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Motivating and Engaging Children

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Title: Motivating and Engaging Children Author: dang Last modified by: VTCouncil Created Date: 7/8/2009 3:33:29 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motivating and Engaging Children


1
(No Transcript)
2
Motivating and Engaging Children
  • Presented by
  • Jennifer Johnson, MA, BCBA
  • and Julie Smith, MA

3
Engaging
  • Preparing for the initial introduction
  • Know your client
  • Read clinical file
  • IEP
  • Psychological Evaluations
  • Parent/school information forms
  • Be familiar with past and present issues/triggers
  • Get input from prior Service Providers
  • Get input from clients family if possible
  • Learn about and take an interest in your clients
    hobbies and special interests
  • Watch cartoons, video games, ESPN

4
Engaging
  • What is Bakugan
  • Bionicles
  • Yo Gabba Gabba
  • Handy Manny
  • Team Jacob or Team Edward
  • KND
  • Wii, PSP, XBox

5
Initial introduction
  • First impressions are important to developing a
    positive rapport
  • Role model- client as a reflection of staff
  • Have more positive interactions than
    negative/corrective interactions
  • Encourage positive self-esteem and a positive
    outlook
  • Be genuine and compassionate
  • Play, be interactive, interested, ask your client
    to teach youre their favorite game etc.

6
Initial introduction
  • Dependable people will
  • Be on time
  • Have a plan be consistent
  • Drive safely and follow the law
  • Know who to go to for support
  • Apologize when they make a mistake
  • Have good boundaries

7
Shared Positive Time Positive Relationships
  • Plan activity with high chance of positive
    outcome.
  • Structure
  • Age appropriate
  • Fun
  • Send them home smiling
  • First chance to pair yourself with something
    reinforcing

8
Developing a Strong Motivating Relationship
  • Continue to maintain high ratio of Positive to
    negative/corrective interactions
  • Self monitor ratio of positive to negative
    interactions
  • Second person observe and give feedback
  • Continue to role model the kind of behavior you
    want to see from your student
  • Continue to pair yourself with positive outcomes,
    revisit positive/successful time spent together
  • Students want to put staff in categories- good
    and bad, we need to be both

9
Developing a Strong Motivating Relationship
  • Use active listening
  • Talk to clients, not at them
  • Use humor when appropriate
  • Sarcasm?
  • Be an advocate
  • Be the clients voice
  • Continue to be genuine
  • Encourage positive self-regard and positive
    outlook

10
Motivating
  • What is motivating to kids?

11
Motivating
  • Your relationship
  • Attention
  • Praise
  • Time with you
  • If this is enough to create positive behavioral
    change we may not need to do anything else

12
Motivating Beyond the Relationship
  • Relationship may not be enough to create positive
    behavior change
  • In this case we may need to identify other
    reinforcers
  • What is a reinforcer?
  • Any event that follows a behavior and inceases
    the probability of that behavior occurring again
    under those circumstances.

13
Identifying Reinforcers Questions to Consider
  • History
  • Has it worked in the past?
  • Deprivation state
  • How much is it desired
  • Perceived value
  • Is it worth it
  • Consistency and Frequency
  • How have reinforcers been delivered in the past?
  • Age appropriate and client specific

14
Reinforcement Sampling
  • Ask the student have student rate a list of
    reinforcers
  • Provide menu Let the student select
  • Ask questions, give examples
  • Observe student playing and engaging with items
  • Have the student choose between two items or
    categories of items, forced choice, Preference
    Assessment

15
Forced Choice
  • First identify possible reinforcers to be
    assessed
  • Present 2 items to client and have him choose one
  • Client may engage with item for short period of
    time or eat edible etc.
  • If client does choose either item then move onto
    next pair of choices
  • Continue presenting 2 different choices and using
    data collection sheet

16

17
Principles and Effectiveness of Reinforcement
  • Contingency
  • In order for reinforcer to be effective you must
    deliver it only when the desired behavior occurs
  • Can offer same reinforcer for more than one
    behavior, but that reinforcement should NOT be
    available for undesirable behaviors or freely
    available
  • Behavior should be observed to receive
    reinforcement

18
Principles and Effectiveness of Reinforcement
  • Immediacy
  • In order for a reinforcer to be effective it
    should be delivered immediately followeing a
    desired behavior
  • The faster the reinforcer is delivered the
    stronger the effect.
  • Exception delayed reinforcer can be effective
    and useful if the person can understand the
    relationship between their behavior and the
    delayed reinforcer and if the reinforcer is
    signalled immediately after the desired behavior
    (i.e. with a token to cash in later etc.)

19
Principles and Effectiveness of Reinforcement
  • Size
  • In order for reinforcer to be effective you must
    deliver a worthwhile amount
  • The goal is to deliver just enough to be
    effectively reinforcing
  • Influences on size
  • Difficulty of the behavior
  • Amount of behavior required
  • Competing opportunities for reinforcement

20
Principles and Effectiveness of Reinforcement
  • Deprivation
  • In order for reinforcer to be effective the
    person should be somewhat deprived of it
  • How long has it been since the person has
    received the reinforcer, how much of it have they
    received

21
Integration into the Plan
  • Once appropriate reinforcers are determined
    integration into the behavior plan is the next
    step
  • Criteria outlined regarding when and how to
    deliver reinforcer etc.
  • Schedule of reinforcement, size/amount of
    reinforcement
  • Fading/Thinning reinforcement to be more natural
  • Collecting Data to monitor and know when to make
    changes etc.

22
Integration into the Plan
  • You will also need to determine
  • Can reinforcers be presented in the environment
    we want to see the behavior?
  • What type of teaching will be necessary for
    client to emit the desired behavior?
  • Can we reinforce immediately after the
    presentation of the desired behavior?
  • If we have to delay how long?
  • Budget- whos going to pay for it?

23
Continue to Assess and Develop Reinforcers
  • Try new things
  • Teach how to appropriately engage with new items,
    or become more successful in different activities
  • Some current programs to increase leisure skills
    may turn into preferred activities
  • Pair new items with known reinforcers

24
Keeping It Fresh
  • Avoid satiation- they should only get that
    reinforcer for that behavior
  • Consider a rotation or treasure box
  • Keep your eyes and ears open to find out what
    should be next

25
Questions?
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