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CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Fourth Edition


CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Fourth Edition Chapter 5 Router and IOS Basics * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * CCNA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Fourth Edition

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals
Fourth Edition
  • Chapter 5
  • Router and IOS Basics

  • Describe the benefits of network segmentation
    with routers
  • Understand the elements of the Cisco router user
  • Configure the HyperTerminal program to interface
    with the Cisco router
  • Describe the various router configuration modes

Objectives (continued)
  • Describe the various router passwords
  • Understand the enhanced editing features of the
    Cisco IOS
  • Compare router components to typical PC components

Benefits of Routing
  • Routers provide
  • Packet filtering
  • Connections between local networks
  • Traffic control
  • Wide area network (WAN) connections
  • Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI
    reference model
  • Because of Network layer addressing, routers can
    direct packets to both local and remote segments

Cisco Router User Interface
  • Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS)
  • Provides a command-line interface (CLI)
  • Allows network operators to check the status of
    the router and network administrators to manage
    and configure the router
  • You can access a router in several different ways
  • Console port (also known as the console)
  • Auxiliary port (AUX)
  • Virtual terminals (VTY)
  • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server

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Connecting via Terminal Programs
  • When configuring the router through the console
    or AUX ports
  • You must first make the physical connection
  • Then, you can access the router through a
    terminal program
  • Steps to configure HyperTerminal
  • Open the HyperTerminal application
  • Click File on the menu bar, and then click New
  • Enter a name for the connection

Connecting via Terminal Programs (continued)
  • Steps to configure HyperTerminal (continued)
  • Configure how you will connect to the router via
    the Connect To dialog box
  • If you are connecting to the router through the
    AUX port, you would provide the router phone
    number here
  • If connecting to the router through the console
    port, click the Connect using list box and
    choose the COM port to which the RJ-45 to DB-9
    connector is attached
  • Configure the following settings for the COM
    port Bits per second, 9600 Data bits, 8
    Parity, None Stop bits, 1 Flow control, None

System Configuration Dialog
  • If the router has not been configured previously,
    or if the startup file has been erased
  • The Cisco IOS will prompt you to run the initial
    configuration dialog after the router boots
  • The system configuration dialog presents a series
    of prompts that guide you through the initial
    configuration for the router

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User Interface
  • The initial prompt consists of two parts
  • The host name of the router followed by the
    greater than symbol (gt)
  • Default routergt
  • User EXEC mode (or user mode)
  • When the prompt displayed is the greater than
  • Network operator can check router status and
    review several of the router settings

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User Interface (continued)
  • The question mark activates context-sensitive
    Help on the Cisco router
  • User mode does not allow you to configure the
  • To do this, you must go into the privileged EXEC
  • To enter privileged EXEC, you can type the enable
    command at the user mode prompt
  • Next, you may be prompted for a password
  • Greater than symbol (gt) changes to a pound sign

User Interface (continued)
  • You can do a few things at this prompt
  • Setup the setup command will cause the router to
    enter the system configuration dialog
  • Copy configurations can be copied from TFTP
    servers to the router and therefore change the
    router configuration
  • Erase configuration files as well as the entire
    IOS can be erased

Configuration Modes
  • Global configuration mode
  • Accessed by typing configure terminal at the
    enable mode prompt
  • Interface configuration mode
  • Allows you to configure the Ethernet and serial
    interfaces on your router
  • Line configuration mode
  • Allows you to configure the virtual terminals,
    console, and AUX lines that let you access the

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Configuration Modes (continued)
  • Typing exit will take you back one level
  • Typing end or pressing the CtrlZ keys will take
    you all the way back to the enable prompt
  • Often, you can discover abbreviated commands by
    simply trying them
  • The router will show you the point at which you
    entered an incorrect character

Configuration Modes (continued)
Plethora of Passwords
Plethora of Passwords (continued)
  • Enable Password and Enable Secret Password
  • You can set both passwords from the global
    configuration mode prompt
  • Because it is encrypted, the enable secret
    password is more secure than the enable password
  • You can type no enable secret and no enable
    password at the global configuration mode prompt
  • To remove the enable secret and enable passwords

Plethora of Passwords (continued)
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Plethora of Passwords (continued)
  • Setting Line passwords
  • Line passwords are the first line of defense
    against unauthorized intrusion into the router
  • You can set passwords for each line used to
    configure the router
  • Configure the console line password
  • Enter line configuration mode
  • You can also configure passwords on the five
    virtual terminal lines that exist on every router
  • In much the same way as on the console port

Plethora of Passwords (continued)
Plethora of Passwords (continued)
Plethora of Passwords (continued)
Enhanced Editing
  • By default, the router supports enhanced editing
    features that allow you to modify lengthy
  • The enhanced editing commands let you jump to the
    beginning or end of a command line
  • You can also jump forward or back, character by
    character, or word by word
  • You can turn off the enhanced editing features by
    typing terminal no editing at either the user
    EXEC or the privileged EXEC prompts
  • You can turn on terminal editing by typing
    terminal editing

Enhanced Editing (continued)
Command History
  • Command history
  • Allows you to retrieve previously typed commands
  • You can see up to 10 previously typed commands by
    typing show history
  • From either the user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode
  • To modify the number of commands stored by the
    router, you can use the terminal command
  • Up to 256 previous commands
  • Type terminal history size n

Configuring Router Identification
  • Router host name
  • Default host name is router
  • To set the router host name, type hostname
    followed by the name that you want to set
  • Configure a banner
  • A banner is a message that you can configure to
    display each time someone attempts to log in to
    the router
  • Enter global configuration mode by typing config
  • Then type banner motd, followed by a space and a
    delimiting character

Configuring Router Identification (continued)
Configuring Router Identification (continued)
Configuring Router Identification (continued)
  • Configure an interface description
  • Use the description command
  • The interface description helps you remember
    which network the interface services

Configuring the Time and Date
  • Use the clock set command in enable mode to
    configure the time
  • You must be in global configuration mode to
    configure the time zone

Router Components
  • This section discusses the hardware elements of
    the router
  • ROM
  • Flash memory
  • Interfaces

  • Read-only memory (ROM)
  • Loads the bootstrap program that initializes the
    routers basic hardware components
  • Not modified during normal operations, but it can
    be upgraded with special plug-in chips
  • The content of ROM is maintained even when the
    router is rebooted
  • The ROM monitor firmware runs when the router is
    turned on or rebooted

Flash Memory
  • Flash memory
  • A type of erasable, programmable, read-only
    memory (EPROM)
  • Not typically modified during normal operations
  • However, it can be upgraded or erased when
  • The content of flash memory is maintained even
    when the router is rebooted
  • Flash memory
  • Contains the working copy of the current Cisco
  • Is the component that initializes the IOS for
    normal router operations

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  • Nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM)
  • A special type of RAM that is not cleared when
    the router is rebooted
  • The startup configuration file for the router is
    stored in NVRAM by default
  • This is the first file created by the person who
    sets up the router
  • The Cisco IOS uses the configuration file in
    NVRAM during the router boot process

  • Random access memory (RAM)
  • Also known as dynamic random access memory (DRAM)
  • A volatile hardware component
  • Its information is not maintained in the event of
    a router reboot
  • Changes to the routers running configuration
    take place in RAM/DRAM

RAM/DRAM (continued)
  • The IOS contains commands to view each of the
    routers components
  • show running-config
  • show memory
  • show buffers
  • show startup-config
  • Copy running-config startup-config
  • Abbreviated as Copy run start

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  • A router can ship with a variety of configurable
  • A common interface is Ethernet0
  • Other types of interfaces include
  • Token Ring
  • Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
  • Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
  • Channel Interface Processor (CIP) for Systems
    Network Architecture (SNA)
  • High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI)

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  • Cisco routers use the Cisco IOS to provide an
    interface for network operators and
  • The first mode entered is user EXEC (routergt
    prompt) and the next mode is privileged EXEC
    (router prompt)
  • In user EXEC, you can accomplish basic tasks
  • To actually configure the router, privileged EXEC
    mode must be accessed
  • The privileged EXEC mode is often called enable

Summary (continued)
  • The enable, enable secret, and VTY passwords are
    set during initial configuration if the system
    configuration dialog is used
  • When configured, the enable secret password
    supersedes the enable password
  • The components of a router include ROM, flash
    memory, NVRAM, RAM/DRAM, and interfaces
  • ROM stores a limited version of the Cisco IOS and
    routines for checking the hardware during system

Summary (continued)
  • Flash memory stores the Cisco IOS that is loaded
    by default during system boot
  • NVRAM stores the startup copy of the router
    configuration file that is loaded by default
    during system boot
  • RAM/DRAM stores the working copy (running
    configuration) of the router configuration
  • Interfaces provide connectivity to various types
    of LANs and WANs