filler of leisure time
    (Gebrauchmusik, i.e., useful music.) Useful
    for what?
  • dancing is VIMP pastime
  • Music must meet listeners where they are.What
    are the implications of this statement?

77
Ruminate on...
  • patronage and
  • Haydn
  • Mozart
  • Beethoven
  • why the French Revolution and industrialization
    led to the demise of patronage.
  • why less complex music is favored in classical
    culture.

78
Viennese Classical Style
Characteristics of the Viennese Style
? Dedication to form from Germany
? Strong melody from Italy
Vienna
79
Classicism in Music
  • Viennesse School Four Composers
  • Franz Joseph Haydn
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Ludwig van Beethoven
  • Franz Schubert

80
Patronage System
  • Exchange of artistic services for
  • A place to live
  • A Salary
  • Clothes
  • Rank in Society
  • Depends on the patron.
  • Servant to aristocratic patronage.

81
Music of the Classical Era
  • Written for middle class
  • Non-sophisticated Listener
  • Simple and Melodic Themes
  • Bach Fugue Mozart Eine Kleine
  • Large Room
  • Bach Air Beethoven 9th
  • Movements have beginning, middle, end
  • Bach Brandenburg Beethoven 5th
  • Easier to play
  • Bach Fugue Beethoven Für Elise

82
  • I write my music in order that the weary and
    worn or the men burdened with affairs might enjoy
    a few minutes of solace and refreshment.
  • Haydn

83
Structure of Music
  • Melody carried the interest
  • Form still needed to give meaning
  • Note power of the human voice
  • Instrumental music uses strong melody as power

84
Style in Classical Music
  • Melody singable symmetrical, lyrical.
  • Harmony- diatonic, tonic to dominant
    relationships
  • Rhythm regular and symmetrical
  • Texture- Homophonic with some polyphony at times.
  • Folk elements national themes, folk themes,
    dances etc. used in instrumental works.

85
  • There can be no art
  • without form.
  • Igor Stravinsky

86
Musical Objectives
  • Explore major-minor system
  • Develop homophonic system
  • Focus on simple melody
  • Chords and cadences
  • Large structures
  • Cultivate human voice
  • Explore new instruments

87
STYLISTIC TRANSFORMATIONS
  • Introduction of a new instrument, the fortepiano
  • Contrasted with strings and winds
  • Favored by amateurs and rising middle class
  • Development of the Accompanied Sonata

88
Music and Literary Analogy
  • Letters
  • Words
  • Sentences
  • Chapters or short stories
  • Books
  • Musical notes
  • Musical phrases
  • Musical themes
  • Musical movements
  • Symphonies

89
Forms of Movements
  • Theme and Variation
  • Rondo
  • Minuet and Trio
  • Sonata-allegro form

90
Forms of Entire Works
  • Concerto (expanded)
  • Symphony

91
Classical Architecture and Music
92
Music Journalism
  • CA 1790 Music Journalism exploded on the European
    scene.
  • Intellect, intellect, intellect! Herr
    Beethovens music is too complex. It isnt
    musical entertainment its intellectual mind
    games. Once again Beethoven wrote something
    that no one wants to hear.
  • He is known to have replied to one reporter,
  • Of course you dont understand it. I wrote the
    piece for future generations. They will
    understand and appreciate it.
  • He was correct.

93
Music of the Classical Era
  • Characteristics (Viennese style)
  • Dedication to form
  • From the Germans
  • Strong melody
  • From the Italians
  • Homophonic

Vienna
94
Overview
The SYMPHONY emerges CHAMBER MUSIC emerges OPERA
continues evolves Three major
composers HAYDN MOZART BEETHOVEN
95
LIFE-TIME-LINES
BEETHOVEN 1770-1827
MOZART 1756-1789
HAYDN 1732-1809
1770
1820
96
Musical Influences
  • Influence of Turkish music (Janissary band) felt
    in Vienna and Berlin due to the amount of
    Turkish immigrants to Austria.
  • Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven wrote Turkish Marches.
  • Added percussion to orchestra
  • Bass drum, triangle, cymbals
  • Whirling dervish ceremony imitated in Beethoven

97
SUMMARY 18TH CENTURY
  • IDEAS Enlightenment rationalist Criticism
  • ART 3 genres Rococo, Neo-Classical, Bourgeois
    (Genre)
  • MUSIC Genres such as the SYMPHONY and the
    STRING QUARTET emerge, all emphasizing CLARITY of
    musical ideas and the organization of CONTRAST,
    exemplified by SONATA FORM
  • key composers HAYDN, MOZART early Beethoven

98
NOT
V.
HEART vs. HEAD EMOTION vs. INTELLECT
99
NOT
ITS ALL EMOTIONS IT IS A QUESTION OF WHAT
KINDS OF EMOTIONS
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