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Central Police University - Ethics in Policing -

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Central Police University - Ethics in Policing - By: Terry Gingerich, Ph.D. ... Did the officer believe that if others knew they would remain silent? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Central Police University - Ethics in Policing -


1
Central Police University- Ethics in Policing -
  • By
  • Terry Gingerich, Ph.D.
  • Western Oregon University

2
What is ethics?
  • Ethics is a set of moral principles or values
    that govern and define right and wrong behavior,
    either of an individual or a group.
  • Today we will discuss applied ethics, which is
    the study of those action that constitute right
    and wrong behavior in certain situations.
  • To be more specific, we will concentrate on what
    is generally referred to as professional ethics,
    a subfield of applied ethics.


3
What is ethics?
  • Professional ethics concerns the behavior of a
    certain profession or group, in this case police
    officers. (Pollock-Byrne, 19892)
  • It centers around personal integrity.
  • I dont think that anything I say here today will
    be new to you, its simply an opportunity to
    reinforce our commitment to professional
    policing.

4
What is personal Integrity?
  • Personal integrity is sincere devotion to
    honesty, justice, and goodness.
  • It implies rigid adherence to a personal code of
    conduct and, conversely, failure to adhere to
    that code indicates lack of integrity.
  • (Building Integrity and Reducing Drug
    Corruption in Police Departments, BJA, 1992)

5
Law EnforcementOath of Honor
  •  
  • On my honor, I will never
  • betray my badge, my integrity,
  • my character or the public trust.
  •  
  • I will always have the courage to hold
  • myself and others accountable for our actions.
  •  
  • I will always uphold the constitution,
  • my community and the agency I serve.
  • International Association of Chiefs of Police

6
Taiwans Government Employee Ethics Units and
Officers
  • According to Article 3 of the Act on the
    Establishment of the Government Employee Ethics
    Units and Officers, the MOJ is the Competent
    Authority of government ethics operations in the
    nation.
  • The MOJ has set up a department specifically for
    planning, supervision, and evaluation.
  • Under the MOJ, there are government employee
    ethics units operating in central and local
    government agencies and state-run enterprises at
    all levels.

7
Public Trust and Public Servants
  • Holding public office in a democracy is a public
    trust. Consequently, we often refer to
    individuals working in government as public
    servants.
  • Police officers are the most visible public
    servant of government, and we place a great deal
    of authority and responsibility in their hands.
  • Its a servant-master relationship and we
    expect that police officers will not betray that
    trust.

8
Trust and Betrayal
  • Edwin Delattre (200639), a noted scholar in
    applied ethics, stated that, We believe that
    those we trust will treat our interests and
    feelings as though they were their own.
  • He added that few disappoints run deeper than
    that of misplaced trust and betrayal.
  • Think of those moments in our own lives when we
    have betrayed a trust (none of us are infallible)
    or have been betrayed.

9
Responsibilities and Professionalism
  • To build and sustain public trust a departments
    leadership must establish, practice, support, and
    perpetuate ethical administration and demand
    ethical conduct from every employee.
  • In fact, every police officer is obligated to the
    public, the department, and his/her fellow
    employee to establish, practice, support, and
    perpetuate ethical conduct.
  • Professionals have no other options.

10
Character and Reputation
  • Every institution or organization has a
    reputation that is drawn from the collective
    character of its members and their interaction
    with society.
  • For example, Taiwans Tzu Chi Charity
    organization has an international reputation for
    helping people in time of need. As you know, its
    name comes from one of its tenets Every heart is
    capable of "priceless, great love.
  • While the NPAs mission is different than Tzu
    Chi, its reputation rests on the collective
    character of its members, a character that is
    capable of priceless, great love in service to
    the citizens of Taiwan.

11
Character and Reputation
Public Perception of Police Performance in
Taiwan, 1945-2009 Gingerich, Chu, and Chang
(2010, under review)
Year Low/ Serious High/ Not Serious No Opinion Source N
3.1 Do you believe police corruption is a serious problem in Taiwan? 3.1 Do you believe police corruption is a serious problem in Taiwan? 3.1 Do you believe police corruption is a serious problem in Taiwan? 3.1 Do you believe police corruption is a serious problem in Taiwan? 3.1 Do you believe police corruption is a serious problem in Taiwan? 3.1 Do you believe police corruption is a serious problem in Taiwan?
2006 48.8 39.3 11.9 N-1972 TSCS
1966-1987 75.3 11.7 12.5 N-264 PPPS
1945-1965 46.4 4.5 39.0 N-264 PPPS
3.2 Do you believe police demonstrate high or low levels of trustworthiness? 3.2 Do you believe police demonstrate high or low levels of trustworthiness? 3.2 Do you believe police demonstrate high or low levels of trustworthiness? 3.2 Do you believe police demonstrate high or low levels of trustworthiness? 3.2 Do you believe police demonstrate high or low levels of trustworthiness? 3.2 Do you believe police demonstrate high or low levels of trustworthiness?
2007 25 75 0 Gallop Unk.
Data Gallop Taiwan Social Change Survey
(TSCS) Public Perceptions of Police Survey (PPPS)
12
Public Perception of Police Performance in
Taiwan, 1945-2009Gingerich, Chu, and Chang
(2010, under review)
13
Public Perception of Police Performance in
Taiwan, 1945-2009Gingerich, Chu, and Chang
(2010, under review)
14
Hypotheses About Corruption
  • Hypotheses
  • Explanation
  • Society-at-Large Hypothesis
  • Structural or Affiliation Hypothesis
  • Rotten-Apple Hypothesis
  • Society expects favors from the police offer
    gratuities to receive them (social custom).
  • Cultural influences within the department make it
    acceptable (organizational culture)
  • A disposition toward corruption by individual
    officers

15
However, one hypothesis alone is too simple to
explain the causes of police corruption
16
Questions that should be asked about corruption
  • Did the officer act alone?
  • Did others know, but remain silent?
  • Did the officer believe that if others knew they
    would remain silent?
  • Did it begin with apparently harmless and
    well-intended acts?
  • Is it a one time event or did it evolve to a
    pattern and practice?
  • Is an assuredness of punishment lacking?
  • Are internal controls lacking?

17
How to reduce or prevent corruption
  • Reduce rotten apples through high standards of
    recruitment and training
  • Effective leadership
  • Individual accountability
  • Systematic investigation of complaints
  • Establish common purpose and moral ideas among
    command and line personnel

18
Potential threats to the NPADrug offences
reported by the MOJ
  • Year
  • New drug cases
  • 1992
  • 1993
  • 1994
  • 1995
  • 1996
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 40,249
  • 57,139
  • 44,887
  • 32,788
  • 37,057
  • 45,935
  • 56,167
  • 82,981
  • 93,824
  • 70,716
  • 56,207
  • 54,341
  • 68,713
  • 85,970
  • 76,068
  • 86,281
  • 83,187

19
THANK YOU
  • It has been my honor to present this lecture
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