Introduction to Historical Perspectives - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Introduction to Historical Perspectives PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 575c9a-MWUxZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Introduction to Historical Perspectives

Description:

Introduction to Historical Perspectives Ms. Simon September 11, 2010 Wave 4- Behaviorism- reaction to psychoanalysts- dominated psychology * 1920s-60s- James Watson ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:131
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 67
Provided by: Han498
Learn more at: http://www.bxscience.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Historical Perspectives


1
Introduction to Historical Perspectives
  • Ms. Simon
  • September 11, 2010

2
Todays Agenda 1) Attendance 2) Homework
Buddies 3) Class Positions 4) Useful Course
Websites 5) Textbook Distribution 6) Introduction
to Historical Perspectives
3
Do Now
  • Draw a line and label one end science and the
    opposite end humanities
  • Where would psychology fall?
  • _______________________________
  • Hard Sciences Humanities
  • (Chemistry, Physics) (Philosophy,
    Art)

4
Psychology is the scientific study of mental
processes and behavior
  • Science includes

5
AIM What are the historical roots of psychology?
6
I. Historical Origins
  • Etm psych Soul or breath of life
  • A. Mind-body dualism
  • Proposed by Socrates
  • and Plato
  • Mind is Separate from
  • the Body

7
B. Aristotle
  • Knowledge is acquired through scientific methods
  • Monism- the mind and body are one

8
B. Renee Descartes
  • Cogito ergo sum
  • The interaction between brain and body occurs in
    the pineal gland

9
Franz Joseph Gall
  • Phrenology mental abilities are located in
    specific regions of the brain

10
Summary
  • Who said The soul is not separable from the
    body, and the same holds true of particular parts
    of the soul?
  • Psychology is the _________________
  • The idea that the mind is separate from the body
    is known as __________ _____________
  • Phrenology was studied by _____________?

11
Historical Perspectives
  • Ms. Simon
  • September 14, 2010

12
Do Now
  • Prop up name tag.
  • Take out homework from last night. Discuss
    answers with your neighbor
  • What is meant by the blank slate theory of
    consciousness?

13
Nature or nurture?
14
AIM What is the history of psychology?
15
Wave 1 Introspection
16
Wave 1 Introspection
  • (1879) Wilhelm Wundt sets up first psychology
    laboratory in Germany
  • Very influential psychologist
  • Proposes structuralism-
  • Breaks consciousness into structures
  • mind combines subjective emotions and objective
    sensations

17
Wave 1 Introspection
  • Example bright red color (sensation) and
    frustration (emotion) leads to anger

18
Wave 1 Introspection
  • Student Edward Titchner brought science of
    psychology to U.S.
  • Introspection
  • subjects record
  • cognitive
  • reactions to
  • simple stimuli
  • (Branch of
  • Structuralism)

19
(No Transcript)
20
(No Transcript)
21
(No Transcript)
22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
24
Why might introspection be considered
unscientific?
  • Subjective
  • Self reports are not accurate
  • Words may have different meanings to us
  • Many confounding variables

25
William James
  • William James (1890) writes the Principles of
    Psychology
  • Rejects structuralism
  • Introduces Functionalism

26
Functionalism
  • Studies how cognitive structures evolved function
    to enable an organism to adapt and survive
  • Examples nose, consciousness

27
Wave Two Gestalt Psychology
28
Wave Two Gestalt
  • Founder Max Wertheimer
  • German word Gestalt meaning form or whole
  • Examines consciousness as total experience,
    rather than divide into different parts

29
(No Transcript)
30
(No Transcript)
31
AP PSYCHOLOGY Contemporary Approaches and
Methods September 15, 2010
32
Subfields of Psychology
  • Basic Psychology
  • Applied Psychology

33
Psychiatry
34
AIM What are the contemporary perspectives in
psychology?
35
WAVE THREE Psychodynamic
36
Psychodynamic Approach
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-
  • 1939) is the founder
  • Unconscious thought is
  • in conflict with conscious
  • behavior
  • Defense mechanisms-
  • repress unconscious

37
Psychodynamic Approach
Psychoanalysis
Free Association
Dream Interpretation
38
1) Psychodynamic Perspective
  • Psychotherapy uncovers unconscious desires or
    impulses, focus on childhood

39
WAVE Four Behaviorism
40
Behavioral Approach
  • US in 1900s
  • John B Watson (late 1800s) founder of
    Behaviorism
  • Believes any behavior can be shaped and controlled

41
Behavioral Approach
42
2. Behavioral Perspective
  • Early Behaviorism psychology should
  • 1) be an objective science
  • 2) study behavior without reference to mental
    processes

43
2. Behavioral Perspective
  • The study of observable behavior (no mental
    processes)
  • Explains psychology by principles of learning
  • How does the behavioral perspective differ from
    the psychoanalytical perspective?

44
3. Biological Approach
Thought and behavior influenced by genes,
hormones and neurotransmitters 1)
Psychobiology- Mind and body are Interrelated
2) Evolutionary- behaviors evolved Because they
were advantageous DRUGS!!!
45
4. Cognitive Approach
  • Emphasizes how people think AND interpret as the
    basis for understanding human behavior,
  • Emerges in the 1960s in response to behaviorism
  • Combines computer science, neurology,
    linguistics, and philosophy
  • Serial vs. Parallel Processing
  • http//viscog.beckman.illinois.edu/flashmovie/15.p
    hp

46
5. Sociocultural Approach
  • Focuses on human activity in a social context
  • How do thoughts and behaviors vary from people
    living in other cultures?

47
6. Humanist Approach
  • Emphasizes the potential for individual growth
    and self-awareness
  • Carl Rogers- focuses ones
  • self-concept, or how a person
  • defines their own reality
  • -Self-concept is a strive for
  • self-actualization

48
Humanist Approach
49
AP Psychology
  • Ms. Simon
  • September 17-24, 2009
  • Introduction to Research Methods

50
Do Now
  1. What are the 6 contemporary perspectives in
    psychology?

51
5. Sociocultural Approach
  • Focuses on human activity in a social context
  • How do thoughts and behaviors vary from people
    living in other cultures?

52
6. Humanistic Approach
  • Emphasizes the potential for individual growth
    and self-awareness
  • Carl Rogers- focuses ones
  • self-concept, or how a person
  • defines their own reality
  • -Self-concept is a strive for
  • self-actualization the highest state of being

53
Humanist Approach
54
Overconfidence
  • Our tendency to overestimate how well we can
    predict different situations
  • We rely on our own judgments rather than hard
    facts

55
Hindsight Bias
  • The tendency to believe, after learning an
    outcome, that one would have foreseen it
  • I knew it all along!

56
AIM How is descriptive research conducted in
psychology?
57
Subfields of Psychology
  • Basic Research- research to expand scientific
    knowledge
  • Applied Research research put into practice as
    therapist, or to solve practical problems
  • Psychiatry- a medical field- deals with mental
    disorders- prescribe medication

58
Scientific Theories
  • Set of principles that organize and predict
    behaviors or events
  • Link observed facts
  • Imply hypotheses that offer testable predictions

59
  • There are three main types of research methods in
    psychology
  • Descriptive- using observations to make
    generalizations
  • a) Naturalistic
  • b) Case Study
  • c) Survey method
  • 2) Correlational
  • 3) Experimental
  •  
  •                           

60
Naturalistic Observation
  • Observe subjects in natural habitats without
    interacting

61
Naturalistic Observation
Pros Cons
1. Realistic 1. No manipulation of variables
2. Inexpensive 2. Observer Bias- Influence on interpretations based on the observers expectations
3. Few Ethical Consideration
62
Descriptive Study
  • b) Case Study- psychologists study one individual
    in great depth in hopes of revealing universal
    principles

63
Case Study Pros
  • Detailed information
  • Unusual Cases
  • Inexpensive
  • Few ethical considerations

64
The Problem with the Case Study
  • An individual may be atypical
  • Cannot generalize results
  • Difficult to Manipulate Variables
  • Difficult to quantify data

65
c. Survey Method
  • Relies on questions answered by a group of people
    in interviews or questionnaires

66
Survey Method
  • Experimenter must identify the population to
    study
  • Random sampling picking members from a population
    randomly to ensure a representative sample

67
Survey Method
Pros Cons
Can gather lots of data Honest answers?
Few ethical considerations Need many participants
Inexpensive Wording Effects
68
Wording Effects
  • In a study by AMNH, 88 of all respondents said
    that they were interested in plants and trees,
    but only 39 said they were interested in botany.
  • One out of five Americans (22 percent) doubted
    that the Holocaust had occurred. 12 said they
    werent sure

69
What to Watch for
  • Order of choices
  • Is the time frame specified?
  • How personal or direct is the wording?
  • Is there a cultural bias?

70
Correlational Studies
  • Correlational studies assess the association
    between two or more characteristics of interest
    without ascribing causes
  • Is a correlational study an experiment?

71
Correlation coefficient
  • Example R .37

72
Correlational Studies
About PowerShow.com