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Inquiry-based Practical Chemistry


Title: Inquiry-based Practical Chemistry & its Assessment Author: xp Last modified by: localuser Created Date: 5/14/2005 11:12:15 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Inquiry-based Practical Chemistry

Inquiry-based Practical Chemistry its
Assessment ??????????????
  • 5 Nov 2005

Science Education Section EDB
900 915 / 200 215 Registration
915 920 / 215 220 Introduction Mr W C HO, EDB
920 1030 / 220 330 Why teachers need to implement inquiry-based teaching? Approaches and samples of inquiry-based experiments Prof Derek Cheung, Faculty of Ed, CUHK
1030 1040 / 330 340 Break
1040 1145 / 340 445 How to assess inquiry-based practical work? Samples of scoring rubrics Prof Derek Cheung, Faculty of Ed, CUHK
1145 1200 / 445 500 More samples of inquiry-based chemistry expts Mr W C HO, EDB
Scientific Inquiry
  • Inquiry - an active engaging process that mimics
    the work done by actual scientists.
  • Require students to design some or all of the
    procedures (ownership and motivation) autonomy
  • Increase the opportunities for students to think
    about the data they should collect and their
  • Lead to a deeper understanding of scientific
  • In guided inquiry, students
  • choose what data to be collected
  • design the procedures to address the question for
  • In open inquiry, students make almost all the
    decisions including the questions for

Scientific Inquiry
  • The diverse ways in which scientists study the
    natural world and propose explanations based on
    the evidence from their work.
  • The activities through which students develop
    knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas,
    as well as an understanding of how scientists
    study natural world.
  • US National Science Education Standards http//www

Scientific Enquiry
  • http//
  • National Curriculum Handbook for Teacher
  • DfES, UK

  • Inquiry-based teaching engages students in
    investigations to satisfy curiosities, with
    curiosities being satisfied when individuals have
    constructed mental frameworks that adequately
    explain their experiences.
  • Inquiry-based teaching begins or at least
    involves stimulating curiosity or provoking
    wonder. There is no authentic investigation or
    meaningful learning if there is no inquiring mind
    seeking an answer, solution, explanation, or

Types of Scientific Enquiry
  • Surveys and correlations (pattern seeking)
  • Controlling variables (fair test)
  • Identification and classification
  • Using and evaluating a technique
  • Technology (make something or invent a system to
    solve the problem)
  • Using experimental models and analogies to
    explore an explanation, hypothesis or theory
  • Using secondary sources
  • ?appropriate approach to solve the problem

  • Goldsworthy A, Watson R, Robinson V W (2000)
    Developing Understanding in Scientific Enquiry,
  • Sang D Robinson V W (2002) Teaching Secondary
    Scientific Enquiry, ASE 

Authentic Investigations that are Meaningful to
  • Drain Cleaners
  • Mosquitoes repellants
  • Antioxidants in fruits and tea
  • Vitamin C in fruits and drinks (Does Ribena
    contain 4 times the vitamin C of oranges?)
  • Biodiesel from vegetable oils
  • Fuel cell from pencil and aluminium can
  • Hot cup and fever eliminator
  • Preventing corrosion of metals
  • Colour-safe bleach
  • Skin whitening cream
  • Tooth whitening strip
  • Chloride content in foodstuffs
  • Prevent metal from corrosion (e.g. bridge, wok)

Quantitative Investigations
  • Do iron tablets deteriorate?
  • Titration of iron(II) sulphate with KMnO4
  • The salt content of different foods
  • Titration of chloride ions with AgNO3 using KCrO4
    as indicator
  • Chlorine in swimming pools

Qualitative Investigations
  • Oxygen-absorber (???/????) present in packages
    of moon-cakes
  • Find out the chemical species responsible for
    oxygen absorption
  • Simple chemical tests

Preparative Investigations
  • Biodiesel
  • Energy crisis
  • Demonstrate the green chemistry principle of
    using renewable resources
  • Prepare biodiesel from vegetable oils
  • Compare properties with other fuels
  • http//

Amazing Miracle
  • Use milk in making
  • Plastic
  • Glue
  • Invisible glove
  • Photographic film
  • Fire resistant paint

Natural Mosquito Repellant from Fruit Peels
  • Mosquito-borne diseases e.g. Dengue fever,
    Japanese encephalitis
  • N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) ???
  • Terpineol in fruit peels
  • Fradin, M.S. Day, J. F. (2002) Comparative
    Efficacy of Insect Repellents against Mosquito
    Bites. New England J. of Medicine. 347(1),
    pp.13-18 http//

Design and Make Investigations
  • Using enthalpy changes for heating and cooling in
  • Design and make a self-heating can to heat the
    coffee contained in a standard size can to 65oC
    and to maintain it at this temperature for up to
    30 minutes
  • Design and make
  • a pocket hand-warmer
  • a system that could be used to keep drink cool

Aluminium-Air Fuel Cell
  • Construct useful things from waste materials
  • Design and construct an aluminium-air fuel cell
    from soft drink cans
  • Investigate the current produced with different
  • Investigate the cell e.m.f. and current produced
    with different metal anodes
  • http//

Fair Tests
  • Investigating the effects of varying fuels and
    electrolytes on the electrical energy generated
    in an alkaline fuel cell
  • http//
  • Further investigations on electrochemical cells
  • determine the concentration of unknown solution
  • potentiometric titration

Menthos and Cola
  • Adds a "Menthos" type candy to a glass of soda
    pop. Students observe an increase in "fizz" or
    release in carbon dioxide.
  • Possible explanations?
  • Investigations different candies / cola, no. of
    candies, temp, container, shape of candy
  • http//
  • http//

Possible Chemistry Investigations
Laboratory Investigations
  • http//

Problem-solving Activities
  • http//
  • In Search of Solutions
  • Egg Races (enjoyable, competitive, practical
    problem-solving activities which required some
    application of chemical principles) free
  • In Search of More Solutions

Investigation Sheets
  • http//
  • Background, Practical Techniques, Where to Start,
    Possible Investigations, Source of Information,
    Teacher Notes

Teachers role
  • Choose activities that match students background
    knowledge and reasoning skills
  • Communicate effectively to students what the
    educational purposes of the investigation
    (learning of scientific process and answering the
    question being investigated)
  • Challenging students to defend the quality of
    their evidence and arguments
  • Creating an environment in which students become
    critical of their own and others evidence
  • Expose students thinking and make it more
    accessible to discussion and development using
    displayed questions or variable tables, etc

  • Strategies for helping students ask questions
  • Provide students with an observable phenomenon to
    ask questions about
  • Have students read articles regarding interesting
    happenings in science
  • Suggest possible topics for investigation (a list
    of possible investigations) e.g. How much NaOCl
    is found in commercial bleaches and how does it
    compare to the claimed?
  • Edwards, C H(1997)

From Cookbook to Inquiry
  • Transition to inquiry-based instruction by
    implementing changes gradually e.g. remove the
    data table
  • Shifting toward guided and open inquiry by
    continuing to remove the supports of the activity
  • Assessment should stress goals in scientific
    reasoning and critical thinking in addition to
    content knowledge
  • Assess students abilities to generate open-ended
    and researchable queries, devise scientific
    procedure, interpret data

  • Achievement level matrixes in internal assessment
    of International Baccalaureate (IB)
  • 2 aspects apply to data collection (collecting
    and recording raw data organizing and presenting
    raw data), data processing and presentation, and
    manipulative skills
  • 3 aspects apply to planning, conclusion and
    evaluation, personal skills

Level 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Completely ? ? ? ?
Partially ? ? ? ?
Not at all ? ? ? ?
  • Baumgartner E. (2004). Student Poster Sessions.
    The Science Teacher. March, pp. 39-41.
  • Colburn, A. (2004). Inquiry scientists wants to
    know. Educational Leadership. 62, pp.63-66.
  • Colburn, A. (1997). How to make lab activities
    more open ended. CSTA Journal, pp.4-6.
  • Edwards, C. H. (1997). Promoting Student Inquiry.
    The Science Teacher. 64 (7). pp.18-21.
  • Lechtanski, V.L. (2000). Inquiry-based
    Experiments in Chemistry. New York Oxford
    University Press.
  • Lunsford, E. Melear, C. T. (2004). Using
    scoring rubrics to evaluate inquiry. J. of
    College Science Teaching, Sept.
  • ??? (2004) ??????????????
  • ??? (2004) ??????????????

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