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The Northern Renaissance

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Title: The Northern Renaissance Author: Kevin Kelley Last modified by: Kevin Kelley Created Date: 1/1/2004 5:29:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Northern Renaissance


1
The Northern Renaissance
  • In the 1400s, northern Europeans began to adapt
    the ideas of the Renaissance that began in Italy.

2
The Northern Renaissance Begins
  • Merchants from Italy began to carry the ideas of
    the Renaissance as they traveled into western
    Europe. Scholars were impressed by the humanist
    ideas and artists began to study in Italian
    cities.

3
France and England
  • The ravages of the Bubonic Plague had greatly
    decreased the population of western Europe.
  • The Hundred Years Was had devastated the land.
    As a result, there was a shift from rural to
    urban life.
  • Cities grew rapidly, merchants became wealthy and
    the traditional feudal system was broken.

4
The Monarchs and the Renaissance
  • At this time, both France and England were
    unified nations under single monarchs where Italy
    was a combination of independent city-states.
  • It was the rulers of France and England that
    sponsored the artists emerging in Northern
    Europe. They sponsored many Italian artists.
  • The royal courts played an important role in
    bringing the Renaissance ideas into northern
    Europe.

5
Secular and Non-secular Renewal
  • The northern Renaissance, while inspired by
    Italy, took a different path. The Italian
    Renaissance was based on humanism (the expression
    of human achievement) while the northern
    Renaissance remained devoted to Christian values.

6
Artistic Ideas Spread
  • In 1494, a French king claimed the throne of
    Naples and launched an attack through northern
    Italy.
  • As a result of the turmoil, many artists and
    writers left Italy for a safer life in northern
    Europe. They took their artistic ideas with them.

7
Germanic Painters
  • Albrect Dürer produced woodcuts and engravings
    that portrayed religious subjects.
  • He also created prints that portrayed classical
    myths.
  • He emphasized realism in his work.

8
Hans Holbein
  • Holbein produced paintings with nearly a
    photographic quality. He specialized in painting
    the portraits of nobles and kings.

9
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11
Flemish Painters
  • Jan van Eyck began to use oil-based paints so he
    was able to blend his colors more easily.
  • He created a variety of subtle colors in his
    paintings. This technique then spread to Italy.

12
Eycks Realism
  • Eycks paintings displayed unusually realistic
    detail and personality of their subjects.

13
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16
Pieter Bruegel
  • Bruegel produced paintings that portrayed
    everyday events including peasant life, weddings,
    dances, harvests and the changing of the seasons.
  • His paintings often illustrated proverbs or moral
    lessons.

17
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18
Northern Writers Try to Reform Society
  • The reform attempted in northern Europe differed
    from that of Italy in that the reforms were based
    in Christian values.
  • The reformers in northern Europe became known as
    Christian Humanists.

19
Christian Humanists
  • Desiderius Erasmus, of Holland, wrote a book, The
    Praise of Folly, that poked fun at greedy
    merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars
    and pompous priests.
  • He believed that Christianity dwelled in the
    hearts of man, not in the ceremonies performed in
    the name of Christianity.
  • He believed that society would improve if people
    would read and live according to the Bible.

20
Thomas More
  • More was concerned with the flaws he saw in
    society.
  • He wrote a book, Utopia, where greed,
    corruption, war and crime were weeded out of
    society.

21
Francois Rebelais
  • Rebelais provided an alternative to More and
    Erasmus. He wrote about how humans are by nature
    good but that they are quickly made to feel
    guilty about seeking earthy pleasures.
  • He believed that people should live by their
    instincts rather that by religious rules.

22
William Shakespeare
  • Shakespeare was a famous English playwright who
    had an uncanny understanding of human beings.
  • He revealed the souls of men and women through
    his dramas and tragedies.
  • He also used comedy to poke fun at the flaws in
    society.

23
The Elizabethan Age
  • Queen Elizabeth I was an educated woman who could
    speak French, Latin, Italian and Greek.
  • She was a poet as well as head of state.
  • She embodied the attributes of a Renaissance
    Woman.

24
Printing Spreads Renaissance Ideas
  • In 1045, movable type was invented in China.
    Through contact with Asia, the Europeans were
    exposed to new printing techniques.

25
Johann Gutenberg
  • In 1440, Gutenberg adapted the Chinese movable
    print techniques.
  • He invented the printing press, a machine that
    presses paper against a tray full of linked
    movable type. This invention allowed for very
    quick printing of multiple copies of text.

26
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27
Gutenberg Bible
  • The first book that was mass produced on
    Gutenbergs printing press was the Gutenberg
    Bible in 1455.

28
Printing Spreads Learning
  • The printing press revolutionized learning in
    northern Europe because the press made printing
    inexpensive.
  • Regular people were now able to afford to buy
    books.
  • By 1500, over 10 million books had been printed
    and sold throughout Europe.

29
Writing in the Local Language
  • Ideas began to spread rapidly as writers wrote in
    a language the local people could understand.
  • People began to educate themselves in reading and
    writing.

30
Interpretation Leads to Conflict
  • The best seller even back in the 14th Century was
    the Bible. It was written in many local
    languages.
  • As people began to read the Bible, which before
    this was read to them in Latin by the priests,
    they began to interpret the Bible for themselves.
  • This lead to criticism of the Church and the
    clergy and eventually led to major religious
    reform.

31
The End
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