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Family Child Health Nursing

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Title: Family Child Health Nursing


1
Family Child Health Nursing
  • By Nataliya Haliyash,
  • MD,PhD,MSN
  • Ternopil State Medical University
  • Institute of Nursing

2
  • A major task of families is to nurture children
    to become healthy, responsible, and creative
    adults.
  • Most parents learn the parenting role on the
    job, relying on memories of their childhood
    experiences in their families of origin to help
    them.
  • Parents, as primary caretakers of their children,
    are charged with keeping children healthy, as
    well as caring for them during illness.

3
Lecture objectives
  • Discussion of an information about
  • a brief history of family-centered care of
    children
  • a family interaction model that can be used to
    guide nursing practice with families with
    children
  • implications for nuring practice
  • implications for research, education, and policy.

4
Definition
  • Family child health nursing is using nursing
    actions that consider the relationship between
    family tasks and health care and their effects on
    family well-being and childrens health.
  • Nurses care for children
  • within the context of their family,
  • and by treating the family as a whole or the
    family as client.

5
Family-Centered Care
  • Family-centered care is a system-wide approach to
    child health care.
  • It is based on the assumption that families are
    their childrens primary source of strength and
    support.
  • Family-centered care has emerged in response to
    increasing family responsibilities for health
    care.

6
Family-Centered Care
  • Families acknowledge the uncertainty that
    surrounds their childs disease, but they want to
    be informed partners of the health team in
    decision making and valued collaborators in the
    care of their child.
  • (Griffin, 2003)
  • Family-centered care brings attention back to the
    importance of families in health care.

7
FAMILY INTERACTION MODEL
  • The family interaction model must be applicable
    to all the family situations (Gedaly-Duff
    Heims, 2001).
  • By using the family interaction model, nurses
    help families understand and prepare for normal
    and situational transitions in diverse family
    situations.
  • The family interaction model is derived from
    symbolic interaction theory and developmental
    theory.

8
FAMILY INTERACTION MODEL
  • The model assumes that
  • (1) meanings and responses to health, disease,
    and illness are created through interactions
    among family members and between the family and
    society, and
  • (2) families meanings and responses are
    influenced by family and individual development
    (Figure 111).

9
Family interaction model
10
Family interaction model
  • The family interaction model uses three concepts
    to guide nursing care
  • (1) family career, which includes dynamic and
    unique developmental and situational experiences
    of a familys lifetime represented by family
    stages and family transitions
  • (2) individual development, which is the expected
    changes in each member associated with growth and
    development
  • (3) patterns of health, disease, and illness,
    which are expected behaviors in these health
    situations.
  • Knowledge of these three concepts and their
    interactions with each other provides nurses with
    an understanding of the effects of health and
    illness on family interactions.

11
Family Career
  • is the dynamic process of change that occurs
    during the life span of the unique group called
    the family.
  • incorporates stages, tasks, and transitions.
  • is similar to family development theory in that
    it takes into account family tasks and raising
    children.

12
Family Stages
  • Knowledge of family stages helps nurses
    anticipate the family reorganization necessary to
    accommodate the growth and development of family
    members.
  • For example, families with school-age children
    expect children to be able to take care of their
    own hygiene, whereas families with infants expect
    to do all the hygiene care.

13
Family Tasks
  • Across all family stages, there are basic family
    tasks that are essential to survival and
    continuity (Duvall Miller, 1985)
  • (1) to secure shelter, food, and clothing
  • (2) to develop emotionally healthy individuals
    who can manage crisis and experience nonmonetary
    achievement
  • (3) to ensure each individuals socialization in
    school, work, spiritual, and community life
  • (4) to contribute to the next generation, by
    giving birth, adopting a child, or foster-caring
    for a child
  • (5) to promote the health of family members and
    care for them during illness.

14
Family transitions
  • Family transitions are events that signal a
    reorganization of family roles and tasks.
  • Developmental (normative) family transitions are
    predictable changes that occur in an expected
    time line congruent with movement through the
    eight family stages.
  • Situational family transitions include changes in
    personal relationships, roles and status, the
    environment, physical and mental capabilities,
    and the loss of possessions.
  • These are also called non-normative transitions.
  • Not all families experience each situational
    transition.

15
Individual Development
  • When nurses review with families the individual
    family members developmental stages that are
    occurring concurrently among children and adults,
    they assist families in their interactions.
  • Through this review process, nurses assist
    families to accommodate to childrens and adults
    changing abilities.
  • Nurses should consider three dimensions of
    individual development
  • social-emotional,
  • cognitive,
  • and physical.

16
Patterns of Health, Disease, and Illness
  • Healthy behaviors promote optimal physical and
    social-emotional well-being.
  • Disease is pathology.
  • Illness represents the family activities
    associated with managing disease.
  • Family interactions shape these patterns.
  • As caretakers, families promote health and cope
    with acute, chronic, life-threatening, and
    end-of-life illnesses in their children.

17
FAMILY CHILD HEALTH PRACTICEAND INTERVENTIONS
  • Family child health care nurses can teach and
    support families in four areas
  • health promotion,
  • acute illness,
  • chronic illness,
  • and lifethreatening illness.

18
Health Promotion
  • Patterns of family wellbeing are facilitated by
    balancing the needs of individuals and the family
    with the resources and options available to meet
    these needs.
  • Nurses help families integrate physical,
    social-emotional, and cognitive health promotion
    into family routines.
  • They also affirm positive patterns of health or
    provide alternative ones.
  • Nurses reduce the risk of illness and injury by
    shaping the family routines, rituals, and
    environment to encourage optimally healthy
    behaviors.
  • Nurses assess for, identify, and provide
    interventions to reduce risk factors associated
    with morbidity and mortality.

19
Acute Illness
  • Families with children frequently experience
    acute illness and injury.
  • Acute illness in children is characterized by the
    sudden onset of signs and symptoms treatment can
    usually restore the children to the predisease
    state.
  • To help families experiencing acute illness,
    nurses must
  • become aware of families past experiences with
    and knowledge about acute illness.
  • alert families to potential disruptions among
    parents and siblings because of conflicts between
    family members needs.
  • teach families to recognize the patterns and
    potential complications of acute illness.
  • plan with families how to alter family routines
    to accommodate the temporary changes required by
    the acute illness

20
Chronic Illness
  • Health conditions that
  • (1) limit childrens daily activities such as
    playing and going to school,
  • (2) are long-term,
  • (3) are not curable or require special assistance
    in function are considered chronic.

21
Chronic Illness (cont.)
  • Families accommodate to the effects of chronic
    illness on their child.
  • The meaning of an illness can change for a family
    over time (Patterson Garwick, 1994).
  • The familys response to the illness evolves with
    the developmental progression of the child
    (Meleski, 2002).
  • Initially, families may experience disbelief
    because they have assumed that children are
    healthy and will grow up to be independent.

22
Chronic Illness (cont.)
  • Nursing interventions
  • helping family members to recognize their
    flexibility, by asking a family to describe how
    family routines have changed
  • assisting the family to create new routines to
    accommodate disease and continue with the
    familys life.
  • making family familiar with community resources
    in order to facilitate family health.
  • helping families to look at how each member
    (e.g., father, mother, sibling, grandparent) is
    affected and discuss how to help each member of
    the family and the people in the community adjust
    to the child with a disability or chronic
    condition.
  • Nurses can reduce the stress for sick children,
    demystify the experience for their siblings,
    educate parents and grandparents about the
    childrens disease, provide anticipatory
    guidance, and support the family as a whole
    during hospitalization.

23
Life-Threatening Illness and End of Life
  • Besides teaching families home care, including
    adequate pain management, nurses often find
    themselves helping parents, siblings, and
    grandparents work through life-and-death issues
    in the hospital and intensive care as well as in
    the home.

24
Life-Threatening Illness and End of Life
  • Nurses can use the family interaction model to
    support families during life-threatening
    illnesses and end of life.
  • Nurses should assess families past experiences
    with a childs death. Generally families have few
    models for learning how to cope with this
    situation.
  • Nurses should help families learn how children
    understand and cope with life-threatening
    illnesses.
  • Nurses can teach them strategies for comfort
    care, help them anticipate the signs and symptoms
    of body failure they will experience, and plan
    support for these families at the point of death
    of their child.
  • Nurses can facilitate families grieving and
    mourning of the childs death through discussions
    about each persons needs and interpretations of
    the behaviors of family members.

25
NURSING IMPLICATIONS
  • Family nurses interact with families and other
    health professionals and use a family perspective
    to guide
  • (1) health care delivery and practice
  • (2) education, both for families and for other
    health care providers
  • (3) research, to systematically explore family
    child health nursing and
  • (4) health policy proposals and evaluation.

26
Summary
  • Family health nurses focus on the relationship of
    family life to childrens health and illness, and
    they assist families and family members to
    achieve well-being.
  • Through family-centered care, family child health
    nurses enhance family life and the development of
    family members to their fullest potential.
  • The family interaction model incorporates
    relevant components of family life and
    interaction, family development and transitions,
    and family health and illness and helps nurses
    take a comprehensive and collaborative approach
    to families.
  • The family interaction model enables nurses to
    screen for potentially harmful situations,
    instruct families about health issues, and help
    families cope with acute illness, chronic
    illness, and lifethreatening conditions.

27
Thank you for attention!
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