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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and Hazardous Waste Management

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Title: Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and Hazardous Waste Management


1
Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and
Hazardous Waste Management
  • Presented by Department of Safety
  • Risk Management
  • University of Rhode Island
  • 177 Plains Road
  • Kingston , RI 02881
  • Tel 401-874-2618
  • Fax 401-789-5126
  • E-mail SRM_at_etal.uri.edu
  • Web http//www.uri.edu/safety
  • Instructor Barbara Ray, Hazmat Coordinator
  • 2006

2
UPDATE (Mandatory) RI Fire Code Announcement
  • In all places of assembly (50 or more seats) the
    following announcement must be made
  • 1.The emergency exits are located (state
    locations and point out)
  • 2. All attendees must evacuate when so directed
    by public announcement or when the fire alarm
    sounds
  • When first class, all public seminars

3
Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and
Hazardous Waste Management
  • Why is this so important?
  • Protect worker health
  • Safeguard environment
  • Prevent accidents and injuries
  • Prepare for emergencies
  • Its the law
  • Regulatory compliance prevents fines
  • Receive grants from federal and state agencies
  • Reduce insurance costs

4
Regulations
  • OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration)
  • 29 CFR 1910.1450 Occupational Exposures to
    Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (The Lab
    Standard)
  • Performance Based
  • Protects Worker Health and Safety in the
    Workplace
  • based on book Prudent Practices by National
    Research Council
  • See httpwww.nap.edu/books/0309052297.html
  • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
  • 40 CFR 260-265, 270
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • Regulation Based - no options - follow exact
    rules
  • Protects Environment

5
3 and 4 letter Words
  • OSHA EPA
  • RCRA CAA
  • BOCA CWA
  • NFPA EMS
  • SPCC DEM
  • SWMP CDC

6
Responsibility and Accountability
Everyone Has Responsibility for Chemical Hygiene
and Lab Safety and Proper Disposal of Hazardous
Waste at the University of Rhode
Island President Deans Department
Chairs Principal Investigators Laboratory
workers Students Department of Safety and Risk
Management Chemical Hygiene Officers
7
Prudent Planning of Experiments
  • Define goals of the experiment
  • Research the hazards of the chemicals involved
    before use - consult MSDSs, Labels, and reference
    materials for prudent practice
  • Write Standard Operating Procedures for use of
    hazardous materials and apparatus
  • Follow safety guidelines in the lab and URI CHP
  • Consider risk assessment, acquisition and storage
    of chemicals, handling of chemicals and
    equipment, and disposal of waste

8
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)
  • Document required by federal law in every
    laboratory in US where hazardous chemicals are in
    use
  • Laboratory personnel must be familiar with URIs
    CHP and laboratory SOPs
  • The Chemical Hygiene Plan provides provisions for
    protecting personnel from the health hazards
    associated with the chemicals present in that
    laboratory

9
Contents of A Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)
  • 1. Written Standard Operating
  • Procedures (SOPs) for safe chemical use
  • 2. Control Measures to reduce exposure
    ventilation, PPE, hygiene practices
  • 3. Performance testing of hoods and PPE
  • 4. Training Hazards of chemicals,
  • location of CHP, PEL of chemicals, signs and
    symptoms of exposure, MSDS and other reference
    materials
  • 5. Identify operations so hazardous they require
    prior approval ex. Highly toxic or highly
    volatile chemicals
  • 6. Provision for Medical exams
  • If employee shows signs or symptoms
  • If air monitoring concentrationgtPEL
  • If explosion, large spill or other event results
    in the potential of exposure
  • 7. Designate Chemical Hygiene Officer
  • 8. Must provide additional protection for
    particularly hazardous substances select
    carcinogens, reproductive toxins, chemicals with
    high acute toxicity
  • 9. Maintain showers and eyewashes in operable
    condition. Test periodically. Clean eyewashes
    weekly

10
What Does Your Lab Need to Do to Comply?
1. DEVELOP LABORATORY-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL HYGIENE
PLAN-Follow guidelines in URI generic Chemical
Hygiene Plan. 2. Adopt good chemical hygiene and
prudent laboratory practices. 3. Make sure
chemical Inventory is complete and up to date. 4.
Use the inventory to identify those chemicals
that meet the definition of carcinogens,
reproductive toxins, and acutely hazardous
chemicals and designate areas for appropriate
use. 5. Use appropriate Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE). 6. Write Standard Operating
Procedures (SOPs) for each lab to minimize
occupational exposure to acutely hazardous
chemicals, carcinogens and reproductive
toxins. 7. Use acutely hazardous chemicals in
hoods for proper ventilation control. 8. Store
hazardous chemicals by hazard class. 9. Inspect
container integrity/condition frequently.
11
What Does Your Lab Need to Do to Comply? (cont.)
10. Label all containers in lab with chemical
name and hazard. No unknown containers. 11.
Maintain MSDS for each hazardous chemical 12.
Medical Monitoring is required if signs and
symptoms of exposure occur. 13. Air monitoring is
required if signs and symptoms of exposure
occur. 14. Successfully complete the annual lab
inspection by SRM. 15. Attend annual
training. 16. Follow the URI Laboratory Waste
Guide and manage hazardous waste correctly. 17.
Plan ahead to prevent accidents and
emergencies. 18. Practice Pollution Prevention
and Waste Minimization
12
Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Document created by chemical manufacturer,
    exporter, or distributor.
  • Describes material, its risks, and certain
    protective steps user MUST take
  • Must be kept on file for gt30 years
  • Must be available to all actual/potentially
    exposed employees
  • Supervisors responsible for obtaining and
    interpreting MSDS for new products
  • Should be up-to-date
  • Employer has responsibility to ensure
    availability
  • Must be available while personnel are working,
    without restraint to access

13
Hazards Evaluation and Risk Assessment Material
Safety Data Sheets MSDS
  • Contains information on the chemical identity
    manufacturer physical, chemical, and health
    hazards target organ health effects
    precautionary measures for safe handling handling
    and storage PPE emergency procedures and first
    aid measures
  • All warning labels placed on chemicals in the
    laboratory should be based on the MSDS

14
Where to Find MSDS
  • Sources of MSDS
  • Internet-manufacturers web sites
  • GOOGLE acetone and MSDS
  • http//www.hazard.com
  • http//uri.chemwatchna.com
  • User name URI, PW 1951

15
How Does OSHA Define A Hazardous Chemical? Terms
found on the MSDS
  • Physical Hazards
  • combustible liquid
  • a compressed gas
  • an explosive
  • an organic peroxide
  • an oxidizer
  • pyrophoric
  • flammable
  • or reactive

16
Important values from MSDS
  • PEL permissible exposure limit 8 hr TWA
  • STEL - short-term exposure limit - 15min. TWA
  • TWA - time weighted average - exposure to
    chemical
  • IDLH - immediately dangerous to life/health
  • CEILING limit - Concentration must not be
    exceeded for any time period during day
  • Exposures must be kept below the PEL or (air)
    monitoring and medical surveillance are required
    and other OSHA regulations apply. 29CFR1910.1450

For exposure information seeNIOSH Pocket Guide
to Chemical Hazards NIOSHNational Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health 1-800-356-4674
www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html
17
Duration and Frequency of Exposure
  • Long-term - chronic
  • repeated or long-duration exposure
  • damage evident after a long latency period
  • all carcinogens
  • reproductive toxins
  • heavy metals and their compounds
  • Single - acute
  • damage results from a single, short-duration
    exposure
  • hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen
    dioxide
  • Intermittent - repeated

18
Dose-Response
  • Dose - amount of chemical
  • Response - effect of the chemical
  • LD50 - Lethal Dose 50 mg/kg
  • LC50 - Lethal (air) Concentration 50
  • ppm or mg/m3
  • Range of concentrations that result in a graded
    effect between the extremes of no effect and
    death

19
What Is A Toxic Chemical?
Toxicity Rating Animal LD50 (mg/kg) Lethal Dose Ingestion 150 lb. human Example
Extremely toxic Less than 5 lt 7 drops Dimethyl Mercury
Highly toxic 5-50 7 drops to 1 teaspoon Mercury 29, Sodium azide 27
Moderately toxic 50-500 1 teaspoon to 1 ounce Ammonium hydroxide 350, phenol 317
Slightly toxic 500-5000 1 ounce to 1 pint Methylene chloride 1600, Chloroform 908
Practically non-toxic gt 5000 gt 1 pint Ethyl acetate 5620, Ethanol 7060
20
Guidelines for Evaluating Toxic Chemical Hazards
When to Use the Hood
  • Check the Permissible Exposure Limits and
    Threshold Limit Values
  • Use the hood if the PEL or TLV lt 50 ppm or
    100mg/m3 (air concentration)
  •  
  • If there is no PEL check the LC50 (air) values
  • Use the hood if the LC50 is lt 200 ppm or 2000
    mg/m3 ( air concentration)
  •  
  • If there is no PEL check the LD50 (oral rat)
    values
  • Use the hood if the following conditions are
    met
  • Solids or nonvolatile liquids lt50 ppm
  • Toxic gases or volatile liquids lt 500 ppm
  •  
  • Olfactory thresholds may not be trustworthy or
    known.
  • Sources Developing a Chemical Hygiene Plan, J.A.
    Young, W. K. Kingsley. G. H. Wahl,
  • American Chemical Society, 1996. (p.15) 

21
Carcinogens
  • Carcinogen a substance that causes cancer
  • Known carcinogens benzene, cadmium, coal tar,
    ethylene oxide, tobacco smoking, radon.
  • Probable carcinogens acetaldehyde,
    acrylonitrile, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform.
  • If present at 0.1 in a product carcinogenic
    ingredient must be listed on MSDS
  • http//ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc.toc10.html
  • Report on Carcinogens, 11th edition.

22
Reproductive Toxins
  • Mutagens - substances that may cause a change in
    the genetic material of a cell
  • Teratogens - substances that may cause physical
    or metabolic defects in the fetus- esp. in first
    trimester
  • Sterility/infertility - male or female
  • Lactation - chemical may be transferred from
    mother to baby through breast milk
  • CDC website has articles on male and female
    reproductive hazards httpwww.cdc.gov

23
MSDS Signs and Symptoms of Chemical Exposure
Behavior Change Breathing Difficulty Change in
Complexion/Skin Color Coughing Drooling Fatigue/we
akness Irritation of eyes/nose Headache Nausea
Tightness of chest Breathing difficulty Coordinati
on difficulty Dizziness Diarrhea Irritability Ligh
t-headedness Sneezing Sweating
24
Routes of Exposure
  • NO EATING, DRINKING, SMOKING, OR APPLYING
    COSMETICS IN LABS
  • NO FOOD OR DRINK IN LAB REFRIGERATORS OR
    MICROWAVES
  • NO CHEMICALS IN FOOD OR BEVERAGE CONTAINERS
  • NO MOUTH PIPETTING OF BIOHAZARDS, HAZARDOUS
    CHEMICALS, OR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS
  • Inhalation
  • Contact with skin or eyes
  • Ingestion
  • Injection (punctures from sharps and needle
    sticks)

25
Minimizing Exposure
  • Avoiding eye injury
  • Avoiding ingestion of Hazardous Chemicals
  • Avoiding Inhalation of Hazardous Chemicals
  • Wash hands frequently
  • Avoiding Injection of Hazardous Chemicals
  • Minimizing Skin Contact
  • Use fume hoods
  • Use PPE Safety glasses, lab coat, gloves, aprons
    but remember to remove PPE before leaving lab
    dont take contamination home!

26
Avoiding Chemical Exposure
  • Administrative Controls
  • Written standard operating procedures (SOPs)
  • Training
  • Documentation
  • Knowledge
  • reading and understanding MSDSs and labels
  • before use of new chemical - know the hazards
  • PPE - gloves, eye protection safety glasses,
    safety goggles, face shield, proper foot wear,
    coat/apron per MSDS recommendation
  • Respirators
  • require pre-approval, fit testing, written plan,
    medical evaluation and annual re-training -
    require SRM prior approval

27
Avoiding Chemical Exposure continued
  • Follow OSHA guidelines for regulated carcinogenic
    chemicals - see handout
  • Dont work alone when using hazardous materials
    and procedures
  • Plan ahead for potential emergencies
  • know location of eye wash and safety
    showers, fire blankets, fire extinguishers,
    spill kits, evacuation routes, and MSDSs
  • Engineering Controls
  • Hoods and Ventilation systems
  • Biological safety cabinets
  • Glove boxes

28
Choose and Use the Appropriate Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Always select PPE that is right for the task
  • Eye Protection Face Shield, goggles, safety
    glasses with side shields. Goggles required when
    corrosives in use. Preferred when contact lenses
    in use.
  • Lab Coat, rubber apron
  • Gloves (remove sharp rings from fingers)
  • Select correct material, check permeation time,
    correct thickness for chemicals in
    use/application
  • Have a dress code in labs No exposed mid-riff
    skin, sandals or open-toed shoes, short shorts.
    Tie back long hair. Minimize use of rayon
    fabrics-very flammable

29
Personal Protective Equipment Glove Selection
Guide
  • GLOVE MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDE
  • CHEMICAL FAMILY BUTYLRUBBER NEOPRENE PVC
    (VINYL) NITRILE NATURAL LATEX
  • Acetates G NR NR NR NR
  • Acids, inorganic G E E E E
  • Acids, organic E E E E E
  • Acetonitrile, Acrylonitrile G E G S E
  • Alcohols E E NR E E
  • Aldehydes E G NR S NR
  • Amines S NR NR F NR
  • Bases, inorganic E E E E E
  • Ethers G F NR E NR
  • Halogens (liquids) G NR F E NR
  • Inks G E E S F
  • Ketones E G NR NR G
  • Nitro compounds Nitrobenzene, Nitromethane
  • G NR NR NR NR
  • Oleic Acid E E F E NR
  • Phenols E E NR NR G
  • Quinones NR E G E E

30
Personal Protective Equipment Eyewear must meet
ANSI z87.1
31
Hazard Identification Labels
NFPA
  • Commercially packaged chemical containers
    received since 1986 meet current labeling
    requirements
  • Name, address and telephone number of
    manufacturer
  • Emergency number
  • Must be in English
  • Base on data on MSDS
  • Write full name, no abbreviations
  • Chemical identification
  • Identity of hazard components
  • Appropriate hazard warnings
  • Immediate use containers need the name of the
    chemical contents
  • NO unknowns or unlabelled containers allowed
  • NFPA Values range from 0 (no hazard) to 4
    (lethal/very dangerous)
  • Blue (health), Red (fire), Yellow (reactive),
    White (special)

32
Housekeeping
  • Never obstruct access to exits and emergency
    equipment
  • Clean work areas regularly
  • If children are permitted in labs, i.e.
    educational activity, make sure there is direct
    supervision
  • Do not store chemical containers on the floor
  • Secure compressed gas cylinders to walls or
    benches
  • Do not use floors, stairways or hallways as
    storage areas
  • Keep minimum amount of chemicals on lab bench.
    Keep other chemicals in storage cabinet.

33
Transport of Chemicals
  • Use break- resistant secondary containers
  • Cylinders strapped to a cylinder cart and valve
    protected
  • No passengers on elevators while transporting
    chemicals

34
Storage of Chemicals
  • Use storage trays or secondary containment to
    minimize spills from leaking bottles or breaks
  • Store chemicals by hazard class (not in
    alphabetical order) to eliminate incompatible
    storage
  • Keep minimum quantities on hand
  • Label properly
  • Special hazards on label
  • Use explosion-proof refrigerators for flammables

35
Storage Areas of Chemicals
  • Must be labeled properly
  • Labels must be accurate visible
  • Exterior door surfaces must state hazards
    -designated areas for OSHA regulated
    chemicals, reproductive toxins and carcinogens
  • Emergency Contact on Door
  • add phone of responsible person in the event of
    accidental release, exposure, etc.

36
When is a Designated Area Sign Needed?
  • Use designated area sign when these types of
    chemicals are present
  • Chemicals of High Toxicity (Acute or Chronic)
  • Carcinogens
  • Reproductive Toxins
  • Warning
  • Designated Area for Handling the following
    substances with High Acute or Chronic Toxicity,
    Carcinogenic,Reproductive Toxins
  • Benzene carcinogen
  • List substances identify hazard
  • Authorized Personnel Only

37
Working Alone and Unattended Experiments
  • Avoid working alone - develop list of high hazard
    operations that cannot be done when alone- need
    prior approval from supervisor
  • Make arrangements for individuals working alone
    to check on each other
  • Design experiments to prevent the release of
    hazardous substances in the event of utilities
    shutting down (power failure)
  • Laboratory lights should be left on at all times
  • Arrangements should be made for someone to check
    on the operation
  • Information should be posted indicating how to
    contact the responsible individual

38
Writing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
  • Required for OSHA regulated chemicals
  • Required for OSHA Select Carcinogens
  • Required for all Reproductive Toxins
  • Required for all Hazardous Chemicals
  • Required for toxic gases especially with NFPA
    value of 3 or 4
  • What to put on an SOP
  • Chemical Name, Hazards, PPE, Administrative
    Controls, Engineering Controls,Special Handling
    and Storage Requirements, Lab Specific
    Procedures-Detail how lab is going to Minimize
    Exposure, Spill and Accident Procedures,
    Decontamination Procedures, Waste Disposal
    Procedures, Location of MSDS, Document that all
    lab workers (employees and students) have read
    and understand MSDSs and SOPs

39
When to Re-Write/Review Standard Operating
Procedures
  • New hazardous chemical introduced to lab
  • New hazardous process/equipment lasers, high
    voltage, radioactivity, etc.
  • New employee or student
  • Change in procedure
  • Accident or near miss occurs

40
Acquisition of Chemicals
  • Considerations when ordering chemicals
  • available from another laboratory
  • minimum quantity needed
  • optimize size container for storage
  • proper management of chemical
  • time sensitive materials
  • Considerations when receiving chemicals
  • delivery to departmental offices (personnel
    trained?)
  • expectations if there is a spill, stock spill
    kits
  • compressed gas deliveries (have cart handy)
  • think twice before receiving gifts. The cost
    for disposal may outweigh the initial savings

41
Inventory and Tracking of Chemicals
  • Maintain an up-to-date chemical inventory. If
    inventory has been bar-coded coordinate with SRM
    for new additions and deletions
  • Date chemicals when received and again when
    opened
  • Disposal of chemical if not needed within a
    reasonable time
  • Containers should be inspected frequently.
    Replace those in deteriorating condition.
  • Decommission labs before lab personnel leave
  • Develop plan for moving chemicals when labs are
    renovated
  • Dispose /recycle chemicals before the expiration
    date
  • Cull from inventory chemicals that require
    special handling or are time sensitive
  • Examples Peroxide formers acetaldehyde,
    dioxane, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran O-O

42
Record Keeping
  • Chemical Inventory Lists - 30 years
  • All MSDSs - 30 years
  • Training - 5 years
  • Exposures - 30 years - keep records of exposure
    monitoring and medical monitoring
  • Work-related injuries and illnesses - one year
  • Training Certificates, inventories, inspection
    reports, SOPs, etc. should be retained in
    laboratory

Federal Requirement
43
Training
29CFR1910.1450, the OSHA Lab Standard requires
that employees are to be apprised by training and
Information of any hazardous chemical in the work
area At the time of employees initial
assignment to area Prior to assignments
involving new exposures situations All
individuals working in labs with chemicals MUST
take SRMs Prudent Practices in the Laboratory
Hazardous Waste Management Training (yearly
refresher class) ALL other employees with the
potential for chemical exposure must take Hazard
Communication Training (yearly refresher class)
44
Hazmat Security
  • Keep labs storing chemicals, biohazards and
    radioactive materials locked when unattended.
  • Allow only authorized personnel in labs. Escort
    visitors.
  • Keep accurate inventories of hazardous materials
    and laboratory supplies.
  • Report suspicious behavior to campus police.
  • Call 874-2121 all emergencies

45
Shipping Hazardous Materials
  • All packages being offered for transport by
    commercial carrier, air, rail or truck, must
    follow USDOT regulations.
  • All packages must be packaged, marked, labeled,
    and documented properly.
  • See http//www.uri.edu/safety for details.

46
Safety Showers and Eyewashes
  • Run plumbed eyewashes weekly to remove bacteria
    and dust. Use clean wipe if not plumbed.
  • Inspect/test all units annually for mechanical
    performance. Need to use containment shower
    curtain and bucket. Need plumber for old systems
    to make sure shut-off valve works.
  • 3. Locate emergency equipment within 10 second
    walk from hazard level- no stairs or ramps.
  • Water must be tepid. Check temperature when
    testing.
  • Align flow of eyewashes using chart
  • 6. The drain dilemma if no drain then use of
    shower can make trip hazard if drain -then need
    acid neutralization tank. These have maintenance
    issues and not widely used any more.
  • Reference ANSI Z358.1
  • Emergency Eye Wash and Shower Equipment

47
Design of New Buildings
  • Avoid safety issues of the past
  • Proper loading dock for receipt and pick-up of
    chemicals
  • Proper ventilation in stockrooms - 20 air
    changes/hr.
  • Proper ventilation in labs 10 air changes/hr
  • Adequate eyewashes and showers
  • Store more flammable solvents in stockrooms, not
    individual labs.
  • Take field trips-UCONN, PFIZER
  • Develop concept for all the new buildings as a
    complex
  • 8. Achieve economies of scale by centralizing,
    not duplicating facilities stockrooms,
    instrument rooms, wash-down hood, etc.

48
Role of the Safety Committees
  • 1. Establish Departmental Safety Committees
  • 2. Track injuries, accidents, fires, explosions
    in teaching and research labs. Try to prevent
    recurrence of accidents and injuries.
  • 3. Review teaching lab experiments for hazards.
    Substitute less dangerous chemicals and
    procedures where feasible.
  • 4. Report dangerous conditions to Facilities
    Services for repairs and maintenance.
  • 5. Establish lock-out /tagout procedures when
    hoods and other equipment are taken out of
    services. Use Signs, notification.
  • 6. Identity and fix those things within the
    department that you can fix. Get rid of old
    equipment that sparks or has damaged cords.

49
Biosafety
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungi
  • Parasites
  • All work with infectious agents must be
    pre-authorized by the URI Biosafety Committee
  • http//www.absa.org
  • http//www.cdc.gov
  • Use PPE, Hazard Communication, biological safety
    cabinets, containment, frequent hand washing,
    disinfection
  • Infectious Agents (plant or animal) are
    categorized in risk groups based on their
    relative risks
  • BSL-1 biological agents pose low risk to
    personnel and the environment unlikely to cause
    disease in healthy workers, plants or animals
  • BSL-2 biological agents that pose moderate risk
    to personnel and the environment rarely cause
    infection that would lead to serious disease
  • BSL-3 infectious agents may cause serious or
    lethal disease by exposure by inhalation
  • BSL-4 high risk of life threatening disease

50
Common OSHA Violations
  • Failure to communicate hazards of chemicals
  • 2. Unlabelled containers
  • 3. Lack of PPE or incorrect PPE
  • 4. Lack of training of new employees or when
  • hazard changes
  • 5. Food and beverage containers in areas where
  • chemical exposure is possible.

51
URI Environmental Principles
  • 1. Comply with all applicable regulations
  • 2. Educate and train all personnel on programs
    and
  • procedures
  • 3. Minimize University impact on the environment
    and surrounding community (SPCC and SWMP)
  • 4. Continually reduce URI impact to the
    environment by implementation of pollution
    prevention and waste minimization
  • 5. Develop environmental management systems
    (EMS)

52
Green Chemistry EPA 12 Principles
  • Prevent waste
  • Design safer chemicals and products
  • Design less hazardous chemical syntheses
  • Use renewable feedstocks
  • Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents
  • Avoid chemical derivatives
  • 7. Maximize atom economy
  • 8. Use safer solvents and reaction Conditions
  • 9. Increase energy efficiency
  • 10. Design chemicals and products to degrade
    after use
  • 11. Analyse in real time to prevent pollution
  • 12. Minimize the potential for accidents

Prudent Practice Since chemicals are cradle to
grave. Buy, use, store, and dispose the minimum
amount.
53
EPAs Hierarchy of Pollution Prevention
  • Source Elimination and Reduction
  • Source elimination of waste stream
  • Chemical recovery ( solvent distillation)
  • Chemical substitution of less hazardous material
  • Micro-scale experiments
  • Alternative teaching methods - virtual
    experiments
  • Use digital photography rather than wet chemistry
  • Recycling and Reuse
  • Redistribution of chemicals to new owner
  • Treatment render less hazardous prior to
    disposal
  • Disposal

54
EPA Hazardous Waste Identification
  • Reactive
  • reacts w/ air or water
  • Toxic
  • highly toxic -
  • LD50 lt50mg/kg
  • carcinogen, fatal
  • RI toxic LD50
  • lt 5000mg/kg
  • Listed
  • i.e. pesticides
  • pyridine, toluene

Wastes are considered hazardous if they
exhibit one or more of the following
characteristics
  • Corrosive
  • RCRA pHlt2 or gt12.5
  • Sewer prohibited pH lt5.5 gt9.5
  • Ignitable
  • Flash Point lt93C

55
Disposal of Chemicals
  • Containers should be
  • compatible with waste
  • clean, sturdy, leak proof
  • closed, tight-fitting
  • appropriate size
  • under control of person producing waste
  • label with Hazardous Waste Label
  • Hazardous Waste Label
  • Identify hazardous waste
  • Write full chemical names, no abbreviations
  • list all components and percentages
  • identify hazard properties
  • name, location and phone number of generator
  • remove extraneous labels/bar codes

56
Disposal of Chemicals continued
  • Hazardous Waste Accumulation Areas
  • Located in the lab
  • Clearly marked
  • Segregate incompatibles
  • Secondary Containment
  • Spill kit (spill pads, sand)
  • Emergency information posted
  • Maximum storage 55 gallons or 1 quart of (P,
    acutely hazardous waste
  • Pick-up for Disposal
  • SRM is responsible for retrieval and transport
  • When bottle is full, arrange for immediate
    disposal
  • Fax form 789-5126
  • and call 874-2618
  • Container is labeled
  • Remove bar code labels
  • Knowledgeable user available for pick-up

57
Disposal of Chemicals
Crawford
255
Gregory
HCL /H2O
hydrochloric acid
50
water
50
4 L total
Wrong Way
Right Way
58
Hazardous Waste Satellite Accumulation Area-Label
all bottles at first use!!!
59
Biological Waste Management
  • Biomedical
  • Biohazardous
  • Infectious
  • Pathological
  • Sharps needles, syringes, scalpels,
    broken/unbroken microscope slides, Pasteur pipets
    - use sharps box
  • Animals

60
Source Reduction and other ways to Minimize
Hazardous Waste
  • Minimize chemical orders
  • just-in-time ordering, do not overstock, buy
    smallest feasible sizes
  • Strategies to avoid multi-hazard waste
  • substitution of materials
  • Minimize hazardous waste
  • micro-scale work
  • step-by-step planning for minimization
  • substitution of less toxic chemicals

61
Common EPA Hazardous Waste Violations in Labs
1. Waste not at or near point of generation 2.
Unknowns unlabelled waste containers 3.
Abandoned waste - have check out procedure for
all chemicals when students or staff leave the
lab. 4. Containers open 15 minute rule 5.
Incompatible wastes not segregated. 6. Satellite
waste accumulation area not designated. 7. Too
much waste in satellite area gt 55 gallons or 1
quart of acutely hazardous,P, waste Fines
32,500/ violation/day
62
Fire Code Chemical Storage
  • 1. There is a maximum quantity of hazardous
    chemicals that is allowed in a building.
  • There is a maximum quantity of chemicals that can
    be stored in any given fire control zone. The
    type of chemicals determine the f ire rating ,
    2hour, 4 hour, etc. of doors and other building
    materials that is required.
  • The amount of chemicals that can be stored in a
    laboratory is limited. Many fire jurisdictions
    restrict this working quantity to a one week
    supply of flammable and combustible liquids.
  • Most of the flammable/combustible chemicals
    should be in inside storage rooms,
    stockrooms, separated from other occupancies,
    with high rates of ventilation. The exhaust
    ventilation must be powered by a back-up
    generator.
  • NFPA 34 gases require gas cabinets with sensor
    alarms to detect leaks.
  • NFPA 45 Laboratories gt 10,000 sq. ft prohibited
    unless sprinklered.
  • Instructional and research laboratories have
    different allowed quantities of
    flammable/combustible chemicals.
  • Reference NFPA 30 (OSHA 1910.106) Flammable and
    Combustible Liquids,
  • NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for
    Laboratories Using Chemicals

63
Fire Code Flash/Boiling Points for NFPA
Categories
Flash Point Flash Point Boiling Point Boiling Point Examples
Type F C F C
Class IA lt73 lt22.8 lt100 lt37.8 Ethyl ether, isopentane
Class IB lt73 lt22.8 gt100 gt37.8 Acetone, ethanol, toluene, gasoline
Class IC 73-100 22.8-37.8 MIBK, xylene
Class II 100-140 37.8-60 2 fuel oil, kerosene
Class IIIA 140-200 60-93.3 Cyclohexanol, aniline
Class IIIB gt200 gt93.3 ethylene glycol
Flash Point Minimum temperature at which a
liquid or solid emits vapor sufficient to form an
ignitable mixture with air near the surface of
the solid or liquid.
64
Fire Code Maximum Quantities of Chemicals
Allowed in Laboratories
Lab unit hazard class Flammable, Combustible Liquid Class Max/100 sq.ft. Max/lab Without Sprinklers Max/lab With Sprinklers
A (High) 1 I,II,IIIa 10 gallons 20 gallons 300 gallons 400 gallons 600 gallons 800 gallons
B (Moderate) 1 I,II,IIIA 5 gallons 10 gallons 150gallons 200 gallons 300 gallons 400 gallons
C (Low) 1 I,II,IIIA 2 gallons 4gallons 75 gallons 100gallons 150 gallons 200 gallons
D (Minimum) 1 I,II,IIIA 1.1 gallons 1.1gallons 37 gallons 37 gallons 75 gallons 75 gallons
  • Flammables storage cabinets are designed to
    contain fire for 10 minutes to provide you time
    to escape. Keep doors shut, bungs in place unless
    mechanically ventilated. Quantity stored in
    use waste. Quantity doubles if flammable
    storage cabinets in use.

65
Distribution of Chemicals in Buildings Max.
Qty. Allowed Per Floor
Floor level Above grade of Max. Allowable Qty. of entire bldg. Control area per floor Fire barrier rating (hours)
6 12.5 2 2
5 12.5 2 2
4 12.5 2 2
3 50 2 1
2 75 3 1
1 100 4 1
-1, below grade 75 3 1
66
Fire Safety in Labs
  • PROPER CHEMICAL USE AND STORAGE
  • Store minimum amount of flammable chemicals in
    lab
  • Design new buildings with proper stockrooms and
    use them
  • Store flammable materials properly in flammables
    cabinet
  • Eliminate sources of static electricity and
    sparking equipment
  • Use proper rate of ventilation
  • Frequently check peroxide formers
  • Do not mix incompatible chemicals
  • Keep picric acid wet!
  • Check on Lithium Battery Recalls- Dell, Apple,
    Kycera phones

67
Chemical Accidents
  • A copy of the MSDS should go to the hospital with
    a victim who has been contaminated.
  • File accident report with Human Resources (staff)
    in the case of a serious chemical exposure.
    Students file reports at Potter Health Clinic.
  • General decontamination procedure is to flush
    affected area with water for a minimum of 15
    minutes.

68
Responding to Accidents and Emergencies
  • Report
  • from a safe place call 874-2121 for emergency
    personnel to clean-up spill and provide medical
    attention
  • Secure
  • area until emergency personnel arrive
  • Evacuate
  • assess hazards and dangers- if unknown, assume
    the worst and evacuate
  • Confine
  • Close doors and isolate area

69
All Emergencies
All Emergencies
  • To report spills, fires, medical assistance, etc.
    call campus police 874-2121 which is monitored
    24/7
  • Call Safety and Risk Management at
  • 874-2618 for routine calls and technical
    information

70
QUIZ
  • Please take the quiz at home
  • Review the cartoon. If you have any of these
    problems in your lab please correct them.
  • TAKE TIME TO PRACTICE SAFE SCIENCE!
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