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Operational Level Lesson 7 Presentation

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Title: Operational Level Lesson 7 Presentation


1
Operational Level Lesson 7 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.

2
Terrorism
  • The unlawful use of force against persons or
    property to intimidate or coerce a government,
    the civilian population or any segment thereof,
    in the furtherance of political or social
    objectives.
  • According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation

3
Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Any weapon or device that is intended, or has the
    capability, to cause death or serious bodily
    injury to a significant number of people through
    the release, dissemination, or impact of
  • Toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors
  • A disease organism
  • Radiation or radiactivity
  • According to the United States Code

4
Goals of Terrorist Operations
  • Recognition
  • Coercion
  • Intimidation
  • Provocation

5
Circumstances Faced that are Different from
Routine Emergencies
  • Large numbers of casualties
  • Materials that first responders have little
    experience dealing with
  • Secondary events intended to incapacitate or
    delay emergency responders
  • Armed resistance
  • Use of weapons
  • Booby traps
  • Secondary contamination from handling patients

6
Potential Terrorist Targets
  • Public assembly occupancies and locations
  • Public buildings
  • Mass transit systems
  • Places with high economic impact
  • Telecommunications facilities
  • Places with historical or symbolic significance
  • Military installations
  • Airports
  • Industrial facilities

7
Cues to Consider thePossibility of Terrorism
  • A report of two or more medical emergencies in
    public locations such as a shopping mall,
    transportation hub, mass transit system, office
    building, assembly occupancy, or other public
    buildings
  • An unusually large number of people with similar
    signs and symptoms coming or being transported to
    physicians offices or medical emergency rooms

(1 of 2)
8
Cues to Consider thePossibility of Terrorism
  • A reported explosion at a movie theater,
    department store, office building, government
    building, or a location with historical or
    symbolic significance

(2 of 2)
9
Categories of Terrorist Attacks
  • Biological
  • Nuclear
  • Incendiary
  • Chemical
  • Explosive

10
Biological Attacks
  • Type of biological agents
  • Viral agents
  • Bacterial agents
  • Rickettsias
  • Biological toxins
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving
    biological agents
  • Numerous sick or dead animals, fish, or birds
  • Unscheduled spraying or abandoned spray devices
  • Vapor clouds or mists that are unusual for the
    area or for the time of day

(1 of 6)
11
Biological Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving
    biological agents
  • The absence of crops, wildlife, or insects that
    are common for the area, time of day, or time of
    year
  • Out of place and unattended packages, boxes, or
    vehicles
  • Packages that are leaking
  • Materials or equipment that are unusual for the
    area
  • Small explosions that disperse liquids, mists, or
    gases

(2 of 6)
12
Biological Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving
    biological agents
  • Unusual odors or tastes
  • Multiple casualties without obvious signs of
    trauma
  • Multiple victims who are exhibiting similar
    symptoms
  • Large numbers of persons seeking medical
    attention with similar symptoms that are not
    characteristic of the season

(3 of 6)
13
Biological Attacks
  • Type A biological agents
  • Can be easily disseminated or transmitted
    person-to-person
  • Cause high mortality and subsequently have a
    major public health impact
  • Might cause public panic and social disruption
  • Requires special action for public health
    preparedness
  • Examples Smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism

(4 of 6)
14
Biological Attacks
  • Type B biological agents
  • Are moderately easy to disseminate
  • Cause moderate morbidity and low mortality
  • Require specific enhancements of the Centers for
    Disease Control and Preventions diagnostic
    capacity and enhanced disease surveillance
  • Examples Brucellosis, epsilon toxin of
    clostridium perfringens, glanders

(5 of 6)
15
Biological Attacks
  • Type C biological agents Emerging pathogens
    that could be engineered for mass dissemination
    in the future because of their
  • Availability
  • Ease of production and dissemination
  • Potential for high morbidity and mortality and
    major health impact
  • Examples Nipah virus, hantaviruses, tickborne
    hemorrhagic fever viruses

(6 of 6)
16
Nuclear/Radiological Attacks
  • Three scenarios most likely
  • Detonation of a conventional explosive device
    incorporating nuclear materials (commonly known
    as a dirty bomb)
  • An attack on a source of nuclear materials such
    as detonating a truck bomb in the vicinity of a
    nuclear power plant or radiological cargo in
    transport
  • Detonation (or threatening to detonate) a nuclear
    bomb, improvised nuclear device, or suitcase bomb

(1 of 2)
17
Nuclear/Radiological Attacks
  • Types of nuclear/radiological bombs that
    terrorists might use
  • Dirty bomb
  • Atomic/nuclear device (bomb)
  • Improvised nuclear device (IND)
  • Suitcase bomb
  • Nuclear power plant sabotage or attack

(2 of 2)
18
Incendiary Devices
  • Any mechanical, electrical, or chemical device
    used intentionally to initiate combustion and
    start a fire
  • Examples of easily made devices
  • Bottle, gasoline, rag, match (Molotov cocktail)
  • Low flashpoint flammable liquid and a candle
  • Match heads and sulfuric acid
  • Road flare ignited by a model rocket fuse

(1 of 2)
19
Incendiary Devices
  • Indicators
  • Warning or threat of an attack
  • Accelerant odors
  • Multiple fires
  • Incendiary device components
  • Unexpectedly heavy burning or high temperatures
  • Unusually fast-burning fires
  • Unusual colored smoke or flames
  • Presence of propane or other flammable gas
    cylinders in unusual locations

(2 of 2)
20
Chemical Attacks
  • The deliberate release of a toxic gas, liquid, or
    solid that can poison people and the environment
  • May involve chemical warfare agents or toxic
    industrial materials (TIMs)
  • Effects are usually noticed quickly, within
    minutes to hours
  • Results are usually disabling or fatal

(1 of 5)
21
Chemical Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving
    chemical agents
  • Numerous sick or dead animals, fish, or birds
  • Unscheduled spraying or abandoned spray devices
  • Vapor clouds or mists that are unusual for the
    area or the time of day
  • The absence of crops, wildlife, or insects that
    are common for the area, time of day, or time of
    year

(2 of 5)
22
Chemical Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving
    chemical agents
  • Out of place and unattended packages, boxes, or
    vehicles
  • Packages that are leaking
  • Materials or equipment that are unusual for the
    area
  • Small explosions that disperse liquids, mists, or
    gases
  • Unusual odors or tastes

(3 of 5)
23
Chemical Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving
    chemical agents
  • Multiple casualties without obvious signs of
    trauma
  • Multiple victims who are exhibiting similar
    symptoms
  • Large numbers of persons seeking medical
    attention with similar symptoms that are not
    characteristic of the season

(4 of 5)
24
Chemical Attacks
  • Chemical-agent types
  • Nerve agents
  • Blister agents (vesicants)
  • Blood agents (cyanide agents)
  • Choking agents (pulmonary or lung-damaging
    agents)
  • Riot control agents (irritants)
  • Toxic industrial materials (normal hazardous
    materials used for terrorist purposes)

(5 of 5)
25
Nerve Agents
  • Attack the nervous system by affecting the
    transmission of impulses
  • Routes of entry
  • Inhalation
  • Through the skin
  • Symptoms
  • Increased production of saliva
  • Runny nose
  • Feeling of pressure on the chest

(1 of 3)
26
Nerve Agents
  • Tabun (GA) Usually a low-volatility persistent
    chemical agent that is taken up through skin
    contact and inhalation of the substance as a gas
    or aerosol DOT hazard class 6.1
  • Sarin (GB) Usually a volatile nonpersistent
    chemical agent mainly taken up through
    inhalation class 6.1
  • Soman (GD) Usually a moderately volatile
    chemical agent that can be taken up by inhalation
    or skin contact class 6.1

(2 of 3)
27
Nerve Agents
  • Cyclohexyl sarin (GF) A low-volatility
    persistent chemical agent that is taken up
    through skin contact and inhalation of the
    substance either as a gas or aerosol
  • V-agent (VX) A low-volatility persistent
    chemical agent that can remain on material,
    equipment, and terrain for long periods class 6.1

(3 of 3)
28
Blister Agents (Vesicants)
  • Burn and blister the skin or any other part of
    the body they contact
  • Groupings
  • Mustard agents
  • Examples Sulfur mustards (class 6.1), nitrogen
    mustards (class 6.1)
  • Arsenical vesicants
  • Examples Lewisite (class 6.1), mustard/lewisite
    mixture, phenyldichloroarsine
  • Halogenated oximes
  • Example Phosgene oxime (no hazard class found)

(1 of 2)
29
Blister Agents (Vesicants)
  • Routes of entry
  • Are readily absorbed by all parts of the body
  • Symptoms
  • Inflammation
  • Blisters
  • General destruction of tissues

(2 of 2)
30
Blood Agents
  • Chemical asphyxiants that interfere with oxygen
    utilization at the cellular level
  • Types
  • Arsine (SA) (class 2.3)
  • Hydrogen cyanide (AC) (class 6.1)
  • Cyanogen chloride (CK) (class 2.3)

31
Choking Agents
  • Chemicals that attack the lungs causing tissue
    damage
  • Types
  • Phosgene (CG) (class 2.3)
  • Chlorine (CL) (class 2.3)

32
Riot Control Agents(Irritating Agents)
  • Chemical compounds that temporarily make people
    unable to function by causing immediate
    irritation to the eyes, mouth, throat, lungs, and
    skin
  • Types
  • Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS, tear gas)
    (class 6.1)
  • Chloroacetophenone (CN, mace) (class 6.1)
  • Dibenzoxazepine (CR) (class 6.1)
  • Chloropicrin (PS) (class 6.1)
  • Oleoresin capsicum (OC, pepper spray) (class 2.2)

33
Explosive Attack Classes
  • High explosives Decompose extremely rapidly
    (almost instantaneously)
  • Examples Plastic explosives, nitroglycerin, TNT,
    blasting caps, dynamite
  • Low explosives Decompose rapidly, but dont
    produce an explosive effect unless theyre
    confined they deflagrate (burn rapidly)

(1 of 3)
34
Explosive Attack Classes
  • Primary explosives Are easily initiated and
    highly sensitive to heat
  • Examples Lead azide, mercury fulminate, lead
    styphnate
  • Secondary explosives Are designed to detonate
    only under specific circumstances are less
    sensitive to heat or flame
  • Example TNT
  • Propellants Deflagrate rather than explode
  • Example Black powder

(2 of 3)
35
Explosive Attack Classes
(3 of 3)
36
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Ammonium nitrate Is a common fertilizer that
    can be mixed with diesel fuel or oil to form an
    explosive mixture
  • Binary explosives Are composed of two different
    chemical components, one a solid and one a liquid
  • Black powder Is made from a mixture of
    potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, sulfur, and
    charcoal

(1 of 8)
37
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Composition C-4 Is a mixture of
    cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine/cyclonite
    (RDX), polyisabutylene, and fuel oil
  • Dynamite
  • Straight Contains nitroglycerin and an
    absorbent mixture such as saw dust and sodium
    nitrate
  • Ammonia-granular Contains ammonium nitrate
    rather than nitroglycerin

(2 of 8)
38
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Dynamite
  • Semigelatin Are similar to ammonia-granular,
    but have a small amount of guncotton and
    additional nitroglycerin added to form a gel
  • Straight gelatin Is composed of blasting
    gelatin, a stiff gel made of nitroglycerin mixed
    with other ingredients, including guncotton and
    sodium nitrate
  • Ammonia gelatin Is made by mixing ammonium
    nitrate and other ingredients with blasting
    gelatin is waterproof and used for underwater
    applications

(3 of 8)
39
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Emulsion explosives Are made by suspending or
    mixing tiny, submicroscopic droplets of an
    oxidizer in a fuel such as mineral oil or fuel
    oil
  • Guncotton (nitrocellulose, nitrocotton) Is
    created by bathing cotton or purified wool
    cellulose in a mix of sulphuric and nitric acids

(4 of 8)
40
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • HMX (high melting explosive) Is a colorless
    solid that dissolves slightly in water
  • RDX (royal demolition explosive) Is a white
    powder that is very explosive is usually mixed
    with other materials is used in detonation cord
    and blasting caps

(5 of 8)
41
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) Is
    primarily used in booster and bursting charges of
    small caliber ammunition, in upper charges of
    small caliber ammunition, in upper charges of
    detonators in some land mines and shells, and as
    the explosive core of primacord (an explosive
    fuse)
  • SEMTEX Is a highly malleable plastic explosive
    is primarily composed of RDX and PETN

(6 of 8)
42
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Smokeless powder Is an explosive propellant
    that was designed to replace black powder
  • TATB (triaminotrinitrobenzene) Is a heat
    resistant, insensitive high explosive
  • Tetryl Is used as an explosive component of
    chemical bombs, demolition blocks, and
    cast-shaped charges

(7 of 8)
43
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • TNT Is a yellow, odorless solid is used in
    military shells, bombs, grenades, in industrial
    uses, and in underwater blasting
  • Water gels Were originally composed of ammonium
    nitrate, TNT, and gelatinizing agents more
    recent versions may contain aluminum and other
    metallic fuels

(8 of 8)
44
Improvised Explosive Devices(IEDs)
  • Are explosive devices that are constructed in an
    improvised manner
  • Are categorized by their container
  • Are homemade and usually constructed for a
    specific target
  • Usually have a firing train that consists of a
    fusing system, detonator, and main charge

45
Types of IEDs
  • Vehicle bombs
  • Pipe bombs
  • Satchel/backpack/knapsack/briefcase, or box bomb
  • Mail/package/letter bomb
  • Plastic bottle bombs
  • Fireworks
  • M-devices
  • CO2 grenades
  • Tennis ball bombs

46
Clandestine Labs
  • Labs set up to produce or manufacture illegal or
    controlled substances such as drugs, chemical
    warfare agents, explosives, or biological agents
  • Clandestine drug labs
  • 80-90 of clandestine drug labs are set up to
    produce methamphetamine first responders should
    be familiar with the products and equipment used
    in these labs
  • Are extremely dangerous for responders due to the
    fact that the chemicals used are often highly
    flammable, corrosive, and toxic

47
Products Commonly Used in Making Methamphetamine
  • Acetone
  • Anhydrous ammonia
  • Ephedrine
  • Ethyl alcohol/denatured alcohol/ethanol/grain
    alcohol
  • Hydrochloric acid/muriatic acid
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hypophosphorous acid
  • Iodine
  • Isopropyl alcohol
  • Lithium metal
  • Methyl alcohol

(1 of 2)
48
Products Commonly Used in Making Methamphetamine
  • Mineral spirits/ petroleum distillate
  • Naphtha
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Red phosphorous
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Sulfuric acid
  • Toluene
  • Hydrogen chloride
  • Phosphine gas
  • Hydrogen iodide/ hydriodic acid gas
  • Hydriodic acid

(2 of 2)
49
Equipment Commonly Used in Making Methamphetamine
  • Condenser tubes
  • Filters
  • Funnels/turkey basters
  • Gas containers
  • Glassware
  • Heat source
  • Grinders
  • pH papers
  • Tubing

50
Clues to the Presence of Methamphetamine Labs
  • Windows covered with plastic or tin foil
  • Renters who pay landlords in cash
  • Unusual security systems or other devices
  • Excessive trash
  • Increased activity, especially at night
  • Unusual structures

(1 of 2)
51
Clues to the Presence of Methamphetamine Labs
  • Discoloration of structures, pavement, and soil
  • Strong odor of solvents
  • Smell of ammonia, starting fluid, or ether
  • Iodine- or chemical-stained bathroom or kitchen
    fixtures

(2 of 2)
52
Additional Actions at Terrorist or Criminal
Activity Incidents
  • Notify authorities.
  • Law enforcement, other emergency responders, and
    EMS personnel
  • Other local, state/provincial, or
    federal/national agencies and health or medical
    providers
  • Additional trained and equipped personnel
    immediately (i.e., bomb technicians
  • Preserve crime scene evidence.

(1 of 2)
53
Additional Actions at Terrorist or Criminal
Activity Incidents
  • Take additional measures to isolate exposed
    people and animals.
  • Take additional measures to secure the scene.
  • Take additional precautions with regard to the
    possibility of secondary devices.
  • Exercise additional caution in regards to other
    potential hazards associated with terrorist and
    criminal activities.

(2 of 2)
54
The Importance of Crime Scene Evidence
Preservation
  • It is important for first responders to preserve
    evidence so that investigators can identify and
    successfully prosecute the guilty parties.

55
Guidelines forPreserving Evidence
  • Unless you must touch something, DONT.
  • Avoid disturbing areas not directly involved in
    rescue activities.
  • Remember what the scene looked like upon first
    arrival as well as details about the progression
    of the incident.

(1 of 3)
56
Guidelines forPreserving Evidence
  • Document your observations as quickly as you can.
  • Take photographs and videos of the scene as soon
    as possible.
  • When you must touch or move something, remember
    what you did. In your report, document where it
    was and where you put it. If you can, photograph
    it before you do anything.
  • Minimize the number of people working in the
    area, if possible.

(2 of 3)
57
Guidelines forPreserving Evidence
  • Leave fatalities and their surroundings
    undisturbed.
  • Identify witnesses, victims, and the presence of
    evidence.
  • Preserve potentially transient physical evidence
    (e.g., evidence present on victims, evidence that
    may be compromised by weather conditions such as
    chemical residue, body fluids, or footprints).

(3 of 3)
58
Biological Attack Incidents
  • Many people are potentially at risk
  • Traditional first responders who transport ill
    patients to medical facilities
  • Health care workers who care for patients in
    hospitals, residential facilities, outpatient
    settings, at home, or elsewhere
  • Laboratory personnel handling clinical specimens
  • Health department staff who visit patients in or
    out of health care facilities while conducting
    outbreak assessment or control measures

(1 of 3)
59
Biological Attack Incidents
  • First responders and others involved in patient
    transport should take additional precautions.
  • Run the ambulance ventilation system on its
    highest setting using outside air circulation,
    which will minimize air changes in the vehicle.
  • For diseases that are transmitted by respiratory
    transmission, the patient should wear a surgical
    mask, disposable respirator, or, if needed for
    respiratory support, an oxygen mask that does not
    exhaust to ambient air.

(2 of 3)
60
Biological Attack Incidents
  • First responders and others involved in patient
    transport should take additional precautions.
  • Responders transporting patients with different
    diseases may require different levels of worker
    respiratory protection.

(3 of 3)
61
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Use radiation and contamination survey
    instruments to determine radiation levels.
  • Use the principles of time, distance, and
    shielding to protect against radiation exposure.
  • Stay away from ground zero. Enter the surrounding
    area only to save lives, and only if wearing
    appropriate PPE. Radiation levels may be very
    high in these areas.
  • Establish control zones like other incidents.

(1 of 4)
62
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Isolate, evacuate, and/or shelter the public in
    place as appropriate.
  • Wear respiratory protection to reduce the dose
    from inhalation of radioactive dust.
  • Wear PPE. Standard firefighting gear or easily
    removed outer clothing is sufficient to protect
    from alpha and beta radiation, but it may not
    protect against other environmental hazards.

(2 of 4)
63
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Avoid skin contact with radioactive dust. Protect
    open wounds or abrasions from radioactive
    contamination by covering them.
  • Do not eat, drink, chew, or smoke while exposed
    to potentially radioactive dust or smoke. When it
    is absolutely necessary to drink water, drink
    from a canteen or other closed container.

(3 of 4)
64
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Remember that physical injuries are more serious
    than radioactive contamination. Deal with
    life-threatening conventional injuries first.
  • Decontaminate.

(4 of 4)
65
Incendiary Incidents
  • Only specially trained personnel should handle
    incendiary devices discovered prior to ignition.
  • If it is suspected that an incendiary device
    started the fire, proper handling of potential
    evidence is critical for crime scene preservation.

66
Chemical Agent Incidents
  • Expect at least a 51 ratio of unaffected to
    affected casualties.
  • Decontaminate victims as soon as possible.
  • Disrobe victims from head to toe to decontaminate
    successfully. The more clothing that can be
    removed, the better.
  • Flush with water generally this is the best mass
    decontamination method.
  • Decontaminate after a known exposure to liquid
    chemical agent as soon as possible to avoid
    serious effects.

67
Chemical Agent Decontamination
Disrobing
Showering
68
Explosives/Bomb Incidents
  • Agencies that may be called for extra assistance
  • Local bomb technicians
  • State Bureaus of Investigation
  • Explosives ordnance detachments (military)

69
Operational Level Lesson 7 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.
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