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Introduction to Historical Perspectives

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Introduction to Historical Perspectives Ms. Simon September 11, 2010 Wave 4- Behaviorism- reaction to psychoanalysts- dominated psychology * 1920s-60s- James Watson ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Historical Perspectives


1
Introduction to Historical Perspectives
  • Ms. Simon
  • September 11, 2010

2
Todays Agenda1) Attendance2) Homework
Buddies3) Class Positions4) Useful Course
Websites5) Textbook Distribution6) Introduction
to Historical Perspectives
3
Do Now
  • Draw a line and label one end science and the
    opposite end humanities
  • Where would psychology fall?
  • _______________________________
  • Hard Sciences Humanities
  • (Chemistry, Physics) (Philosophy,
    Art)

4
Psychology is the scientific study of mental
processes and behavior
  • Science includes

5
AIM What are the historical roots of psychology?
6
I. Historical Origins
  • Etm psych Soul or breath of life
  • A. Mind-body dualism
  • Proposed by Socrates
  • and Plato
  • Mind is Separate from
  • the Body

7
B. Aristotle
  • Knowledge is acquired through scientific methods
  • Monism- the mind and body are one

8
B. Renee Descartes
  • Cogito ergo sum
  • The interaction between brain and body occurs in
    the pineal gland

9
Franz Joseph Gall
  • Phrenology mental abilities are located in
    specific regions of the brain

10
Summary
  • Who said The soul is not separable from the
    body, and the same holds true of particular parts
    of the soul?
  • Psychology is the _________________
  • The idea that the mind is separate from the body
    is known as __________ _____________
  • Phrenology was studied by _____________?

11
Historical Perspectives
  • Ms. Simon
  • September 14, 2010

12
Do Now
  • Prop up name tag.
  • Take out homework from last night. Discuss
    answers with your neighbor
  • What is meant by the blank slate theory of
    consciousness?

13
Nature or nurture?
14
AIM What is the history of psychology?
15
Wave 1 Introspection
16
Wave 1 Introspection
  • (1879) Wilhelm Wundt sets up first psychology
    laboratory in Germany
  • Very influential psychologist
  • Proposes structuralism-
  • Breaks consciousness into structures
  • mind combines subjective emotions and objective
    sensations

17
Wave 1 Introspection
  • Example bright red color (sensation) and
    frustration (emotion) leads to anger

18
Wave 1 Introspection
  • Student Edward Titchner brought science of
    psychology to U.S.
  • Introspection
  • subjects record
  • cognitive
  • reactions to
  • simple stimuli
  • (Branch of
  • Structuralism)

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24
Why might introspection be considered
unscientific?
  • Subjective
  • Self reports are not accurate
  • Words may have different meanings to us
  • Many confounding variables

25
William James
  • William James (1890) writes the Principles of
    Psychology
  • Rejects structuralism
  • Introduces Functionalism

26
Functionalism
  • Studies how cognitive structures evolved function
    to enable an organism to adapt and survive
  • Examples nose, consciousness

27
Wave Two Gestalt Psychology
28
Wave Two Gestalt
  • Founder Max Wertheimer
  • German word Gestalt meaning form or whole
  • Examines consciousness as total experience,
    rather than divide into different parts

29
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31
AP PSYCHOLOGYContemporary Approaches and
MethodsSeptember 15, 2010
32
Subfields of Psychology
  • Basic Psychology
  • Applied Psychology

33
Psychiatry
34
AIM What are the contemporary perspectives in
psychology?
35
WAVE THREE Psychodynamic
36
Psychodynamic Approach
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-
  • 1939) is the founder
  • Unconscious thought is
  • in conflict with conscious
  • behavior
  • Defense mechanisms-
  • repress unconscious

37
Psychodynamic Approach
Psychoanalysis
Free Association
Dream Interpretation
38
1) Psychodynamic Perspective
  • Psychotherapy uncovers unconscious desires or
    impulses, focus on childhood

39
WAVE Four Behaviorism
40
Behavioral Approach
  • US in 1900s
  • John B Watson (late 1800s) founder of
    Behaviorism
  • Believes any behavior can be shaped and controlled

41
Behavioral Approach
42
2. Behavioral Perspective
  • Early Behaviorism psychology should
  • 1) be an objective science
  • 2) study behavior without reference to mental
    processes

43
2. Behavioral Perspective
  • The study of observable behavior (no mental
    processes)
  • Explains psychology by principles of learning
  • How does the behavioral perspective differ from
    the psychoanalytical perspective?

44
3. Biological Approach
Thought and behavior influenced by genes,
hormones and neurotransmitters 1)
Psychobiology- Mind and body are Interrelated
2) Evolutionary- behaviors evolved Because they
were advantageous DRUGS!!!
45
4. Cognitive Approach
  • Emphasizes how people think AND interpret as the
    basis for understanding human behavior,
  • Emerges in the 1960s in response to behaviorism
  • Combines computer science, neurology,
    linguistics, and philosophy
  • Serial vs. Parallel Processing
  • http//viscog.beckman.illinois.edu/flashmovie/15.p
    hp

46
5. Sociocultural Approach
  • Focuses on human activity in a social context
  • How do thoughts and behaviors vary from people
    living in other cultures?

47
6. Humanist Approach
  • Emphasizes the potential for individual growth
    and self-awareness
  • Carl Rogers- focuses ones
  • self-concept, or how a person
  • defines their own reality
  • -Self-concept is a strive for
  • self-actualization

48
Humanist Approach
49
AP Psychology
  • Ms. Simon
  • September 17-24, 2009
  • Introduction to Research Methods

50
Do Now
  1. What are the 6 contemporary perspectives in
    psychology?

51
5. Sociocultural Approach
  • Focuses on human activity in a social context
  • How do thoughts and behaviors vary from people
    living in other cultures?

52
6. Humanistic Approach
  • Emphasizes the potential for individual growth
    and self-awareness
  • Carl Rogers- focuses ones
  • self-concept, or how a person
  • defines their own reality
  • -Self-concept is a strive for
  • self-actualization the highest state of being

53
Humanist Approach
54
Overconfidence
  • Our tendency to overestimate how well we can
    predict different situations
  • We rely on our own judgments rather than hard
    facts

55
Hindsight Bias
  • The tendency to believe, after learning an
    outcome, that one would have foreseen it
  • I knew it all along!

56
AIM How is descriptive research conducted in
psychology?
57
Subfields of Psychology
  • Basic Research- research to expand scientific
    knowledge
  • Applied Research research put into practice as
    therapist, or to solve practical problems
  • Psychiatry- a medical field- deals with mental
    disorders- prescribe medication

58
Scientific Theories
  • Set of principles that organize and predict
    behaviors or events
  • Link observed facts
  • Imply hypotheses that offer testable predictions

59
  • There are three main types of research methods in
    psychology
  • Descriptive- using observations to make
    generalizations
  • a) Naturalistic
  • b) Case Study
  • c) Survey method
  • 2) Correlational
  • 3) Experimental
  •  
  •                           

60
Naturalistic Observation
  • Observe subjects in natural habitats without
    interacting

61
Naturalistic Observation
Pros Cons
1. Realistic 1. No manipulation of variables
2. Inexpensive 2. Observer Bias- Influence on interpretations based on the observers expectations
3. Few Ethical Consideration
62
Descriptive Study
  • b) Case Study- psychologists study one individual
    in great depth in hopes of revealing universal
    principles

63
Case Study Pros
  • Detailed information
  • Unusual Cases
  • Inexpensive
  • Few ethical considerations

64
The Problem with the Case Study
  • An individual may be atypical
  • Cannot generalize results
  • Difficult to Manipulate Variables
  • Difficult to quantify data

65
c. Survey Method
  • Relies on questions answered by a group of people
    in interviews or questionnaires

66
Survey Method
  • Experimenter must identify the population to
    study
  • Random sampling picking members from a population
    randomly to ensure a representative sample

67
Survey Method
Pros Cons
Can gather lots of data Honest answers?
Few ethical considerations Need many participants
Inexpensive Wording Effects
68
Wording Effects
  • In a study by AMNH, 88 of all respondents said
    that they were interested in plants and trees,
    but only 39 said they were interested in botany.
  • One out of five Americans (22 percent) doubted
    that the Holocaust had occurred. 12 said they
    werent sure

69
What to Watch for
  • Order of choices
  • Is the time frame specified?
  • How personal or direct is the wording?
  • Is there a cultural bias?

70
Correlational Studies
  • Correlational studies assess the association
    between two or more characteristics of interest
    without ascribing causes
  • Is a correlational study an experiment?

71
Correlation coefficient
  • Example R .37

72
Correlational Studies
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