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THE SPACE TRAVEL AND THE SPACE SHUTTLE

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Title: THE SPACE TRAVEL AND THE SPACE SHUTTLE


1
THE SPACE TRAVEL AND THE SPACE SHUTTLE
2
INTRODUCTION
  • This work talks about the space travel and the
    space shuttle, the past and the future.
  • With it, I pretend to show the evolution of space
    subject.

3
THE SPACE TRAVEL
4
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
5
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Hermann Julius Oberth, born June 25, 1894 in the
    Transylvanian town of Hermannstadt, is one of the
    three founding fathers of rocketry and modern
    astronautics. Interestingly, although these three
    pioneers arrived at many of the same conclusions
    about the possibility of a rocket escaping the
    earths gravitational pull, they seem to have
    done so without any knowledge of each others
    work.

6
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Oberths interest in rocketry was sparked at the
    age of 11. His mother gave him a copy of Jules
    Verne's From The Earth To The Moon, a book which
    he later recalled he read "at least five or six
    times and, finally, knew by heart. It was a
    young Oberth, then, that discovered that many of
    Vernes calculations were not simply fiction, and
    that the very notion of interplanetary travel was
    not as fantastic as had been assumed by the
    scientific community.

7
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • By the age of 14 Oberth had already envisioned a
    recoil rocket that could propel itself through
    space by expelling exhaust gases (from a liquid
    fuel) from its base. He had no resources with
    which to test his model, but continued to develop
    his theories, all the while teaching himself,
    from various books, the mathematics that he knew
    hed need if he was to ever challenge gravitys
    dominion.

8
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Oberth realized that the higher the ratio between
    propellant and rocket mass the faster his rocket
    would be able to travel.
  • Oberth wrote, the requirements for stages
    developed out of these formulas. If there is a
    small rocket on top of a big one, and if the big
    one is jettisoned and the small one is ignited,
    then their speeds are added.

9
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • In 1912 Hermann Oberth enrolled in the University
    of Munich to study medicine. His scholarly
    pursuits, however, were interrupted by the First
    World War. In an indirect way, Hermann Oberths
    participation in the war, mostly with the medical
    unit , was, in some ways, fortunate for the
    future of rocketry. Hermann Oberth stated it best
    when he wrote that one of the most important
    things he learned in his years as an enlisted
    medic, was that he "did not want to be a doctor.
    When the war was over, Professor Oberth returned
    to the University of Munich, but this time to
    study Physics with several of the most notable
    scientists of the time.

10
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • In 1922 Oberths doctoral thesis on rocketry was
    rejected. He later described his reaction I
    refrained from writing another one, thinking to
    myself Never mind, I will prove that I am able
    to become a greater scientist than some of you,
    even without the title of doctor. He continued
    In the United States, I am often addressed as a
    doctor. I should like to point out, however, that
    I am not such and shall never think of becoming
    one. And on education he had this to say Our
    educational system is like an automobile which
    has strong rear lights, brightly illuminating the
    past. But looking forward things are barely
    discernible.

11
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • In 1923, the year after the rejection of his
    dissertation, he published the 92 page Die Rakete
    zu den Planetenraumen (The Rocket into Planetary
    Space). This was followed by a longer version
    (429 pages) in 1929, which was internationally
    celebrated as a work of tremendous scientific
    importance. That same year, he lost the sight in
    his left eye in an experiment while working as a
    technical advisor to German director Fritz Lang
    on his film, Girl in the Moon.

12
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • In the thirties Oberth took on a young assistant
    who would later become one of the leading
    scientists in rocketry research for the German
    and then the United States governments his name
    was Werhner von Braun. They worked together again
    during the Second World War, developing the V2
    rocket, the vengeance weapon for the German
    Army, and again after the war, in the United
    States at the U.S. Armys Ballistic Missile
    Agency in Huntsville, Alabama. However, three
    years later Professor Oberth retired and returned
    to Germany.

13
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • That Hermann Oberth is one of the three founding
    fathers of rocketry and modern astronautics is, I
    think, indisputable. That all three have advanced
    the science of rocketry is also indisputable -
    Professor Oberth, though, possessed a vision that
    set him apart, even from these great men. In 1923
    he wrote in the final chapter of Die Rakete zu
    den Planetenraumen (The Rocket into Planetary
    Space), The rockets... can be built so
    powerfully that they could be capable of carrying
    a man aloft. In 1923, then, he became the first
    to prove that rockets could put a man into space.

14
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • By all accounts Hermann Oberth was a humble man
    (especially considering his achievements) who
    had, in his own words, simple goals. He outlined
    them in the last paragraph of his 1957 book Man
    into Space To make available for life every
    place where life is possible. To make inhabitable
    all worlds as yet uninhabitable, and all life
    purposeful.

15
HERMANN OBERTH FATHER OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Hermann Julius Oberth died in a Nuremberg
    hospital in West Germany on December 29, 1989 at
    the age of 95.

16
HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
17
HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • To design and build a spacecraft, you need to be
    able to figure out how big to make it, how heavy
    it can be, how fast it will have to go, how much
    fuel it needs and so forth. For that, you need a
    theory of how objects move in space and how to
    make the calculations. Almost all theory of space
    flight was worked out by three brilliant men over
    a period of nearly three centuries - from 1600 to
    1900.

18
HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Johannes Kepler - Working out the theory
  • was the German mathematician who, in 1609,
    figured out the equations for orbiting planets
    satellites. In particular, he determined that the
    planets move in ellipses (flattened circles)
    rather than true circles.

19
HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Isaac Newton - Working out the theory
  • in 1687 he wrote what is probably the single
    greatest intellectual achievement of all time. In
    a single book he established the basic laws of
    force, motion, and gravitation and invented a new
    branch of mathematics in the process (calculus).
    He did all this to show how the force of gravity
    is the reason that planets orbits follow
    Keplers equations.

20
HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - Working out the theory
  • a Russian school teacher who, without ever
    launching a single rocket himself, was the first
    to figure out all the basic equations for
    rocketry - in 1903! From his very broad and
    extensive reading, including Jules Vernes "From
    the Earth to the Moon", he concluded that space
    travel was a possibility, that it was in fact
    mans destiny, and that rockets would be the way
    to pull it off.

21
HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
  • Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - Working out the theory
  • He anticipated and solved many of the problems
    that were going to come up for rocket powered
    flight and drew up several rocket designs. He
    determined that liquid fuel rockets would be
    needed to get to space, and that the rockets
    would need to be built in stages (he called them
    "rocket trains"). He concluded that oxygen and
    hydrogen would be the most powerful fuels to use.
    He had predicted how, 65 years later, the Saturn
    V rocket would operate for the first landing of
    men on the moon.

22
BULDING THE FIRST ROCKETS - ROBERT GODDARD
  • An American who is now called "the father of
    modern rocketry" .
  • By contrast to Tsiolkovsky, Goddard was the man
    who designed, built, and flew the rockets. He was
    a university professor who also developed the
    theory of rocketry and although he didn't know
    about Tsiolkovsky's work, reached the same
    conclusions as Tsiolkovsky did. Goddard proved
    the theory was true.

23
BULDING THE FIRST ROCKETS - ROBERT GODDARD
  • He was also heavily influenced by the science
    fiction of Jules Verne, and he worked hard to
    develop rockets because he wanted to see them
    take us into space.
  • In 1926 he launched the worlds first liquid
    fueled rocket. In the course of his experiments
    in Massachusetts and Roswell, New Mexico, he
    virtually developed the entirety of rocket
    technology.

24
SPACE TOURISM
25
SPACE TOURISM
  • Space tourism was born on 28th April 2001 it was
    then that the worlds first space tourist launched
    into space from the Baikonur launch site at 1137
    Moscow time on the "Soyuz TM-32" space vehicle.
    Dennis Tito, an American millionaire, spent 7
    days in orbit and dedicated his in-flight time to
    the photographing Earth from space. This mission
    successfully ended on May 6, 2001 at 941 Moscow
    time, after the capsule softly landed in the
    Kazakh steppes.

26
SPACE TOURISM
  • Dennis Tito
  • First Tourist

27
SPACE TOURISM
  • The second space tourist, resident of the South
    African Republic Mark Shuttleworth was launched
    into space a year later, on the 25th April 2002
    Mark. Unlike Dennis Tito, Mark Shuttleworth was
    allowed to freely move around the space station
    ROSAVIAKOSMOS and NASA Mr. Shuttleworth had an
    agreement between them that allowed use of the
    onboard notebook computers for sending and
    receiving the e-mail. He was also given specified
    times for using the US communication system for
    down - linking video- and photo footage.

28
SPACE TOURISM
  • Mark Shuttleworth carried out his own
    scientific-research program, when in space, as
    well as participating in multiple press releases.
    Mr. Shuttleworth announced, after his 10-day
    space mission of his firm desire to partake in a
    new space mission "at any time". Mark
    Shuttleworth purchased a mock-up of the "Soyuz
    TM-33" descent capsule and space suit, in order
    to commemorate his incredible adventure as the
    second space tourist.

29
SPACE TOURISM
  • Mark Shuttleworth
  • Second Tourist

30
NASA Space Travel Inherently Hazardous to
Human Health
  • WASHINGTON -- According to a new study created
    for NASA the medical risks -- both physical and
    psychological -- of long treks beyond Earth orbit
    remain daunting and a far greater challenge than
    the public has been led to believe.
  • The new, no-holds-barred study says part of the
    problem comes from "underreporting" by space
    travelers about their health woes. Also, there is
    too much data privacy and confidentiality between
    astronauts and flight surgeons.

31
NASA Space Travel Inherently Hazardous to
Human Health
  • "Space travel is inherently hazardous. The risks
    to human health of long duration missions beyond
    Earth orbit, if not solved, represent the
    greatest challenge to human exploration of deep
    space," the committee noted. Furthermore, the
    development of solutions "is complicated by lack
    of a full understanding of the nature of the
    risks and their fundamental causes."

32
NASA Space Travel Inherently Hazardous to
Human Health
  • "Some of the physiologic effects of shorter
    periods in space such as loss of bone calcium are
    likely to continue indefinitely during longer
    missions," Kenneth Shine (President of the
    Institute of Medicine) said. Furthermore,
    psychological and mental health issues -- spurred
    by stuffing people from diverse social and
    cultural background into tight quarters and
    sending them outward from Earth -- will grow
    increasingly important, he said.
  • "For prolonged missions, it will not be feasible
    to return an acutely ill individual to Earth in a
    timely manner," Shine said.

33
THE SPACE SHUTTLE
34
HOW SPACE SHUTTLES WORK
  • In its 23 year history, the space shuttle program
    has seen exhilarating highs and devastating lows.
    The fleet has taken astronauts on dozens of
    successful missions, resulting in immeasurable
    scientific gains. But this success has had a
    serious cost. In 1986, the Challenger exploded
    during launch procedures, and on February 1st of
    2003, the Columbia broke up during re-entry over
    Texas.

35
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • Near the end of the Apollo space program, NASA
    officials were looking at the future of the
    American space program. At that time, the rockets
    used to place astronauts and equipment in outer
    space were one-shot disposable rockets. What they
    needed was a reliable, but less expensive,
    rocket, perhaps one that was reusable. The idea
    of a reusable "space shuttle" that could launch
    like a rocket but deliver and land like an
    airplane was appealing and would be a great
    technical achievement.

36
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • Artist's concept of a space shuttle with a manned
    booster and orbiter

37
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • NASA began design, cost and engineering studies
    on a space shuttle. Many aerospace companies also
    explored the concepts. The concepts varied from a
    reusable, manned booster concept (shown above) to
    a shuttle lifted by solid rockets. In 1972,
    President Nixon announced that NASA would develop
    a reusable space shuttle or space transportation
    system (STS). NASA decided that the shuttle would
    consist of an orbiter attached to solid rocket
    boosters and an external fuel tank because this
    design was considered safer and more cost
    effective. NASA awarded the prime contract to
    Rockwell International.

38
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • At that time, spacecraft used ablative heat
    shields that would burn away as the spacecraft
    re-entered the Earth's atmosphere. However, to be
    reusable, a different strategy would have to be
    used. The designers of the space shuttle came up
    with an idea to cover the space shuttle with many
    insulating ceramic tiles that could absorb the
    heat of re-entry without harming the astronauts.

39
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • The Enterprise separates from a Boeing 747 to
    begin one of its flight and landing tests

40
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • Finally, after many years of construction and
    testing (i.e. orbiter, main engines, external
    fuel tank, solid rocket boosters), the shuttle
    was ready to fly. Four shuttles were made
    (Columbia, Discovery, Atlantis, Challenger). The
    first flight was in 1981 with the space shuttle
    Columbia, piloted by astronauts John Young and
    Robert Crippen. Columbia performed well and the
    other shuttles soon made several successful
    flights.

41
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • In 1986, the shuttle Challenger broke up in
    flight when a flame from a leaky joint on one of
    the solid rocket boosters ignited the fuel in the
    external fuel tank. The Challenger exploded and
    the entire crew was lost. NASA suspended the
    shuttle program for several years, while the
    reasons for the disaster were investigated and
    corrected. After several years, the space shuttle
    flew again and a new shuttle, Endeavour, was
    built to replace Challenger in the shuttle fleet.

42
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • To date, the space shuttles have flown about
    one-fourth of their expected lifetime (each
    shuttle was designed for 100 missions) and have
    undergone many refits and design changes to make
    them safer and to carry heavier payloads into
    orbit.

43
SPACE SHUTTLE - GETTING INTO ORBIT
  • To lift the 4.5 million pound (2.05 million kg)
    shuttle from the pad to orbit (115 to 400
    miles/185 to 643 km) above the Earth, the shuttle
    uses the following components
  • two solid rocket boosters (SRB)
  • three main engines of the orbiter
  • the external fuel tank (ET)
  • orbital maneuvering system (OMS) on the orbiter

44
SPACE SHUTTLE - GETTING INTO ORBIT
  • One of the space shuttle's main engines

45
SPACE SHUTTLE - ORBITER
  • Once in space, the shuttle orbiter is your home
    for seven to 14 days. The orbiter can be oriented
    so that the cargo bay doors face toward the Earth
    or away from the Earth depending upon the mission
    objectives in fact, the orientation can be
    changed throughout the mission. One of the first
    things that the commander will do is to open the
    cargo bay doors to cool the orbiter.

46
SPACE SHUTTLE - ORBITER
  • Cut-away drawing of the orbiter's crew
    compartment

47
SPACE SHUTTLE - IN ORBIT LIFE IN SPACE
  • The shuttle orbiter must provide an environment
    where you can live and work in space. It must be
    able to do the following
  • provide life support
  • change position and change orbits
  • let you talk with ground-based flight controllers
    (communications and tracking)
  • find its way around (navigation)
  • make electrical power
  • coordinate and handle information (computers)
  • enable you to do useful work

48
SPACE SHUTTLE - IN ORBIT LIFE IN SPACE
  • Artist's concept of the space shuttle in orbit

49
SPACE SHUTTLE - LIFE SUPPORT
  • The orbiter must provide you with an environment
    similar to Earth. You must have air to breathe,
    food to eat, water to drink, and a comfortable
    temperature. The orbiter must also take away the
    wastes that your body produces (carbon dioxide,
    urine, feces) and protect you from fire. Let's
    look at these various aspects of the orbiter's
    life support system.

50
SPACE SHUTTLE - POSITION AND ORBIT
  • To change the direction that the orbiter is
    pointed (attitude), you must use the reaction
    control system (RCS) located on the nose and OMS
    pods of the aft fuselage.
  • To change orbits (e.g., rendezvous, docking
    maneuvers), you must fire the OMS engines. These
    engines change the velocity of the orbiter to
    place it in a higher or lower orbit .

51
SPACE SHUTTLE - POSITION AND ORBIT
  • A - Remote Manipulator Arm
  • B - Forward Reaction Control Thrusters
  • C - Radiator on Cargo Bay Door

52
SPACE SHUTTLE - COMMUNICATIONS AND TRACKING
  • Talking with the Ground
  • NASA's Mission Control in Houston will send
    signals to a 60 ft radio antenna at White Sands
    Test Facility in New Mexico. White Sands will
    relay the signals to a pair of Tracking and Data
    Relay satellites in orbit 22,300 miles above the
    Earth. The satellites will relay the signals to
    the the space shuttle. The system works in
    reverse as well.
  • The orbiter has two systems for communicating
    with the ground
  • S-band - voice, commands, telemetry and data
    files
  • Ku-band (high bandwidth) - video and transferring
    two-way data files

53
SPACE SHUTTLE - COMMUNICATIONS AND TRACKING
  • Talking to Each Other
  • The orbiter has several intercom plug-in audio
    terminal units located throughout the crew
    compartment. You will wear a personal
    communications control with a headset. The
    communications control is battery-powered and can
    be switched from intercom to transmit functions.
    You can either push to talk and release to listen
    or have a continuously open communication line.
    To talk with spacewalkers, the system uses a UHF
    frequency, which is picked up in the astronaut's
    spacesuit.

54
SPACE SHUTTLE - NAVIGATION
  • The orbiter must be able to know precisely where
    it is in space, where other objects are and how
    to change orbit. To know where it is and how fast
    it is moving, the orbiter uses global positioning
    systems (GPS). To know which way it is pointing
    (attitude), the orbiter has several gyroscopes.
    All of this information is fed into the flight
    computers for rendezvous and docking maneuvers,
    which are controlled in the aft station of the
    flight deck.

55
SPACE SHUTTLE - NAVIGATION
  • Spacelab module in the orbiter's cargo bay
    provides additional lab space

56
SPACE SHUTTLE - POWER
  • All of the on-board systems of the orbiter
    require electrical power. Electricity is made
    from three fuel cells, which are located in the
    mid fuselage under the payload bay. These fuel
    cells combine oxygen and hydrogen from
    pressurized tanks in the mid fuselage to make
    electricity and water. Like a power grid on
    Earth, the orbiter has a distribution system to
    supply electrical power to various instrument
    bays and areas of the ship. The water is used by
    the crew and for cooling.

57
SPACE SHUTTLE - COMPUTERS
  • The orbiter has five on-board computers that
    handle data processing and control critical
    flight systems. The computers monitor equipment
    and talk to each other and vote to settle
    arguments. Computers control critical adjustments
    especially during launch and landing
  • operations of the orbiter (housekeeping
    functions, payload operations, rendezvous/docking)
  • interface with the crew (IBM Thinkpads with
    microprocessors and Windows operating systems)
  • caution and warning systems
  • data acquisition and processing from experiments
  • flight maneuvers
  • Pilots essentially fly the computers, which fly
    the shuttle.

58
SPACE SHUTTLE - DOING USEFUL WORK
  • You will spend most of your time on the shuttle
    doing work to accomplish the mission objectives.
    Besides work, you will have to exercise
    frequently on the treadmill to counteract the
    loss of bone and muscle mass associated with
    weightlessness. You will also eat at the galley
    and sleep in your bunk-style sleeping quarters.
    You will have a toilet and personal hygiene
    facilities for use. You may have to perform
    spacewalks to accomplish the mission objectives.
    This will involve getting into a space suit and
    going through depressurization procedures in the
    airlock.

59
SPACE SHUTTLE - DOING USEFUL WORK
  • Astronauts working in the Spacelab module

60
SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO EARTH RE-ENTRY AND
LANDING
  • The orbiter must be maneuvered into the proper
    position. This is crucial to a safe landing.
  • When a mission is finished and the shuttle is
    halfway around the world from the landing site
    (Kennedy Space Center, Edwards Air Force Base),
    mission control gives the command to come home.

61
SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO EARTH RE-ENTRY AND
LANDING
  • Artist's concept of a shuttle re-entry

62
SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO EARTH RE-ENTRY AND
LANDING
  • Space shuttle orbiter touching down

63
SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO EARTH RE-ENTRY AND
LANDING
  • Parachute deployed to help stop the orbiter on
    landing

64
SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO EARTH RE-ENTRY AND
LANDING
  • Orbiter being serviced just after landing

65
FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • The current shuttle fleet has been through about
    a quarter of its expected lifetime. These
    shuttles have undergone and will have many
    improvements to make them lighter, safer and more
    efficient. Some of the improvements include
  • ET - redesigned to reduce the weight by 7,500 lb
    (3400 kg) This improvement allows the shuttle to
    carry that much more weight in payload.

66
FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • Main engines - pumps, combustion chambers and
    nozzles have been redesigned for safety.
  • SRB - improve the valves, seals, filters and
    propellant for safety.
  • Hydraulic systems - change from rocket
    fuel-powered electric generators to safer,
    lighter, battery-powered generators.
  • Glass cockpit - lightweight LCD displays replaced
    cumbersome mechanical displays and redesigned for
    more efficient use.

67
FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • Undoubtedly, the space shuttle computers will be
    overhauled as computer technology improves. Space
    shuttles may also have touchscreen controls in
    the future.

68
FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • The current space shuttle has four components,
    three of which are recovered after each flight.
    The ET is discarded after each use. But what if
    you could have a shuttle that was all one piece
    and 100 percent recoverable? NASA is currently
    exploring this idea with the X-33 and VentureStar
    designs.

69
FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE
  • Flightpath of X Prize concept Pablo De Leon

70
CONCLUSION
  • Nowadays, space tourism is no longer in the
    realms of science fiction, but science fact.
  • Today, if you enjoyed and have money, you can do
    a space world adventure.

71
THE END
  • DONE BY NUNO ESTEVES
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