Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 56ed60-YTlhM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception

Description:

Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception * * * * * * * * Extrasensory Perception (ESP) The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:634
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: KarenM96
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception


1
Chapter 6 Sensation and Perception
2
Some Definitions
  • Sensation -
  • process used by sense receptors to receive and
    store information from environment
  • Perception -
  • process of organizing and interpreting sensory
    information allowing us to make sense of and
    recognize objects.

3
  • Perceptual psychologists - often study illusions
  • Illusions misperceptions when we get it wrong,
    when we misperceive
  • Ex. - lines
  • This is also on page 240 in textbook
  • Which line is longer A - B or B - C?

4
Look at the following. What
do you see?
5
  • Gestalt psychologists studied perceptual
    organization
  • Gestalt - German word for form or whole
  • Gestalt psychologists - the whole may differ
    from the sum of its parts
  • Some Gestalt principles.

6
Gestalt Principles of Organization
  • Figure-ground effect

7
Gestalt Principles of Grouping
Proximity
Closure
Continuity
Similarity
8
Depth Perception
  • Depth Perception -
  • the ability to see objects in three
    dimensions, although, the image that strikes the
    retina is two dimensional
  • Allows us to judge distance, to see some objects
    as close and other objects as far away.

9
  • Gibson and Walk - depth perception and young
    children
  • Is depth perception innate?
  • 6 to 14 month old infants
  • Designed a visual cliff
  • Placed infants on the visual cliff - observed
    behavior.

10
Visual Cliff
11
  • Findings - depth perception may be partly innate
  • Infants would not crawl out on the glass to get
    to their mother - perceived the drop off
  • But, by six to fourteen months
  • Perhaps depth perception is due to experience.
  • Yet, newborn animals (kittens, chicks) would not
    walk on the glass area

12
  • How do we perceive depth and distance from a two
    dimensional retinal image?
  • We have depth cues
  • Depth cues - binocular and monocular.

13
Binocular Cues
  • Depth and distance cues - depend on the use of
    two eyes
  • Retinal disparity - each eye perceives a slightly
    different world because
  • We usually do not realize this. Yet, this fact
    provides an important cue to depth and distance.

14
  • An Example
  • Retinal disparity is built into the viewmaster
  • How?
  • You are seeing two pictures - one in your right
    eye, the other in your left
  • What is the difference between pictures?
  • Convergence - the extent to which the eyes
    converge inward when looking at an object.

15
Monocular Cues
  • Cues to depth and distance available to either
    eye alone
  • First, some information . . .
  • Some examples . . .

16
Relative Size
If we assume that two objects are similar in
size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller
retinal image as farther away. (p.246)
17
Relative Clarity
Because light from distant objects passes through
more atmosphere we perceive hazy objects as
farther away than clear objects (effect of fog on
judging distance). (p. 247)
18
Interposition
If one object partially blocks the view of
another we perceive it as closer. (p. 246)
19
Texture Gradient Relative Height
A gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture
to a fine indistinct texture signals increasing
distance. (p. 247) Perceives objects higher in
our field as farther away. (p. 247)
20
Linear Perspective
  • Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks and
    cabbage rows, appear to converge with distance.
    (p.248)
  • The more the lines converge the greater their
    perceived distance.

21
Perceptual Constancy
  • Perceptual Constancy - perceiving objects as
    unchanging, even though retinal images change
  • Ex. - size constancy
  • Its fortunate that our retina does not talk and
    have decision-making ability. Why?

22
(No Transcript)
23
Shape and Size Constancy
24
(No Transcript)
25
The size/distance relationship is often related
to misperception.
26
Another Example . . .
27
Perceptual Interpretation
  • Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision
  • Born blind, operation corrects vision in
    adulthood
  • Can person see normally?
  • Cataracts removed
  • distinguish figure from ground, but could not
    learn to recognize by sight objects that were
    familiar by touch
  • Critical period.

28
  • Perceptual Adaptation.
  • Can we adapt to an artificially displaced or
    inverted visual field?
  • When subjects wear glasses that shift the
    apparent location of object 40 degrees to the
    left, can they adapt?
  • Yes, within a few minutes and with practice
  • experience brief aftereffect.

29
  • If you wore goggles which completely inverted
    your perception, could you adapt and respond
    normally?
  • If you wore goggles which completely inverted
    your perception, could you adapt and respond
    normally?
  • After a period of adjustment, people wearing the
    inverted goggles have been able to ride a
    motorcycle, ski, and fly an airplane.

30
  • Perceptual Set and Context Effects
  • This is a mental predisposition to perceive one
    thing and not another.

31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
33
(No Transcript)
34
(No Transcript)
35
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
  • The controversial claim that perception can occur
    apart from sensory input.
About PowerShow.com