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Russia and the Revolution

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Title: Russia and the Revolution


1
Russia and the Revolution
  • Setting the stage for a
  • New World Order

2
Objective
  • Students will understand what life was like in
    Russia prior to the Russian Revolution. Through
    this study students will determine the causes of
    the Russian Revolution.
  • CA Standard 10.7

3
GEOGRAPHY
  • The largest country in the world
  • Very far north taiga forest covers a great deal
    of the land (Siberia)
  • Only 5 arable land (south-west)

4
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5
  • Coastline frozen much of the year, so no ocean
    access except from Black Sea Ob, Yenisey and
    Lena rivers also freeze.
  • Trans-Siberian railway was being built, but was
    only half-completed by 1900

6
Russiain the beginning
  • Russia was a feudal society (controlled by
    several powerful lords that owned different
    regions)
  • Serfdom was introduced by the upper classes
    Lords promised protection from foreign (and
    domestic) invaders if the peasants worked the
    land for them and swore fealty to that lord.
  • No central government. Each lord was ruler in
    his region.
  • The Code of 1497 limited the rights of peasant
    movement unless they could pay to leave.
  • In 1550, an additional law was added that allowed
    the lords the right to refuse a peasants request
    to leave, even if they could pay the fee.
  • By the 1600s peasants could not leave the land
    at all.

7
  • Essentially, a slave society was formed.
  • Peasants could be sold, breaking up families at
    will.
  • Lords were the judicial system.
  • Daily routine run by the Mir under the Elders
    of dvors.
  • (Patriarchal system).

8
  • The Romanov Dynasty began in 1613 when Michael
    Romanov took the title Emperor and Autocrat of
    all Russia.
  • Later this title was shortened to Tsar (Czar) of
    Russia.
  • Michael was 16 when he took the thrown and ruled
    under the influence of his mother for six years.
    His step-father killed him.
  • Most early tsars were younger than 20 years old
    when they took the thrown and most died within 10
    years.
  • Russia survived because of the Zemsky Sobor a
    parliamentary panel of Lords that supported and
    advised the tsars in military, foreign, and
    domestic matters.

9
Daily warm up
  • Study the flag hanging on the board.
  • What do you think it means?
  • Write a paragraph analyzing the flag even if you
    arent sure make an educated guess and justify
    your thoughts.
  • (Hint it is an American flag)

10
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11
Objective
  • Students will understand what life was like in
    Russia prior to the Russian Revolution. Through
    this study students will determine the causes of
    the Russian Revolution.
  • CA Standard 10.7

12
Peter the Great
1682-1725
13
Who is he?
  • Peter the Great became Czar of Russia in 1682.
  • He believed Russia needed a strong central ruler.
  • He is considered an Enlightened Despot.
  • He made many societal changes
  • You decide if he is good or bad
  • Top 12 Changes to Society

14
  1. Placed Throne over Church, Peter was tolerant to
    western religions as well as Eastern Orthodoxy.
  2. Abolished the Patriarchate (highest position in
    Church) with the Holy Synod a governmental
    cabinet that stayed in place for 220 years
    (Stalin changed this system during WWII for
    political reasons.)
  3. New taxes doubled state revenue by taxing the
    peasant class.
  4. Developed state monopolies on essentials to
    enhance revenues by reselling necessities at
    double the cost.
  5. Established schools to modernize Russia
    (military education)
  6. Developed St. Petersburg as a window to Europe
    as Russian capital designed after European cities
    (Paris, France). Adopted Western European ideas,
    styles, culture, music. Forced Russians to adopt
    Western influences.
  7. Maintained wife Catherines extravagance and
    built her Peters Palace

15
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16
  • Government reforms
  • 8. Centralized government reforms Replaced
    boyar duma with a new model of senate and
    colleges. Positions were chosen based on merit
    rather than heredity or blood
  • 9. Developed 10 gubernii (governors) into sub
    districts with local boards of the gentry to
    assist the governor (Landraty). Essentially
    shifted the dominant influence of the gentry to
    the appointed governors.
  • 10. Secret police encouraged accusers,
    informers approximately 100 torture cases per
    year either the informer or the accused would
    be tortured to ensure the truth was told.
  • 11. Law of Succession traditionally
    primogeniture changed so that Tsar could
    appoint his own successor (Peter failed to name
    his successor upon his death despite law change).

17
  • 12. Developed a Service State either give money
    or give service

Every male member of gentry must serve in one
branch, beginning from bottom and work through
the ranks based on merit.
Registered males at the age of seven. At age
12, left family to begin training. At age 14,
began lifetime service.
18
Peters Legacy
  • Under the reign of Peter I
  • 9 million registered male serfs
  • 7 million registered male slaves
  • It is assumed there were an equal amount of women
  • Therefore There were approximately 32-34
    million people in servitude or slavery.
  • Russian population 36 Million people total.

19
Why the reform?
  • How do all of these reforms alter traditional
    Russian society?
  • What do you think Peter the Great was trying to
    do with these reforms in terms of the nobility?
  • How do these reforms affect the peasant class (if
    at all?)
  • Are ones achievements measured by tangible
    evidence or by spiritual endeavors?
  • Was Peter an early enlightened despot? Did he
    change the tsardom?

20
Catherine the Great
  • 1762-1796
  • True Enlightened Despot?

21
  • Rumor has it, Catherine led a conspiracy to
    assassinate her husband. Either way, she became
    Empress of Russia after her husband was murdered.
  • Catherine was German-born therefore a foreign
    ruler in Russia. Many argued she was not a
    legitimate ruler to Russia.
  • Promoted religious tolerance of all Christian
    religions, following Peters example. Weakened
    Orthodox Church, secularized church leadership,
    and granted Church lands to favorites.
  • She favored and promoted Western culture and
    ideas.
  • Promoted literature and is considered the most
    literate ruler of Russia.
  • Built universities, a teachers college, and
    opened schools for noble children.
  • She was close friends with Enlightened thinkers
    including Voltaire, Diderot, and Montesquieu.
  • She liked the spirit of republican democracy,
    but feared the usurpation of her own power.
    Greatly feared a Russian revolution, especially
    after the American Revolution and uprisings in
    France.
  • Created the Nakaz a legislative commission to
    develop to codify new laws promising a
    constitutional government and a parliamentary
    representation.
  • No constitution ever developed!!! Never followed
    through.

22
Pugachev Rebellion of 1772-1775 (notice the time)
  • She spoke liberal but acted conservative
  • Hard labor permitted for serfs
  • Punishment exile to Siberia
  • Gave large lands to proprietary owners increasing
    poor conditions of serfs.
  • (Peter worked to break down the large estates,
    thus reducing the regional power of the lords)
  • Worsening conditions of Russian serfs allowed for
    Emalian Pugachev to instigate a revolt against
    Catherine.
  • Pugachev claimed he was the rightful ruler to the
    throne.
  • Simultaneously, Russia was engaged in a war
    against Turkey that depleted Russian resources
    and allowed Pugachev near success.
  • When the war with Turkey ended, Catherine
    diverted her resources against Pugachev and
    squashed the rebellion.
  • Catherine was shaken by the revolt and agreed to
    create new reforms to pacify the people and avoid
    future revolts.

23
Reforms
  • Established an advisory body made of nobles.
  • Gubernia law decentralized the government-
    regions divided into 50 states with new local
    governors and subregions ruled by gentry.
    Eliminated the college and senate.
  • 1785 Charter of Nobility
  • Reiterated emancipation of gentry from state
    services and taxes.
  • No member of the gentry could be subjected to
    corporal punishment by the monarchy (including
    military)
  • Solidified land ownership except by jury of
    peers.
  • Gave gentry freedom to develop land in spite of
    serfs.
  • Charter limited the rights of the monarchy.
  • The reforms did not benefit the serfs who
    suffered more under the new freedom of the gentry.

24
Foreign Relations
  • Russia created tenuous relationships with other
    European powers.
  • Largest Jewish community develops on Russian
    lands (5,000,000 Jewish people, 1/5 of total
    Jewish population).
  • Catherine encouraged Western European émigrés in
    Russia, creating foreign states with autonomy.
  • Catherine expands Russian territory into Poland,
    Poles rebel.
  • Tensions build with France over Russian
    expansion.
  • Russia, Prussia, and Austria develop shaky
    alliance based on Emperors unification.

25
Absolutism in the 1800s
  • In response to the Pugachev Rebellion and the
    American and French revolutions, Eastern European
    countries (including Russia) became reactionary
    and developed inflexible opposition to revolution
    within national boundaries.
  • These absolutists cherished existing
    institutions and supported one another in
    international conflicts supporting preexisting
    governments.
  • Absolutists opposed any type of change because it
    subverted the established order. Consequently,
    the absolutist leaders opposed all speculation
    and learning.
  • To weaken the powerful nobility, new laws were
    instituted in the 1800s that declared all
    property (including serfs) belonged to the
    state.

26
Using the triangle below and a series of colored
pencils, create an illustration showing the shift
of power structure of Russia.
Key
Before the Romanovs
During Peter the Great
27
Russian Society
28
Nicholas II
  • The Last Tsar

29
An Empire of many Peoples
  • 125 million people, ruled by a Tsar
  • Less than half the inhabitants of the empire were
    Russians 60 spoke a native language that was
    not Russian
  • Ukraine and Poland had been conquered by Tsar
    Nicholas II
  • Frequent famines in the countryside

30
Russian Government
  • Autocracyno power sharing
  • Civil servants to take care of mundane details
    14 ranks of under-paid officials
  • Okhrana Protective Sectionsecret police,
    censors, political courts, Siberian prison camps

31
  • The Cossacks Special mounted soldiers with
    swords who served as riot police
  • Russian Orthodox Church propped up the authority
    of the Tsars

32
Question
  • What were some of the ways that the Russian
    people were kept submissive?

33
  • Tsar Nicholas II
  • Unready to take power from his father in 1894
  • Inexperienced in foreign relations
  • Autocratic
  • Ingenuous
  • Gentle but uneducated
  • Bored by ministers and reports
  • Considered himself appointed by God

34
  • Tsarina Alexandra
  • German
  • Confident and strong-willed
  • Happily married to Nicholas five children in the
    first 10 years of marriage
  • Four older girls and the youngest was a boy,
    Alexis.
  • Alexis had haemophiliaprevents blood from
    clotting. (State secret)
  • Extremely religious

35
Russian Society
  • 80 peasant farmers emancipated in 1861 from
    being Serfs to their landlords
  • Peasants had communal landa mir controlled
    division of land
  • Payment for land took place in 49 annual
    redemption payments.
  • Decreasing size of family plots
  • 50 of newborns died before age 5 50-year life
    expectancy

36
  • Town workers
  • Factory or mine workers until harvest
  • St. Petersburg, the Capitol, had more than 1
    million unemployed
  • Trade unions illegal

37
  • The Rich
  • Tsar Nicholas owned 15 palaces and employed
    15,000 servants
  • 20 railway carriages needed to carry Tsars
    family luggage
  • 1 of population was nobles owned 25 of the
    land
  • New class of capitalists people who make money
    from banking, industry and trade
  • Finance Minister, Sergei Witte, made life easy
    for the self-serving capitalists

38
Opponents of the Tsar
  • Tsar Alexander II (Nicholass grandfather)
    assassinated in March, 1881 by Peoples Will
    terrorist group
  • Alexander III and Nicholas II used the Okhrana
    and Siberian exile to control opponents
  • Nicholas II is already on shaky ground with his
    people being a harsh ruler and marrying a
    foreign princess doesnt help his case!

39
Russo-Japanese War
  • Otherwise known as the
  • Sino-Japanese War of 1905.
  • Russia and Japan fought over control of the
    Manchurian territory in China.
  • The Japanese fought to control natural resources
    for their growing industry. They were fully
    imperialized under the Meiji Restoration.
  • Russia also wanted control of the Manchurian
    region for food, resources, and access to the
    Pacific.

40
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41
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42
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43
The 1905 Revolution (The dress rehearsal)
  • In 1904, Russia was defeated in war against Japan
    for Manchuria and Korea
  • Two fleets destroyed Battle of Tsushima
  • War conditions made food more scarce and closed
    non-war related factories

44
What did you just learn?
  • Who did Russia fight in 1904?
  • Why did Russia get into this fight? What were
    they fighting for?
  • Who won? Why?
  • What do you predict the consequences will be for
    this war?
  • How does the defeat in the war undermine the
    Tsar?

45
  • Bloody Sunday Sunday, 22nd January, 1905
  • 200,000 unemployed workers and their families
    march through St. Petersburg to the Tsars Winter
    Palace
  • Led by sympathetic priest Father Gapon (new ID
    Term)
  • The fighting begins!

46
  • Soldiers and police try to stop the march
    soldiers open fire and 500 are killed thousands
    more wounded
  • As word spreads, riots break out hundreds of
    government officials are murdered Grand Duke
    Serge assassinated by bomb

47
Study guide 5 Ws
  • Who is involved in Bloody Sunday?
  • What is Bloody Sunday?
  • When did Bloody Sunday occur?
  • Where did Bloody Sunday occur?

48
Why?
  • Why is Bloody Sunday Significant?
  • How will Bloody Sunday undermine the authority of
    the Tsar?
  • What do you predict will be a long term
    consequence of Bloody Sunday?

49
  • June, 1905 The crew of the battleship Potemkin
    mutinies in the Black Sea.
  • Lasts only a few weeks, but undermines Tsar
    Nicholas trust in the armed forces
  • Peasants rebel against their landlords and burn
    their farms
  • Georgia and Poland declare their independence

50
Marx Quote
  • When people speak of ideas that revolutionize
    society they do but express the fact that within
    the old society the elements of a new one has
    been created.
  • -- Karl Marx, Manifesto
  • Question
  • How do the actions of the people reflect the idea
    of Marxs statement in the Communist Manifesto
    even though it was written over 50 years earlier?
  • How would the philosophy of the Social Democratic
    Party (supporters of Karl Marx and Marxism) have
    appealed to Russian peasants?
  • Begin your response
  • The actions of the people of Russia during the
    Revolution of 1905 reflect Marxs quote because

51
  • September, 1905 A general strike begins.
    Strikers set up councils called Soviets to run
    the towns.
  • The October Manifesto (new ID term) October,
    1905 This document says that Russia should have
    a Duma, an elected parliament, and allows the
    formation of political parties and free speech.

52
  • 1.) The Socialist Revolutionary Party
  • The SRs wanted all land to be given to the
    mirstaking land from the nobles and even the
    Tsar
  • The fighting organization assassinated 3
    government ministers and dozens of officials from
    1900 to 1905
  • Had massive peasant support
  • 2.) The Liberals
  • Wanted a democratic system of government, with a
    parliament

53
3.) The Social Democratic Party
  • Followed the ideas of Karl Marx, a German who
    wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848
  • Predicted violent revolution where the working
    class overthrew the capitalists
  • Working class would take the means of production
    (mines, factories, raw materials) and share them
    out equally (Socialism)
  • Eventually abolish private property achieve
    Communism

54
  • May, 1906 At the first meeting of the new Duma,
    Tsar Nicholas issues the Fundamental Laws
    declaring, in part
  • To the Emperor of all the Russias belongs
    supreme autocratic power.
  • What is he really saying?

55
Aftermath of the 1905 Revolution
  • The Duma was broken up after 75 days, having been
    surrounded by the army after demanding a share in
    government power
  • A second Duma was elected in 1907, but contained
    SRs and Social Democrats, and lasted only 3
    months
  • The Third Duma lasted 5 years, composed of only
    moderates who did what the Tsar told them.

56
Question
  • What were the Fundamental Laws?
  • What is a Duma?
  • Who created the Fundamental Laws?
  • Who were the Fundamental Laws against?
  • What did the Fundamental Laws do?
  • What, if anything, had changed after the 1905
    Revolution?

57
  • In 1906, the Tsar appointed a new, tough Prime
    Minister to make sure that the people stayed in
    line Peter Stolypin (ID Term).
  • In his first year, Stolypin executed 1008
    terrorists and exiles 21,000 to Siberia

58
  • December 1906 Members of the St. Petersburg
    Soviet were arrested, and 15 sent into exile in
    Siberia. Lenin and Trotsky were some of these
    these.
  • Street fighting in Moscow kills 1,000
  • Thugs called the Black Hundreds massacre
    revolutionaries in over 100 cities
  • May, 1907 all revolution crushed.

59
  • Also, to pacify peasants, he abolished the
    redemption payments and the mirs controlling
    all land.
  • Industry grew, wages increased, and harvests were
    plentiful.
  • In 1911, Peter Stolypin was shot dead by one of
    his own anti-terrorist police agents.

60
Rasputin (ID Term)
  • Nicholas and, especially, Tsarina Alexandra
    became involved with a Staretsa Russian holy
    man.
  • This man, named Gregory Efimovitch, claimed (and
    appeared) to be able to heal Alexiss
    haemophilia.

61
Question
  • What effect do you predict the replacement of
    Stolypin with Rasputin will have on the Russian
    Autocracy? Why?

62
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63
Breakout of WWI
  • Nicholas II had a romantic vision of him leading
    his army.
  • He spent much time at the Eastern Front with the
    military
  • This was a disastrous move as it left Alexandra
    in control back in the cities.
  • She had become increasingly under the influence
    of the one man who seemingly had the power to
    help her son
  • Alexandra believed that Rasputin was a man of God
    and referred to him as Our Friend.
  • Others, appalled at his influence over the
    tsarina, called him the Mad Monk though not
    in public unless they wanted to incur the wrath
    of Alexandra.
  • Alexandra built a cabinet around her of
    Rasputins friends (They turned out to be
    embezzlers and thieves)

64
  • Unfortunately, this Gregory had a troubled past,
    and a nicknameRasputinthat meant the
    disreputable one.
  • Indeed, he drank heavily, indulged in wild
    orgies, and even reputedly raped a nun!

65
  • After the assassination of Prime Minister
    Stolypin in 1911, Rasputins influence over the
    royal family increased.
  • Rasputin exerted influence at court, and his
    friends grew in prominence and success.
  • Rumors spread that Rasputin was having an affair
    with Tsarina Alexandra (we now think this is not
    true... But how would it affect people at the
    time?)

66
Rasputin
67
Rasputin with Admirers
68
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69
  • While chaos ensued at home, the war at the front
    was going badly.
  • Poland was lost to the Germans in 1916 and they
    advanced to just 200 miles from Moscow.
  • It became clear that the morale of the ordinary
    Russian soldier was extremely poor and desertion
    became a growing problem.
  • Food supplies were poor and erratic.
  • As the front line got closer to the home front,
    it became obvious to many that both fronts were
    in total chaos.

70
WARM UP Why was WWI a disaster for Russia?
  • What was happening domestically?
  • What happened on the war front?
  • Why did Nicholas ultimately lose the support of
    his people?

71
February Revolution (Beginning of the End)
  • In October 1916, rail workers in Petrograd (St
    Petersburg) went on strike in protest about their
    working conditions.
  • Soldiers were sent from the front to coerce the
    strikers back to work.
  • They joined the rail men.
  • Nicholas was forced to recall the Duma to assist
    Alexandra in domestic government decisions. The
    Duma fought amongst themselves and against
    Alexandra
  • In December Rasputin is found dead and the
    Tsars have lost their most powerful ally.

72
February Revolution (cont.)
  • Soviet cooperated with Provisional Government
  • Wanted to avoid civil war and counter-revolution
  • Provisional Government announces elections and
    civil rights for people
  • Situation did not immediately get better
  • War still going on, food and fuel were in short
    supply
  • On February 27th, the Duma met for the first time
    after the Christmas recess.
  • The city had no transport system.
  • There was food stored in the city, but no way of
    moving it around.
  • Food shortages and food queues brought even more
    people out onto the streets.

73
  • On March 12th, those in a bread queue, spurred on
    by the cold and hunger, charged a bakery.
  • The police fired on them in an effort to restore
    order. I
  • It was to prove a very costly error for the
    government as around the city about 100,000 were
    on strike and on the streets.
  • They quickly rallied to the support of those who
    had been fired on.
  • Nicholas ordered that the military governor of
    the city, General Habalov, should restore order.
  • Habalov ordered the elite Volhynian Regiment to
    do just this.
  • They joined the strikers and used their might to
    disarm the police.
  • The citys arsenal was opened and prisoners were
    freed from prisons that were later burned.

74
  • On March 13th, more soldiers were ordered on to
    the streets to dispel the strikers. They saw the
    size of the crowds and returned to their
    barracks, thus disobeying their orders.
  • It is known that Rodzyanko telegraphed Nicholas
    requesting that he appoint a Prime Minister who
    had the confidence of the people.
  • Rodzyanko received no answer to his telegraph.
  • On March 14th, rumors swept through the city that
    soldiers from the front were being sent in to put
    down the uprising.
  • In reality, the Provisional Government in
    Petrograd had little to fear from troops at the
    front.
  • Discipline was already breaking down and
    thousands of soldiers deserted.
  • The Petrograd Soviet had sent an instruction to
    the front that soldiers should not obey their
    officers and that they should not march on the
    capital.

75
March Revolution (1917)
  • 1917- protests spread through St. Petersburg and
    the Royal palace is taken over.
  • The Czar tries to come home to squash the
    revolution. His train gets stopped.
  • Czar (Tsar) abdicates (His brother Michael also
    refused to take the throne)
  • Provisional government (Duma) takes control lead
    by Alexander Kerensky

76
  • The Provisional government decided to remain in
    the war as a Peoples War against Germany.
  • The morale and discipline of the Russian army was
    terribly low.
  • Provisional government unpopular after decision
    to stay in WWI
  • Bolsheviks are creating instability in the Duma
    and fighting for the Revolution to continue to a
    Communist Revolution.

77
Key issues in March 1917
  • War
  • Peace, defensive war, fight to win?
  • Land
  • Land redistribution?
  • Social Reform
  • How quickly and how far to go?
  • Economy
  • Improvement in food and fuel?
  • National Minorities
  • Independence or more self government?

78
Warm Up Write a reflection about the photo from
the February Revolution of 1917.
79
October (Bolshevik) Revolution-1917
  • Some historians argue that the October Revolution
    is a separate revolution from the February
    Revolution.
  • Others argue they are the same long fight
  • Think about this while you take notes.

80
Political Parties involved
  • Liberals- Formed after the 1905 Revolution
  • Wanted a Duma, civil rights, and free elections
  • Advocated peace, non-violence
  • Socialist Revolutionaries- Formed in 1901, part
    of the Peoples Will Marxists assassins-
    advocated violence.
  • Social Democrats
  • Bolsheviks
  • Mensheviks

81
SRs Beliefs and Methods
  • Beliefs
  • Main hope for revolution in the peasants, who
    would instigate a popular uprising and
    established a democratic republic
  • Land would be taken from landlords and divided up
    among the peasants
  • SRs accepted the development of capitalism
  • Would promote growth of the proletariat
  • Saw no need for peasants to pass through
    capitalism, they could move straight to rural
    socialism
  • Methods
  • Agitation, terrorism and assassination of
    government officials

82
Social Democrats
  • Based on Marxist philosophy
  • Formed in 1898
  • Split into two factions at Second Party Congress
    1903
  • Mensheviks (minority)
  • Bolsheviks (majority)
  • Split largely caused by Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin)
  • Ironically Mensheviks were majority of party
    until 1917

83
Social Democrats Beliefs
  • Both factions accepted the main tenets of Marxism
    but split on role of the party
  • Mensheviks
  • Party should be broadly based, more democratic,
    allowing members a say in policy-making
  • Encourage trade unions to help working class
    improve conditions
  • Believed their would be long period of bourgeois
    democratic government during which workers would
    develop class and revolutionary consciousness
    until ready for socialist revolution

84
Social Democrats Beliefs
  • Bolsheviks
  • Party should be made up of small number of
    disciplined, professional revolutionaries
  • Operate under centralized leadership
  • Have a system of small cells (three people) for
    security
  • Job of party to bring socialist consciousness to
    the workers and lead them through socialist
    revolution

85
Social Democrats Support
  • Support came mainly from working class
  • Bolsheviks attracted younger, more militant
    peasant workers who liked discipline, firm
    leadership and simple slogans
  • Mensheviks attracted different types of workers
    and members of the intelligentsia, also a broader
    range of people (more non-Russians, Jews,
    Georgians

86
Policies of Socialists
  • Socialists were very mixed group yet even many
    Bolsheviks assumed there would be a bourgeois
    stage of the revolution

87
Lenin Returns from Switzerland
  • Germans allow Lenin through on a sealed train
  • Arrives in Petrograd
  • Provisional Government leader Chkheidze, told
    Lenin they did not need him to rock the boat
  • Lenin delivers the April Theses

88
April Theses
  • Lenin calls for
  • Worldwide socialist revolution
  • Immediate end to the war
  • End to co-operation with Provisional Government
  • Soviet to take power
  • Land to be given to peasants
  • Lenin had written these points down during trip
  • Next day he delivers Theses at meeting of Social
    Democrats and is booed by Mensheviks as ignoring
    the lessons of Marx

89
Bolshevik reaction
  • Bolshevik leaders were also stunned at Lenins
    Theses
  • Opposed by some of the Bolshevik Central
    Committee
  • By end of the month Lenin had won them over by
    personality and power of his argument the April
    Theses was party policy
  • Bolsheviks now provided radical alternative to
    the Provisional Government
  • Theses became slogans Bread, Peace and Land,
    All Power to the Soviets

90
Marxism v. Leninism
  • Lenin believed the situation in Russia called for
    a direct move to Socialist Revolution, skipping
    the Bourgeois (Middle Class) Revolution called
    for by Marx

91
Why did Bolsheviks become popular?
  • Main focus for groups dissatisfied with
    government
  • Their program
  • Ending war
  • Controlling employers
  • Social reform for workers
  • Prioritizing food supplies was appealing
  • May-June workers/soldiers in Petrograd began to
    differentiate between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
  • Left wing SRs and Mensheviks drawn to Bolsheviks
    (Trotsky)

92
July Days
  • In early July several days of uncontrolled street
    rioting by workers and soldiers
  • Workers angry at economic problems
  • Petrograd garrison feared that they were to be
    sent to the front
  • July 4 events turned more violent
  • 20,000 armed sailors arrive from Kronstadt naval
    base (a hotbed of revolutionary activity Red
    Kronstadt)
  • Crowd Marches on the Tauride Palace

93
July Days (cont.)
  • Provisional Government and Soviet are located at
    the Tauride Palace
  • Sailors demand that the Soviet take power
  • Chernov attempts to calm the crowd and is
    arrested
  • Trotsky, with others, is sent to seek his release
    and addresses the crowd from the hood of the car
    in which Chernov is being held
  • Chernov is released but both he and the others
    quickly reenter the palace before the crowd
    changes its mind

94
July Days (cont.)
  • Troops loyal to the Soviet arrive and help to
    disperse the crowd
  • Bolsheviks are blamed for the uprising (seen as
    an early attempt to take power)
  • Some middle level Bolsheviks encouraged action
    but leadership seems less committed
  • Lenin had been on holiday and when he returned he
    called for restraint

95
July Days (cont.)
  • Soviet newspaper Izvestia denounces role of
    Bolsheviks and government uses uprising to limit
    power of the party
  • Trotsky and other leading Bolsheviks are arrested
  • Lenin is forced back into exile in Finland
  • Bolshevik cause was badly damaged and this could
    limit their ability to influence events

96
Alexander Kerensky
  • Becomes Prime Minister July 8
  • Similar to Lenin
  • Both from same area in Russia
  • Both had fathers who became Chief Inspector of
    Schools
  • Involved in radical politics
  • Master of art of 20th century political
    communication
  • Great skills as an orator
  • Ideal link between Provisional government and the
    Soviet (human bridge between socialists and
    liberals
  • Temperamental and vain

97
How Kerensky dealt with problems
  • The war
  • Unwilling to make a separate peace with Germany
  • Law and order
  • Had to find a military leader he could depend
    upon
  • Bolsheviks
  • Did not want to implement full-scale suppression
    of Bolsheviks, he thought this could lead to
    rioting and violence
  • Deteriorating economy
  • Did not know how to deal with this, believed
    little could be done as long as war continued

98
Kornilov affair
  • Appointed new Supreme Commander of Russian forces
    - General Kornilov
  • Agreement to bring trustworthy troops to
    Petrograd
  • Kornilov, becoming middle class hope for
    salvation, saw opportunity to crush radical
    socialists and to restore order and authority in
    Petrograd
  • Troops march on city with intent to seize control
    of the government

99
Kornilov affair (cont.)
  • Kerensky panicked when he realized what was
    happening
  • Denounced Kornilov
  • Called on Soviet to defend Petrograd from
    counter-revolution
  • People needed help and Bolsheviks provided it
  • Much of defense of city was organized by
    Bolsheviks
  • Bolshevik Red Guard (secretly trained militia)
    appeared on the streets and Kerensky supplied
    them with weapons
  • Kornilovs troops did not arrive, trains stopped
    by railway workers. Kornilov is arrested.

100
Consequences of Kornilov affair
  • Kerenskys reputation was irretrievably damaged
  • Menshevik and Socialist Revolutionary leaders
    were discredited by association with Kerensky
  • Mass of people completely distrusted Kadets and
    other liberals
  • Soldiers, upset by what they thought was an
    officers plot, murdered hundreds of officers
    while officers felt Kerensky had betrayed
    Kornilov
  • Bolsheviks gained popular support as saviors of
    the city, true defenders of the revolution. They
    are elected in huge numbers to soviets, gain
    control of Petrograd Soviet with Trotsky elected
    President

101
October Revolution
  • Lenin calls for action from Finland in early
    October due to following factors
  • Bolsheviks in control of the Soviet
  • Popularity was at an all-time high
  • Liberals and other conservative forces were
    demoralized after Kornilov affair
  • Provisional Government was helpless
  • Zinoviev and Kamenev oppose October action and
    publicly state so in Gorkys paper
  • This haunts them later in power struggle

102
October Revolution
  • Kerensky tried to send radical troops out of
    Peterograd (rumors that he was abandoning city)
  • Petrograd Soviet (Bolshevik controlled) set up
    Military Revolutionary Committee, controlled by
    Trotsky
  • Gives Bolsheviks more direct control of soldiers,
    arms and ammunition
  • Open secret that Bolsheviks intend to seize power

103
October Revolution (cont.)
  • Last ditch efforts by Kerensky to stop Bolsheviks
  • Tries to close down 2 Bolsheviks newspapers,
    restrict power of MRC, raise bridges between
    working class districts and center of Petrograd
  • Actions give Soviets an excuse for action
    Kerensky was attacking the Soviet
  • Kerensky, not finding loyal troops to counter
    Bolsheviks in Petrograd left for the front (had
    to borrow a car from the American embassy)
  • At Smolny Institute (Bolshevik headquarters)
    Trotsky and Sverdlov organize final stages of
    Revolution

104
October Revolution (cont.)
  • October 24-25 night Red Guard were sent out to
    seize key points in the city, troops in most
    cases faded away as Red Guard took their
    positions
  • Next day Petrograd was normal
  • Night of Oct. 25-26 Bolsheviks entered Winter
    Palace (2 AM) and arrested what remained of the
    government. Storming of the Winter Palace becomes
    great myth of the Revolution defining heroism of
    Revolutionaries

105
Warm Up
  • Based on what you know, do you believe the
    Russians experienced two separate revolutions or
    only one long revolution?
  • Defend your response.

106
Russian Civil War
107
War Communism
  • Bolsheviks had handed over control of land to
    peasants and control of factories to workers
  • Results were shortages (no goods to exchange and
    money was worthless)
  • Lenin geared whole economy toward need of the
    army
  • Grain requisitioning (forced)
  • Peasants resist
  • Banning of private trade and manufacture
  • State trading was extremely chaotic and industry
    did not produce enough consumer goods Black
    Market

108
War Communism (cont.)
  • Nationalization of industry
  • All industry brought under state control and
    administered by Supreme Council of national
    Economy (Vesenkha)
  • Workers committees replaced by single manager
  • Kept factories open and jobs available which many
    workers favored
  • Labor discipline brought back to the workplace
  • Rationing
  • Class based system of rationing
  • Labor force and army were given priority
  • Small rations to civil servants and professional
    people
  • Smallest ration to former middle class
  • By 1921 Soviet economy was in ruins
  • Civil war was over but grain requisitioning was
    still going on - led to peasant revolts

109
War Communism
  • Severe winter led to strikes and food
    demonstrations
  • Urban workers were angry with
  • Food shortages
  • Militarized factories
  • State taking control of unions
  • Strikes in Petrograd supported by Kronstadt
    sailors
  • March 1921 meeting hoping to start general revolt
    against Bolsheviks (Heroes of 1917) shocked the
    regime

110
War Communism
  • Lenin realized concessions and economic
    liberalism were needed to survive, government
    could not continue War Communism even though many
    Bolsheviks wanted to
  • Trotsky wanted to militarize labor

111
Rule of Lenin 1920-1924
  • Economic Reforms included the New Economic Plan
    (NEP)
  • -moderate mix of capitalism and socialism
  • Political Reforms
  • -Bolshevik party became Communist Party
  • -Russia becomes the United Soviet Socialist
    Republics

112
New Economic Policy (NEP)
  • Worked out by members of the Politburo
  • Temporary deviation Zinoviev
  • Economic concessions to avoid political
    concessions Bukharin
  • By 1922 NEP results were very good
  • Increase in food and consumer goods production
  • Traders or Nepmen by 1923 handle 3/4 of retail
    trade

113
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114
1924
  • Lenin Dies
  • Power Vaccuum
  • Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin
  • Stalin takes control
  • Now must decide how he will maintain power
  • Decides to create a totalitarian state
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