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Introduction to Higher Education


Title: HE Studies Policy Analysis Leadership and Management Author: George Subotzky Last modified by: Herbs Created Date: 3/19/2004 7:02:40 PM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Higher Education

Introduction to Higher Education
  • Presented at
  • Unisa Young Academics Programme
  • 25 September 2008
  • Associate Prof George Subotzky
  • Executive Director Information Strategic
    Analysis, Unisa

  • DISA
  • Source material
  • Higher education as a scholarly field of study
  • What is higher education?
  • Definition
  • Purposes
  • Key issues terms
  • Post-1990 policy process
  • Contemporary context of higher education
  • The changing high education workplace
  • Gender equity in higher education (time

DISA Mandate
External environment
Make Unisa intelligible to itself
Business Units
Single IA and IR Ref Pt
Business Units/
Business Units
Pol. Ec.
Business Units
Business Units
HE Dev.
HE Policy
Business Units
Vision, Mission, SP Business Model (ODL)
Integrated Strategic Management Framework
  • Calendarised
  • Periodic
  • Ad hoc Requests
  • Institution-wide Web-based BI Analytic Tool
  • Downloadable I A outputs
  • HEMIS Submissions
  • Other External Stakeholder Requirements

Strategic Management Framework
3 types of Outputs
Source material
  • Taught modules in UWC Masters/PG diploma in
    Higher Education Studies Policy Analysis,
    Leadership Management (PALM) 2002-4
  • Introduction to Higher Education Studies
  • The Contemporary Context of Higher Education
  • Overview of the post-1990 Higher Education Policy
    Process in South Africa
  • Changes and continuities in the higher education
  • Challenge of adaptation included slides,
    recapitulation detail
  • Previous publications recent analyses

Higher education studies as a field
  • Relatively new as a field of scholarly study
  • Most developed in the USA Pre-requisite for
    appointment in highly professionalised workplace
  • Many qualification professional development
    programmes, including Europe South Africa
  • Numerous academic professional organisations,
    journals, conferences networks
  • Considerable body of knowledge
  • Multi-disciplinary in nature

Approaches to HE Studies
  • Theoretical paradigms
  • Positivist, Interpretive, Critical
  • Modernist, Post-modernist/post-structuralist
  • Sociological
  • Historical
  • Philosophical
  • Political Science
  • Political Economic
  • Economic
  • Comparative/International

Higher education studies Focus areas
  • Students
  • Retention
  • Student affairs
  • Assessment
  • Faculty/staff
  • Finance
  • Governance
  • Policy
  • International comparative

What is Higher Education?
  • Definition
  • What is higher about higher education?
  • What distinguishes it from other levels of
  • Purposes
  • Multiple
  • Conflicting

Function/Purpose of HE
  • Science/knowledge production, dissemination
  • Intrinsic value formative education, cultural
    intellectual enrichment
  • Instrumental value Growth/Development/
  • Transformation
  • Professional/Vocational education training to
    serve HRD labour market needs
  • Public good
  • Community engagement
  • Critical independent space
  • Growth/Development/Transformation
  • Ideological reproduction social mobility

What is distinctive about HE?
  • Epistemology/knowledge dimensions
  • Scholarship research
  • Systematically elaborated and conceptualised,
    theoretically informed knowledge construction,
    pursuit of truth, meaning and objective
    knowledge, both within and across disciplines and
    institutional boundaries
  • Knowledge structure vertical
  • Fragmentation/specialisation of knowledge the
    disciplines and subdisciplines
  • Higher order thinking and professional/
    academic/vocational education training
  • Outcomes/ontological dimensions graduateness
  • Preparedness for labour market citizenship
    commensurate with high-level knowledge framework

Higher education as socially situated activity
  • HE has had a long history among the most
    institutions in society
  • HE is a socially situated and contested activity,
    and therefore inevitably serves particular
    ideological interests
  • It takes on different features according to
    historical, political economic and geographical
    specificities. Different emphasis on its multiple
    purposes and a variety of shifting institutional
    forms are the result of changing relations with
    society, namely
  • State
  • Global institutions
  • Corporate sector
  • Civil society
  • Technology

Proliferation of forms of HEIs
  • Traditional research model
  • Graduate schools
  • Carnegie classification 2-year colleges, 4-year
    UG (liberal arts colleges), comprehensives,
    research intensive, etc
  • Differentiation and articulation wide variety of
    binary primary systems
  • Specialised professional institutions eg
    graduate business schools
  • Distance education/ODL (six generations)
  • Virtual universities (click)
  • Hybrids (brick click)
  • Corporate universities

Contested vs shared concept
  • Many institutions claim university status.
    Therefore, the key questions are
  • Can we derive a general, universal definition
    despite contestations, historical, geographic and
    ideological differences (Modernist view
    Barnett, Holiday)?
  • Does the proliferation of forms and purposes
    preclude this (postmodern view Scott, Castells)?

  • Weakness of the field paradox
  • No educational theory of higher education
  • No theoretical framework
  • Intrinsic vs instrumental/functionalist value
  • Attempts to construct an educational and
    epistemological theory of HE, based on the
    assumption that there is something universally
    common about HE despite its historical and
    geographic variations, and defines this in terms
    of a reconstructed version of liberal HE
  • Argues for defining the value and nature of HE as
    a unique and special critical process

Holiday The Idea of an African University
  • Relevance of Newmans The Idea of a University
    for African Educationalists
  • Africans in their quest for a form of university
    education which will harmonise with their
    Africanness are driven by an innate conviction
    that such education will have to be inseparable
    from their own spirituality and religious
    commitments (p 1)
  • This is under threat in the dominant climate of
    scientism and secularism

  • The idea of the university is not reducible to a
    list of typically observable features there are
    varying cases outside of observed categories
    this is so much more the case in contemporary
    times, given the variety of new forms eg the
    corporate university, the virtual university
    (click institutions) and hybrid (brick and
  • Main claim The idea of a university denotes
    something universal. Therefore, something must be
    a university (in generic terms) before it can be
    properly called an African university (in
    particular terms).

Holiday (cont)
  • Problem of retro-defining the university in terms
    of an interpretation of Africanness eg in RDP or
    African Rennaissance terms any institution which
    purports to address these goals is therefore
    automatically a university.
  • The truth is no matter how noble are motives for
    wishing it otherwise, there are real constraints
    on what may be allowed to count as a university
  • New Zealand contemporary example projection of
    notion of universities of technology
  • Suggestion Africanness as a common identity can
    be interpreted as identification with and
    commitment to challenges of context and
    therefore to development priorities, rather than
    in cultural, spiritual, nationalist, genetic or
    metaphysical terms

Universities as dynamic systems of contradictory
functions (Castells)
  • General theoretical claim In all societies,
    universities perform basic functions implicit in
    the role assigned to them by society through
    political power or economic influence
  • These functions are specific to historical,
    cultural ideological and scientific context
  • 4 Main (general) functions (at the theoretical
    level) whose specific weight in each historical
    and geographic context defines the predominant
    role of the system and the specific task of
  • Ideological apparatuses
  • Selection of dominant elites
  • Generation of new knowledge science function
  • Professional training

4 Functions of HE
  • Generation and transmission of ideology
  • Not just reproductive of dominant ideology but
    reflecting within them external ideological
  • The formation and diffusion of ideology has
    been, and still is, a fundamental role of
    universities, in spite of the ideology of their
    ideology-free role
  • (Castells, 2001 206)
  • Selection of dominant elites (adapting this to
    the historical cultural characteristics of each
  • Selection
  • Socialisation
  • Formation of networks
  • Codes of distinction

4 Functions of HE (cont.)
  • Production and application of knowledge science
    function (research)
  • Late development 19thC Germany
  • Exception rather than rule 200/3500 in USA
  • Research diffused in society, especially in
    Europe (central research labs) and Japan
    (government-funded corporate RD)
  • Grew out of professional university as research
    needs grew (US graduate school model)
  • Land Grant Institutions prototype of HE-industry
    links in regional development (foundation for
    expansion in ST and humanities)
  • Boosted by military needs
  • Professional training of skilled labour force
    (development-related teaching)
  • Training of the bureaucracy
  • Successive waves Church, Medicine, Law,
    Engineering, Business, Social Services/Health/Educ
    ation, IT
  • Professional university gave rise to the science

Source of the contradictory reality
  • In addition to performing their role assigned to
    them by society (ie the particular balance of the
    4 main functions)
  • Universities as organisations are also
    submitted to the pressures of society, beyond the
    specific roles they have been asked to assume,
    and the overall process results in a complex and
    contradictory reality

Contradictory functions
  • In contemporary times, a new function Social
    Demand for HE Massification
  • Implicit role surplus labour absorption where
    can youth be? Warehouse function
  • SA potential of this?
  • Contradiction equity and development (p 30)
  • Universities combine and make compatible the
    seemingly contradictory functions simultaneously
    although within different emphasis Castells,
    2001 211 Singh p 81)
  • It is not possible to have a pure model of the
    university key point for policy-makers to
  • Contemporary pressure is for them to function as
    a productive force in the new informational
    economy (as technology institutes, research
    universities, university-industry partnerships)
    instrumental aspect
  • But they remain conflictual spaces (Is this so
    in UoTs?)

Challenge for developing countries
  • The ability to manage such contradictions,
    while emphasising the role of universities in the
    generation of knowledge and the training of
    labour in the context of the new requirements of
    the development process, will condition to a
    large extent the capacity of new countries and
    regions to become part of the dynamic system of
    the new world economy
  • (Castells, 2001 212)

Functions of Developing Country Universities
  • Universities in the 3rd world are historically
    rooted in colonial past they perform an
    ideological function in post-colonial period
  • The recruitment of social elites, first for the
    colonial administration, later on for the new
    political elites created with independence,
    became the fundamental function of universities
    in the 3rd World (Castells, 2001 213)
  • Educational and economic functions backgrounded
    because of the initial dominance of the political
    function led to considerable braindrain
  • Need for skilled labour as part of development
    tasks gave impetus to educational function
  • Professional function colonial and homeland
    administration (HBUs)
  • Massification, but in traditional fields law,
    humanities and social sciences (HBUs)
  • Attempts to develop ST fields difficult
  • Structural and institutional impediments to
    expansion of science function (see page 215)
  • Castells recognises the need for autonomy from
    political pressure The necessary distance and
    independence of academic research vis-à-vis the
    immediate pressures of political conflicts

Challenges for Dev C. universities
  • Rise of technological institutions, but science
    function lags behind training function
  • Inability to manage contradictory functions and
    interaction between ideological/political/cultural
    , science, technology, economy and society
  • Technical universities not able to fulfil
    scientific needs without cross-fertilisation
    and self-determination (detachment) no discovery
    (Castells, 2001 216). Need complete systems.
  • Only possible to apply science that exists cf
  • Castells argues for a) undifferentiated
    comprehensive university as key to development
    b) for inter-disciplinary flexible programmes and
    c) selected research centres
  • Suggestions for rejuvenating HE in dev. countries

Challenge for Dev Country HE
  • If 3rd World countries are also to enter the
    Information Age and reject an increasingly
    marginal role in the world system, development
    policies must include the impulse and
    transformation of HE systems as a key element of
    the new historical project

Bridging the divide between 1st and 3rd worlds
  • Interdependence argument for multilateral
    Marshall Plan
  • Moral
  • Functional
  • Political
  • Economic The development of the 3rd World is in
    the (rational) economic self-interest of the OECD
    countries and their corporations
  • It will not be possible to integrate 3rd World
    countries in a dynamic world economy without
    creating the necessary infrastructure in higher
  • Prospects and challenges?? What do you think?

Towards a definition/statement of purpose
  • HE is concerned with the legitimation,
    production, dissemination, reproduction and
    perservation of high-order academic vocational
    knowledge in order to
  • Prepare graduates for the labour market and
  • Provide formative education and to enrich
    cultural and intellectual life
  • Enhance socio-economic growth, development
    transformation, in particular by solving problems
    and creating opportunities for social mobility
  • Contribute to the public good through community
    engagement and by providing a critical,
    independent space

Key Issues Terms Epistemology
  • Knowledge
  • Tacit, Practical, Political, Intuitive,
    Pre-theoretical, Rational, Indigenous,
  • Truth, evidence validity
  • Theory Practice
  • Science Technology
  • Research
  • Basic (Mode 1), Applied, Strategic (Mode 2)
  • Discipline Department
  • Multi-disciplinarity, Inter-disciplinarity

Key Issues Terms Governance
  • Academic Freedom
  • Autonomy
  • Accountability
  • Governance
  • Systemic and institutional
  • Style method spectrum from steerage to control
  • Transformation
  • Quality
  • Quality assurance promotion
  • Certification, accreditation

Key Issues Terms Policy
  • Formulation
  • Adoption
  • Planning
  • Implementation
  • Monitoring
  • Evaluation
  • Review
  • Research
  • Analysis
  • Advocacy

Key Issues Terms Ideology Power Relations
  • Ideology
  • Discourse
  • Interests
  • Power
  • Power relations
  • Reproduction
  • Micro-politics

Key Issues Terms Equity
  • Access admissions
  • Equality
  • Equity
  • Inclusivity
  • Success throughput
  • Massification
  • Social demand
  • Assimilation vs transformation
  • Policy tensions (real imagined)
  • Equity Excellence
  • Equity Development
  • Shifting equity discourse in South Africa

Key Issues Terms Value Purpose
  • Value
  • Intrinsic Knowledge for its own sake
  • Instrumental Knowledge in service of an
    ideological or socio-economic purpose
  • Liberal/formative education
  • Emancipatory education (critical theory)
  • Science function
  • Professionalisation
  • Vocationalisation

Key Issues Terms Institutional Academic
  • Vision, Mission, Niche (strategic identity),
    Business Model
  • Institutional differentiation (universities,
    UOTs, comprehensives the size and shape
    processes debates, contact distance)
  • Africanness
  • Status and reputation
  • Academic identity
  • Teaching/Research/Community Engagement balance
  • Profile Professoriate, Tenure
  • Teaching and learning
  • Programme and course PQM
  • Curriculum and pedagogy
  • Admissions, assessment policies
  • Delivery Model
  • Graduateness
  • Research
  • Basic, Applied Strategic
  • Service/outreach/Community Engagement
  • Service learning

Key Issues Terms Institutional
  • Leadership
  • Management strategic operational, academic
  • Administration
  • Student Affairs Support/Development
  • Academic Teaching and Learning
  • Research
  • Human Resources
  • Finance
  • Other support/enabling mechanisms business

  • Mission, Vision, Business Model (ODL)
  • Strategic Plan
  • Strategic Outcomes, Objectives Performance
    Measures (all shaped by Social Mandate)
  • Strategic Change Initiatives
  • Continuous Improvement Initiatives
  • These are identified through ongoing review
    process, and then find expression, as the case
    may be, in
  • New or revised Strategy or Strategic Projects
  • Objectives and Actions in the IOP
  • Changes to Operations, the Business and
    Enterprise Architectures and Enabling Conditions

IOP STRATEGIC PROJECTS Strategically-aligned
Outcomes, Objectives, Outputs Performance
  • eg Academic, Research, HR, Estates, ICT etc
  • Projects
  • Functional Outcomes, Objectives, Outputs
    Performance Measures, Integrated Scheduling

Strategic Management Framework
  • Budget
  • Functional/Operational Units
  • Inputs, Processes, Outputs, Outcomes
    Performance Measures

Strategic Projects
  • Monitoring and Evaluation
  • (BI/Institutional Research)
  • Quality Assurance
  • IPMS
  • Risk Management
  • Ongoing
  • Strategic Reflection/Review
  • Environmental Scanning

  • Business Enterprise Architectures
  • Shaped by strategy - the optimal configurations
  • People/capacity
  • Processes/Systems
  • Resources/Infrastructure
  • Technology
  • Enabling Conditions
  • (in addition to appropriate Business Enterprise
  • Effective Leadership Management
  • Conducive Climate Culture

Key Issues Terms Current Impacts
  • Marketisation or market-like behaviour
  • Academic capitalism
  • Entrepreneurialisation
  • Managerialism
  • Globalisation
  • Internationalisation
  • ICTs
  • Responsiveness
  • New public accountability new instrumentality
  • Changing relations between state, society the

HE Studies Policy Analysis Leadership and
  • Sub-Module 1B
  • The Contemporary Context of Higher Education
  • March 2004
  • Associate Prof George Subotzky

Key Issues Concepts
  • The multi-faceted nature of globalisation
  • The nature of the network society and the role
    of knowledge, information and technology
  • The emergence of new modes of economic production
    and new organisational modes of knowledge
  • The various impacts and implications of
    globalisation on higher education

Key Issues Concepts (cont.)
  • In particular, the marketisation of HE and the
    rise of managerialism, and the corresponding
    constriction of the civic role of the academy and
    its contribution to the public good
  • Alternatives to the dominant patterns of
    globalisation and marketisation of HE (to the
    entrepreneurial university)
  • The role and responsive of HE not only towards
    the competitive global knowledge-driven economy
    but also towards democracy, equity and basic
    reconstruction and development

Assumptions Key Aspects of HE (see Intro.)
  • HE is a socially situated activity
  • Social relations are contested, unequal and
    ideologically contested
  • HE shaped by, and responds to external
    environment global forces/ institutions, the
    nation state and society (private/market
    corporate sphere and public/civil society)
  • Reproduces and/or transforms unequal social
  • Key aspects and levels of external environment
    Global level globalisation
  • Changing economic production patterns and social
  • Role and modes of knowledge and information
  • Changing function, role and forms of HE
  • New relations between HE and state, private
    sector and community
  • New ICTs
  • International level Internationalisation of HE
    (Scott, 1998)

Key aspects of HE (cont)
  • National level
  • Public macro-economic policy, political economy
  • HE policy formulation implementation
    government and other agencies
  • Regional level
  • Contribution towards regional development
  • Regional collaboration competition
  • Institutional level
  • Complex, loosely coupled organisations
  • Contested sites Multiple centres of authority
    and interests
  • Disciplinary organisation vs departments (feudal
    fiefdoms) vs inter-disciplinary cross-cutting
  • Managerial vs collegial tensions
  • Local vs Cosmopolitan Allegiances Academics
    and Managers engaged in multiple networks
  • Academic vs non-academic staff interests

What is globalisation?
  • Your understanding and definition?
  • Key feature of contemporary society, impacting -
    directly or indirectly - on all aspects of life
    in every society (eg HIV/AIDs), including HE
  • Generalisability of trends and patterns? Problem
    of extrapolation of part to the whole eg Internet
    economy, flexible labour, new modes of knowledge
  • Different perspectives from ideological positions
  • Supporters assume inevitability There is no
    alternative (TINA)
  • Opponents question this assume alternatives
  • Therefore different definitions interpretations
    ie good and bad dimensions threats

  • Globalisation is the intensification of
    trans-national relations/exchanges/integration in
    the sphere of economics (services and
    production), culture and media, knowledge,
    science and technology, through the advancement
    of ITCs and the process of progressive
    deregulation which primarily serves the interests
    of global capital, transnational corporations and
    the advanced industrial nations
  • Networking and partnerships in development
    leading to interdependence and connected results
  • Unified space and time of various exchanges
  • Unavoidable and feared (conspiracy??), supported
    by the wealthy inevitable and sustainable in its
    current form??
  • Positive potential reasons for participation
    global competitiveness avoid marginalisation
  • Cultural imperialism

Dimensions of Globalisation
  • Ideological Castells (2001)
  • Globalisation is both a code word for the new
    emerging world system and the banner to rally
    both the determined march of global corporate
    capitalism and the worldwide sources of
    resistance to it
  • Economic (focus of Castells, 2001)
  • Technological, Space/time compression (Urry,
  • Regional, National and Local responses
    homogenisation and heterogenisation -
    Conceptualising mediating levels and processes
  • Cultural and Media/IT implications for identity
    (transnational imaginaries and local responses
    - solidarity (Stromquist Monkman, 2000, see
    also McGrew, 1992), power, gender, knowledge
    (technological vs social)

Economic Globalisation
  • Castells (2001, 2-3) The New Economy
  • Key sociologist of globalisation SA
    contestations of his views in CHET book
  • Worldwide and Capitalist
  • Not the Internet economy It is the economy of
    all kinds of businesses and all kinds of
    activities whose organisational form and source
    of value and competition are increasingly based
    on information technologies, of which the
    Internet is the epitome and organising form
    (Castells, 2001 2)
  • But Labour is still the basis of the economy
  • Can be defined as the combination of 3
    inter-related characteristics (see Castells,
    2001 2)
  • Various dimensions of economic globalisation

The New Economy
  • 3 inter-related characteristics (Castells, 2001,
  • It is an economy in which productivity and
    competitiveness are based on knowledge and
    information powered by IT
  • This new economy is a global economy
  • The global economy has the capacity in
    relation to its core activities to work as a
    unit in real time, on a planetory scale
  • This capacity comprises of 3 aspects
  • Technological capacity its ability to structure
    the entire planet through telecommunications and
    informational systems
  • Organisational capacity firms and networks
    working in this economy organise themselves to be
    active globally in relation to both supplies
    and markets
  • Institutional capacity governments create the
    institutions on the new economy through
    deregulation and liberalisation which opens up
    the possibility for this new economy to operate

Financial Globalisation
  • The heart of the global economy is the global
    financial market
  • Globalisation refers to core activities Global
    financial markets, the integration of capital
    markets and money markets in a system which works
    as a unit in real time
  • Indicators eg currency market trading in 1999
    2-trillion 20 more than UK GDP per day!
    (Castells, 2001 4)
  • Global interdependence and speed, size and
    complexity of financial markets are the result of
    6 developments
  • Deregulation/liberalisation
  • Technological infrastructure (speed, size
    complexity) trading through electronic networks
    which allow rapid movement of capital in real
  • Interdependent nature of financial products
  • Speculative movement of financial flows systemic
    volatility vast gains from small fluctuations
  • Market valuation firms sentiment and
    perceptions, not performance open to
    manipulation? (SA bemused fundamentals are
    there, but Foreign Direct Investment isnt
  • International financial institutions

  • What we have is a new kind of system in which
    global financial markets are integrated,
    interdependent and at the same time, highly
    unstable in their processes. If capital markets
    and currencies are interdependent, so are
    monetary policies and interest rates, and
    therefore, so are economies everywhere. Capital
    flows become global and increasingly autonomous,
    at the same time vis-à-vis the actual performance
    of the economies. What is the relationship
    between the performance of an economy and what
    happens with its financial system? It is a very
    undetermined equation. (Castells, 1999 6)

Transformation of International Trade
  • Transformation of composition of international
    trade a) from commodities and raw materials to
    advanced services b) within manufacturing from
    low value-added/low tech to high value-added/high
  • WTO want to include HE in GATS. What are the
    implications? HE and FTAs (Mallea, et al 2002, SA
    Minister of Education, 2003, CHE)
  • OECD 19 pop and 74 trade, but developing
    countries share of international trade increased
  • Africa most internationalised region why?
  • Trading blocs and regional integrated economies
    neither integrated regions nor single global
    economy instead networks of trade.

Internationalisation of Production
  • Core of the matter
  • What really has happened in the world in the
    last 20 years is that the core of production of
    goods and services in every sector has been
    internationalised through transnational networks
    of production, distribution and management
    (Castells, 2001 8).
  • Internationalisation of the production process
    through a layered network
  • Transnational Corporations (TNCs) decentralised
    networked units formed through FDI in the form
    of mergers and acquisitions
  • Much wider than usually assumed 53 000 TNCs
  • 30 of global GDP (15 within same TNC), 66 of
    global trade, but employ fraction of global
    labour market
  • Subsidiary networks SMMEs and informal sector

(Selective) Globalisation of ST
  • Science Technology (ST) is globally integrated
    through connections to developing countries
  • But with tremendous asymmetry ST very highly
    concentrated in core/ leading economies
  • Networks are (somewhat) interactive, with
    diffusion to developing countries (eg India) is

  • A key characteristic of the new economy is that
    it is organised in networks a set of
    interconnected nodes. These are in the large
    corporations and are decentralised. Small and
    medium businesses connect to each other, forming
    networks which connect to these decentralised
    networks of the corporation, forming networks of
    networks increasingly using e-commerce. The new
    technological basis for the new economy is the
    Internet . The Internet is not simply one more
    technology. The Internet is the equivalent of
    electricity and of the electrical engine of
    industrialisation. It induces the networking
    form, just as the fusion of the electrical engine
    allowed the formation of the industrial factory,
    at the heart of the development of the large
    capitalist corporation (Castells, 2001 10).
  • If knowledge is the electricity of the new
    network society, then HE is the power station

Networks and global reach
  • Networks a set of interconnected nodes key
    characteristic of the new economy
  • New economy and survival activities are the two
    key sectors in the world
  • Relation between old new economy (p 10-11)
  • Double logic of network society clear patterns
    of inclusion and exclusion does not integrate
    everyone but affects all (p 11 - see below)
  • It is a very lean efficient system of including
    and excluding
  • Integrated global networks and excluded local
    societies Cuts across North and South divide,
    which no longer prevails.
  • East Palo Alto and Bangalore examples do you
  • Globalisation does not integrate everybody. In
    fact, it currently excludes most people on the
    planet but at the same time , affects everybody

Transformation of Labour Markets
  • New technologies and unemployment jobs are lost
    under some conditions therefore we must
    create dynamism in other sectors (unclear and
    fuzzy regarding interventionist role of the
  • Flexible labour and individualisation of
    labour-capital relationships have become the norm
  • Self-programmable vs generic labour key
    issue for education (Castells, 2001 10)
  • Self-programmable labour has the built-in
    capacity to generate value through innovation and
    information, and has the ability to reconstruct
    itself throughout the occupational career on the
    basis of this education and this information.
    Therefore it is always at the source of the
    creation of added value (Castells, 2001 13)
  • 2 key issues global search for talent and
    pressure for access to developed world
    migrations including women (Stromquist and
  • Capital is global, labour is local Majority of
    labour not globalised

Globalisation and developing countries
  • Leap-frogging technology possible?
  • New production modes Manufacturing not
    disappearing but changing Post-Fordism
    (Kraak, 2001 38) manufacturing plus automation,
    innovation, flexible responsive output,
    high-tech, connected to information and global
  • 2 phenomena a) Devaluation of low-skilled
    generic labour, leading to b) expansion of
    informal, survival and criminal sectors, which
    are linked to new economy

Globalisation, inequality and poverty
  • Impact on LDCs dual society (p 15 Smythe in
    Subotzky, 1999)
  • 4th world marginalised discarded societies (p
  • What is Castells suggesting about alternatives
  • New economy simultaneously highly productive
    and extraordinarily exclusionary through the
    process of networking and segmentation (p15)
  • Well documented indicators of asymmetries in
    distribution of benefits and wealth 4 axes -
    inequality, poverty, polarisation and social
    exclusion see examples (p 16)
  • What is responsible? Correlation and causation
  • Problem of personifying globalisation!
  • Key issue relationship between this new mode of
    development info development and the overall
    process of intergration

6 Factors re exclusion
  1. Nature of networks and the interests underlying
    them allow for exclusion
  2. Extreme under-development of technological
    infrastructure in most of the world
  3. Likewise, education, technological literacy and
    RD extremely unevenly distributed not just
    massification warehousing but also quality
    resources capacity!
  4. Impact of integrated market volatility
  5. Bypassing and restraint of national states by
    international finance institutions World Bank
    and IMF
  6. Parallel criminal economy, and social crises
    migration, urbanisation without conditions to
    integrate, corruption strife, ecological crisis,
    impacting most on women and children all the
    contradictions of development are sharper than

Sustainability? Alternatives?
  • Proponents TINA and the trickle-down approach
    redistribution through growth
  • Opponents Inherent contradictions make it
  • Underlying tensions (Subotzky p 58/9)
  • Crisis of Interdependency unregulatable systemic
    volatility of markets, ecology, social cohesion
  • Crisis of overcapacity
  • Crisis of supply of talent
  • Left Castells, Chomsky, NSMs as well as
    Orthodoxy Sachs, Fisher, Stiglitz socially and
    politically unsustainable as well

  • Global turning point realisation of rational
    self-interest in avoiding negative global impacts
    idealistic optimism or real hope?
  • Role of state
  • minimal state vs regulatory/interventionist
    (Stromquist Monkman, 2000 22-23)
  • diminished role or not?
  • Position of SA
  • Explaining current political economy (Subotzky,
    1999 60-61)
  • Dual development path and current privileging of
  • Complementary development path? Settlement?
  • TINA or not?

Subotzky (1999)
  • Situates the impacts of globalisation within
    political economy
  • Tensions underlying globalisation
  • SA political economy
  • Seeks complementary alternatives to the
    HE-industry partnership and market-oriented
    knowledge production model of CSL an instance
    of serving the public good and RDP
  • Tracks impacts of globalisation tensions and the
    SA case SA HE impacts on HE

Additional issues
  • Impacts of Globalisation on HE
  • Reinserting the public good (Singh)
  • Changing modes of knowledge production (Kraak,
  • Changing functions of HE shift from elite to
    mass HE (Kraak, Scott)
  • Massification, internationalisation and
    globalisation (Scott)
  • Approach issues through close reading of
    cross-cutting debates in various sources
    analysts critique each others accounts

Forces of Change acting on HE
  • Multiple impacts of globalisation
  • New global economy ICT-driven knowledge society
  • Shifting purposes and role of HE in innovation
    and competitiveness driving economic development
    the new instrumentalism the call for
  • New public accountability to national government
    society mainly in terms of contribution to
    economic development quality assurance
  • New relations between HE and state, private
    sector and community
  • Neo-liberalism and the emphasis on fiscal
    constraint and efficiency
  • Marketisation, Vocationalisation, Managerialism
    and Privatisation
  • New knowledge production (Kraak, Subotzky)
  • Impact on faculty life (Stromquist Monkman,
    Subotzky - June)
  • Internationalisation (exchange, curriculum,
    collaboration, Scott)
  • Social Demand increased access Massification
    (Scott, Kraak)
  • ICTs the rise of new Distance Education,
    Multimedia instruction, virtual universities,
    corporate universities (Scott)
  • Counters Reinserting the public good (Singh,

Reinserting the Public Good
  • Responsiveness primarily interpreted in economic
    terms (Singh, Subotzky)
  • Impacts of Globalisation Social Purposes of HE
    losing ground
  • Hold multiple purposes in balance (also Castells)
  • Strategies to operationalise public good
  • Analytic clarity public good and market
  • Interrogating relevant knowledge and skills
  • Identifying strategic possibilities TINA issue
  • Operational opportunities (eg Community Service
    Learning - Subotzky)
  • Implications for leadership and management
  • Good practices
  • Role of State and donor communities

New Modes of Knowledge Production
  • Kraak paper outline of debate and centrality of
    Mode 2 debate in HE policy
  • Key factors in the emergence of Mode 2
    Globalisation democratisation simultaneous
    impact led to a major shift in the institutional
    organisation and delivery of HE programmes since
    the late 1980s (too simple?)
  • Globalisation
  • post-Fordism (new modes of economic production)
    flexible specialisation
  • IT the facilitation of internationalisation of
  • The networked firm
  • New educational demands highly skilled labour
    force specialised skills generic competencies
    portable skills, self-programmable
  • Democratisation/massification
  • Egalitarian pressure for wider access
  • Diffussion of skilled professionals, knowledge
    workers and research organisations outside HE

Impacts of Changes (Kraak)
  • Impact 1 The shift from a closed to an open HET
  • New programme offerings beyond discipline-based
    degree qualifications, based on open-learning
    methods (see Scott in Kraak, 2000 8)
  • Economic (new skills needs) and educational
    responses (accommodating non-traditional
  • Eroding of the dominance of elite academic
    cultures FE or HE slippage?
  • Shift from closed to open intellectual systems
    (dynamically interactive with outside social
    interests and knowledge structures) incorporating
    the values of non-elite communities optimism
    about knowledge equivalences, interfaces and
    seamless mobility?
  • 4 key changes (Scott) dichotomous from-to
  • From courses to credits
  • From departments to programmes
  • From subject-based teaching to student-based
  • From knowledge to competence
  • Unified system and institutional differentiation

Impact 2 From Mode 1 to Mode 2
  • Mode 1 Disciplinary knowledge production
  • basic/blue sky/curiosity-driven applied
  • formulated within disciplinary boundaries
  • Mode 2
  • Transdisciplinary knowledge production
  • Applications driven generated in the context of
  • Organisational diverse (transient teams) and
  • New forms of quality control
  • Socially reflective

Interpretations Critique of Mode 2
  • Kraak optimist
  • Subotzky (1999) argument cautiously exploratory
  • The Gibbons Thesis promise or peril for LDCs?
    (Subotzky Muller and Subotzky critically
    cautious the debate moves on)
  • Alternative interpretations (Rip, Etzkowitz,
    Subotzky et al, 2003)
  • Key issue Uncritical uptake and interpretation
    of policy

Massification, Internationalisation
  • Scott Tension between massification and
    internationalisation? International mission vs
    responsiveness to local circumstances?
  • Myth of
  • universities as international institutions they
    are national institutions created to fulfil
    national purposes
  • International community of scholars believing in
    universal values contemporary world is much
    more complex, diverse and pluralistic
  • Characteristics of mass systems (shift from elite
    to mass)
  • Inclusive
  • Diversified institutions including local
  • New managerial approach
  • Quality assurance and regulation
  • International dimensions of mass HE
  • Student flows (across boundaries and
  • Staff flows
  • Research and teaching collaboration
  • Flow of ideas (postmodernist pluralism
    globalisation not just about real time IT-driven

Globalisation and Internationalisation
  • Internationalisation
  • World-order dominated by certain nation states
    involving increased cross-national flows
  • Globalisation
  • National boundaries rendered obsolete weaker?
    danger of totalising tendencies by the
    transgressive tendencies of high technology and
    world culture

Recap The multifaceted nature of globalisation
  • Various dimensions
  • Ideological
  • Economic
  • Cultural (identity)
  • Technological, space/time compression
  • Mediating responses national, regional and
  • The nature of the network society inclusion and

Recap (cont.)
  • Globalisation and Developing Countries
  • Inequality, Poverty, Polarisation and Social
  • Sustainability and alternatives
  • Interdependence and Internal Contradictions
    Possible turning points?
  • Political-economic position of SA choices?
  • Role of state and transnational civil society
    formations in relation to globalisation and
    fostering alternatives
  • TINA or not?
  • Conditions for developing alternatives

HE Studies Policy Analysis Leadership and
  • Sub-Module 2B
  • Overview of the Post-1990 Policy Process in South
  • March 2004
  • Associate Prof George Subotzky

Context for HE transformation in SA
  • Opportunity and imperative for this
  • 1990 political changes offered opportunity for
    fundamental reconstruction
  • Legacy of apartheid unequal, ineffective,
    inefficient, distorted and dysfunctional
  • Scale of fundamental transformation unprecented
  • Policy framework characterised by two key
  • Globalization
  • Dual social structure
  • Dual national development priority
  • Engagement in the competitive global economy
  • Address the basic needs of the majority poor
  • Ongoing challenges of impacts on HE of
  • Globalisation
  • Internationalisation

Historical overview
  • SA history characterised by intense political
    conflicts and socio-cultural divisions
  • HE system therefore shaped by prevailing balance
    of forces in successive historical periods
  • Colonialism and underlying conflict between
    British and Afrikaner nationalism
  • Phases of economic development (agriculture,
    mining, industrialisation)
  • Apartheid
  • Multiple institutional system result of intense
    rivalry between 2 dominant politico-cultural
    linguistic groups British colonialists and Boer

Post-1990 Policy Process
  • Period of negotiation and re-entry into
    international community
  • Engagement with multilateral development
    assistance agencies international and local
  • Progressive policy formulation through key
    processes and documents
  • National Education Policy Initiative
  • ANC manifesto and IPET
  • National Commission on HE
  • Green Paper, White Papers
  • HE Act
  • Size and Shape reports
  • National Plan
  • National Working Group Mergers
  • Implementation of 3 regulatory levers funding
    framework, QA, enrolment planning

  • Pre-1990
  • Apartheid planning, control, repression
  • Opposition, activism, analysis
  • 1990-1994
  • Negotiations and realisation that post-apartheid
    policy framework would be required
  • Multilateral and bilateral agencies 1st studies
    and quantification of apartheid inequalities
  • National Education Policy Initiative (NEPI)
  • Policy options by progressive educationists
  • Equity and development issues
  • ANC Education and Training Policy Framework
    election manifesto
  • Implementation Plan for Education and Training
    (IPET) plan of action for new minister

  • Consultative Process of Formulation of
    Macro-policy Framework
  • National Commission on Higher Education (NCHE)
  • Comprehensive framework for single, unified but
    institutionally differentiated programmes-based
  • Wide consultation, general consensus
  • White Paper on Higher Education Transformation
    1, 2 and 3 (initial contestations, wide consensus
    on final version) (1997)
  • 3 imperatives
  • Redress
  • RDP needs
  • Global competitiveness
  • 8 policy goals (p. 550)

3 Overarching HE Goals
  • Equity
  • access and success
  • redress social and institutional
  • democratic, co-operative governance
  • Effectiveness
  • relevance (responsiveness to societal needs
    contributing to global and basic development)
  • quality
  • quantity graduate and research outputs
  • Efficiency
  • delivery (within fiscal constraint)
  • removing inefficiencies of apartheid

Post-1997 Immediate DOE Priorities
  • Implementation diverted
  • Creating/strengthening required structures and
    bureaucracy HE Branch and Council for HE
  • Incorporation of colleges
  • Regulation of private HE
  • Institutional management/finance crises
  • Norms and standards for teacher education

1997 2001 Implementation vacuum
  • Between White Paper and National Plan
  • Symbolic vs substantive policy
  • Conditions not ready policy naivety to policy
    maturity capacity, other preoccupations
  • Role of state (structural intervention and
    market regulation to achieve equity,
    effectiveness, efficiency) vs minimal state
  • Tension between regulatory national planning and
    autonomy (without denying accountability)
  • New Minister (1999)

Partial Regulation and Market Conditions
  • Partial regulation ? 2 conditions
  • a) market conditions - various institutional
  • Entrepreneurialism Local and transnational DE
    and telematics, satellite campuses (HWAUs)
  • Academic restructuring towards programmes and
    inter-disciplinarity (HWEUs) - Disciplinary vs
    the credit accumulation and transfer positions
  • Private Sector needs (HWUs and some Techs)
  • b) greater inequalities and dysfunctionality of
    some HDIs no substantial redress policy

Size and Shape Debate
  • Preoccupation with restructuring Rationale?
  • CHE 1st Discussion Document (May 2000) 2nd
    Discussion Document (July 2000)
  • Huge controversy

National Plan
  • Operationalises WP goals objectives, targets
    and strategies, timeframe.
  • Indicative targets
  • participation rate 15 to 20
  • graduation rate benchmarks
  • shifting enrolments between the humanities,
    business and commerce, engineering and technology
    from the current ratio of 492626 to 403030
    respectively and
  • student and staff equity targets.
  • Regulatory steps to ensure diversity of
    institutional mission and programme
    differentiation (PQM). Institutional programme
    mixes to be determined on basis of current
    profiles, relevance to national priorities, and
    demonstrated capacity for proposed new programs.

National Plan
  • Restructuring of institutional landscape through
    the reduction in number of institutions but not
    delivery sites
  • Various immediate institutional mergers are
    recommended while further potential ones and
    regional collaboration will be guided by a
    National Working Group, heavily laden with
    economists signaling a strong efficiency
  • Principle of differentiation and restructuring
    accepted (as far back as NCHE) detaching
    differentiation from disadvantage

3 Regulatory Levers
  • National/Institutional goal and results oriented
    Planning framework
  • 3-year Rolling Plans Strategic Plans PQM
  • Funding framework new doc
  • Goal oriented, earmarked and block grants
  • Separate research funding
  • Teaching inputs/outputs
  • Minimalist government funding in the last
    resort lever for market solution
  • Institutional factors redress size and
    African enr.
  • Quality Assurance HE Quality Committee
  • Accreditation of programmes
  • Institutional site visits (pilots completed)

Current Policy Processes
  • Restructuring (post-Zuma ANC review?)
  • Programme Qualifications Mix (PQM)
  • New academic policy HEQF (CHE)
  • NQF review
  • New school leaving certificate FETC framework
  • Distance Education Satellite Campuses
  • Redress Policy
  • Language Policy
  • National Higher Education Information and
    Applications Service
  • Ministerial Teacher Education Committee
  • Enrolment output targets tensions between
    participation efficiency (post-Zuma ANC
  • Autonomy debate governance style

  • Reduce 36 to 22 institutions but retain 48 sites
  • 11 Universities 6 Comprehensives 5 Technikons
  • 10 mergers from 23
  • U of Natal and UDW UKZN
  • MEDUNSA North U of North
  • RAU and Wits Tech (Comprehensive) U of
  • Port Elizabeth Tech and UPE (Comprehensive)
    Nelson Mandela UoT
  • Potchefstroom N West Univ.(Comprehensive) U
    of Northwest
  • UNISA, Tech SA and Vista Distance (Comprehensive)
    (new) UNISA
  • Cape and Pen Techs Cape Peninsula U of T
  • Natal, ML Sultan and Mangosuthu Techs DIT
  • North West, N Gauteng and Pretoria Techs Tswane
    U of T
  • Unitra, E Cape and Border Techs Walter Sisulu U
    of ST, EC (compr)
  • 12 Untouched
  • Wits, UCT, Stellenbosch, Pretoria, Free State U,
    Rhodes, UWC, Fort Hare, Venda (UoT), Zululand
    (C), Free State Tech, Vaal Triangle Tech

Descriptive Overview of Current System
  • 36 Institutions, reducing to 22
  • Ambiguous Binary System
  • Historical Categories HAIs and HDIs (still
  • Unexplained fluctuations in enrolments

The Skewed Revolution (Cooper Subotzky, 2001)
  • Some important aggregate changes, but apartheid
    imprint intact in many ways
  • Disaggregations reveal race and gender groups
    concentrated by institutional type, field and
    level (new public-private partnerships)
  • Staff
  • Largely unchanged
  • 14 professors are women
  • Institutional capacity still highly uneven

Key HE Challenges
  • Planning Implementation
  • Capacity
  • HE Policy shaped by political-economic choices
    Reconciling conflicting policy imperatives
    equity and development
  • Integrated Policy-making avoiding immediatism
    (demonstrable change which may not meet goals of
    equity, efficiency and effectiveness) and big
    bang policy (change the world)
  • HIV/AIDS major humanitarian and HRD challenge
    for planning and management

Higher Education Challenges
  • Equity
  • Social and individual redress need for political
    settlements and alternative funding sources
  • HE and the Public Good, service, and