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References to Economic Instruments in Selected MEAs

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Title: References to Economic Instruments in Selected MEAs


1
References to Economic Instruments in Selected
MEAs
  • Matthew Stilwell

2
Economic Instruments in Selected MEAs
  • Exploring the role of economic instruments in the
    context of three biodiversity-related MEAs
  • Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Convention on Trade in Endangered Species of
    Flora and Fauna (CITES)
  • Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention)
  • Some considerations for Working Group
  • Guidance on areas of overlap and synergy, where
    economic instruments may have a role
  • Conventions developed in different eras
  • Conventions share common objectives
  • Conventions share common approaches

3
Convention on Biological Diversity
  • The Conventions three main goals
  • The conservation of biodiversity
  • Sustainable use of the components of biodiversity
  • Sharing the benefits arising from the commercial
    and other utilization of genetic resources in a
    fair and equitable way
  • According to the Conference of the Parties,
    incentives
  • are essential elements in developing effective
    approaches to conservation and sustainable use of
    biological diversity especially at the level of
    local communities (Decision V/14)

4
Main obligations relating to economic instruments
in the CBD
  • Conservation and sustainable use of components of
    biological diversity
  • Each Contracting Party shall, as far as
    possible and as appropriate, adopt economically
    and socially sound measures that act as
    incentives for the conservation and sustainable
    use of components of biological diversity
    (Article 11)
  • In situ conservation (Article 8)
  • Sustainable use of the components of biological
    diversity (Article 10)
  • Other obligations (e.g. access to and transfer of
    technology (Article 16))

5
Relevant COP and subsidiary body decisions (CBD)
  • COP6 adopts Decision VI/15
  • recognizes that further work has to be undertaken
    on positive incentives and their performance, as
    well as on perverse incentives and their removal
    or mitigation
  • requests the Executive Secretary, in
    collaboration with relevant organizations, to
    elaborate proposals for the application of ways
    and means to remove or mitigate perverse
    incentives
  • encourages Parties and relevant organizations to
    submit case-studies, lessons learned and other
    relevant information on incentive measures
    (especially on positive and perverse incentives)
    to the Executive Secretary
  • Proposals for the design and implementation of
    incentive measures (Annex 1)
  • Recommendations on further cooperation on
    incentive measures (Annex 2)

6
CITES
  • CITES aims to ensure that international trade in
    specimens of wild animals and plants does not
    threaten their survival
  • CITES recognizes that international co-operation
    is essential for the protection of certain
    species of wild fauna and flora against
    over-exploitation through international trade
    (preamble)
  • CITES lists species in three appendices
  • Appendix I includes species threatened with
    extinction. Trade in specimens of these species
    is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.
  • Appendix II includes species not necessarily
    threatened with extinction, but in which trade
    must be controlled in order to avoid utilization
    incompatible with their survival.
  • Appendix III contains species that are protected
    in at least one country, which has asked other
    CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the
    trade.
  • No explicit references to incentives in text, but
    decision taken on economic incentives at recent
    COP meeting

7
Relevant COP and subsidiary body decisions (CITES)
  • COP 11 Strategic Plan for the Convention
  • stresses the importance of the economic dimension
    of CITES, and recognizes the need for economic
    incentives to ensure that wildlife trade is
    carried out in a responsible and sustainable
    manner
  • COP12 adopts decision on economic instruments
  • technical workshop on wildlife trade policies and
    economic incentives applicable to the management
    of and trade in CITES-listed species
  • Based on workshop, develop a methodology to
    review those policies and to make targeted
    recommendations on the use of those incentives
  • Includes voluntary review of Parties national
    policy regarding the use of and trade in
    CITES-listed species
  • Compile and synthesize the information provided
    by the Parties, and produce a report analysing
    the economic impacts of wildlife trade policies

8
Ramsar Convention
  • Ramsar Convention promotes
  • the conservation and wise use of all wetlands
    through local, regional and national actions and
    international cooperation, as a contribution
    towards achieving sustainable development
    throughout the world (preamble)
  • No explicit reference to incentives in text
  • General obligations relevant to use of economic
    instruments
  • The Contracting Parties shall formulate and
    implement their planning so as to promote the
    conservation of the wetlands included in the
    List, and as far as possible the wise use of
    wetlands in their territory (Article 3.1)
  • Parties shall endeavour to coordinate and
    support present and future policies and
    regulations concerning the conservation of
    wetlands and their flora and fauna (Article 5)

9
Relevant COP and subsidiary body decisions
(Ramsar)
  • Strategic Plan adopted at COP8 includes
  • goal of promoting incentive measures that
    encourage the application of the wise use
    principle, and the removal of perverse
    incentives (Operational Objective 8)
  • Review policy, legal and institutional frameworks
    to identify and promote those measures which
    encourage conservation and wise use of wetlands
    and to identify and remove measures which
    discourage conservation and wise use, and develop
    supportive legal and policy frameworks for the
    design and implementation of incentive measures
    (Resolution VIII.23)
  • When reviewing agricultural policies, identifying
    possible subsidies or incentives that may be
    having negative impacts on water resources and
    wetlands and remove or replace them by incentives
    that would contribute to wetland conservation
    (Resolution VIII.34)
  • In collaboration with relevant bodies and experts
    and the Bureau, investigating linkages between
    incentives and related topics including financial
    mechanisms, trade, impact assessment and
    valuation. (Resolution VIII.23)

10
Relevant COP and subsidiary body decisions
(Ramsar)
  • Also mentions economic incentives in relation to
  • integration of wetlands wise use into sustainable
    development (Operational Objective 3.1)
  • the restoration and rehabilitation of wetlands
    (Operational Objective 4)
  • local communities, indigenous people and cultural
    values (Operational Objective 6)
  • Other resolutions at COP8 also address economic
    incentives awaiting publication

11
Thematic areas for the use of economic instruments
  • Conservation and sustainable use
  • Economic instruments for in situ conservation
  • Raising financial resources
  • Sustainable trade
  • Payments for environmental services
  • Transferring technology/know-how/ capacity
    building
  • Addressing perverse subsidies
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