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Australian English

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Australian English By Victoria Kosareva There are different territorial variants of English. It is a regional variety possessing a literary norm. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Australian English


1
Australian English
  • By Victoria Kosareva

2
  • There are different territorial variants of
    English.
  • It is a regional variety possessing a literary
    norm.

3
  • Every variant of English has its own literature
    and is characterized by peculiarities in
    phonetics, spelling, grammar and vocabulary.

4
  • The vocabulary of all the variants is
    characterized by a high percentage of borrowings
    from the language of the people who inhabited the
    land before the English colonisers came.

5
  • Many of them denote some specific realia of the
    new country local animals, plants or weather
    conditions, new social relations, new trades and
    conditions of labour.

6
  • The local words for new notions penetrate into
    the English language and later on may become
    international.
  • For example

7
dingo
8
kangaroo
9
boomerang
10
  • Australian English is similar in many respects to
    British English but it also borrows from American
    English, e.g. it uses truck instead of lorry.
    There are also influences from Hiberno-English,
    as many Australians are of Irish descent.

11
  • The origins of other words are not as clear or
    are disputed. Dinkum (or "fair dinkum") can mean
    "true", "is that true?" or "this is the truth!.
    It is often claimed that dinkum dates back to the
    Australian goldrushes of the 1850s, and that it
    is derived from the Cantonese (or Hokkien) ding
    kam, meaning, "top gold". But scholars give
    greater credence to the conjecture that it
    originated from the extinct East Midlands dialect
    in England, where dinkum (or dincum) meant "hard
    work" or "fair work", which was also the original
    meaning in Australian English.

12
  • Similarly, g'day, a stereotypical Australian
    greeting, is no longer synonymous with "good day"
    in other varieties of English and is never used
    as an expression for "farewell", as "good day" is
    in other countries. It is simply used as a
    greeting.

13
  • A few words of Australian origin are now used in
    other parts of the Anglosphere as well among
    these are first past the post, to finalise,
    brownout, and the colloquialisms uni "university"
    and short of a meaning stupid or crazy, (e.g. "a
    sandwich short of a picnic").

14
  • Australian English incorporates several uniquely
    Australian terms, such as, for example, outback
    to refer to remote, sparsely populated area,
    walkabout to refer to a long journey of certain
    length and bush to refer to native forested
    areas, but also to regional areas('Bush' is a
    word of Dutch origin 'Bosch' ).

15
  • Australian English has a unique set of
    diminutives(?????????????? ?????) formed by
    adding o or ie to the ends of words, e.g.
    arvo(afternoon), servo(service station),
    barbie(barbecue), bikkie(biscuit)

16
  • Occasionally, a za diminutive is used, usually
    for personal names where the first of multiple
    syllables ends in an r, e.g. Sharon becomes
    Shazza.

17
  • A very common feature of traditional Australian
    English is rhyming slang, based on Cockney
    rhyming slang and imported by migrants from
    London in the 19th century. For example, Capitain
    Cook rhymes with look, so to have a capitain cook
    means to have a look.

18
Australian phonetics.
  • Australian English is a non-rhotic accent and it
    is similar to the other Southern Hemisphere
    accents (New Zealand English and South African
    English).
  • Many speakers have also coalesced /dj/, /sj/ and
    /tj/ into /d?/, /?/ and /t?/, producing standard
    pronunciations such as /t???n/ for tune.

19
  • The flapping of intervocalic /t/ and /d/ to
    alveolar tap ? before unstressed vowels (as in
    butter, party) and syllabic /l/ (bottle), as well
    as at the end of a word or morpheme before any
    vowel (what else, whatever). Thus, for most
    speakers, pairs such as ladder/latter,
    metal/medal, and coating/coding are pronounced
    identically.

20
  • Both intervocalic /nt/ and /n/ may be realized as
    n or ?, which can make winter and winner
    homophones. Interesting will sound like
    inner-resting. Most areas in which /nt/ is
    reduced to /n/, it is accompanied further by
    nasalization of simple post-vocalic /n/, so that
    /nt/ and /n/ remain phonemically distinct. In
    such cases, the preceding vowel becomes
    nasalized, and is followed in cases where the
    former /nt/ was present, by a distinct /n/. This
    stop-absorption by the preceding nasal /n/ does
    not occur when the second syllable is stressed,
    as in entails.

21
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