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Arc Hydro Groundwater Data Model

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Arc Hydro Groundwater Data Model Gil Strassberg, David Maidment University of Texas at Austin Norman Jones, Brigham Young University Outline Background: objectives ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Arc Hydro Groundwater Data Model


1
Arc Hydro Groundwater Data Model
  • Gil Strassberg, David Maidment
  • University of Texas at Austin
  • Norman Jones, Brigham Young University

2
Outline
  • Background objectives, previous design
  • New design and books, Framework
  • Groundwater components
  • Examples

3
What is a hydrologic data model?
Booch et al. defined a model a simplification
of reality created to better understand the
system being created
Objects
Aquifer
stream
Well
Volume
R.M. Hirsch, USGS
4
Developing a groundwater data model
Take a variety of spatial information and
integrate into one geospatial database with a
common terminology
  • Better communication
  • Integration of data
  • Base for applications

Geologic maps
Time series observations
Borehole data
Groundwater data model (geospatial database)
Hydrostratigraphy
Geospatial vector layers
Numerical models
Gridded data
5
Goals of the Arc Hydro groundwater data model
Objective
  • Develop a geographic data model for representing
    groundwater systems.

Data model goals
  1. Support representation of regional groundwater
    systems.
  2. Support the representation of site scale
    groundwater data.
  3. Enable the integration of surface water and
    groundwater data.
  4. Facilitate the Integration of groundwater
    simulation models with GIS.

6
Regional groundwater systems
  • Describe groundwater systems from recharge to
    discharge
  • In many cases assumed as 2D systems, vertical
    scale gtgt horizontal scale

7
Site scale data
  • Describe groundwater data in a small area of
    interest.
  • Usually includes 3D data (e.g. multilevel
    samplers, cores).

Multilevel samplers in the MADE site in
Mississippi
Photographs provided by Chunmiao Zheng
8
Integration of surface water and groundwater data
  • Describe the relationship between surface water
    features ( e.g. streams and waterbodies) with
    groundwater features (aquifers, wells).
  • Enable the connection with the surface water data
    model

Hydro network
Aquifers
9
Integration of groundwater simulation models with
GIS
  • Define data structures for representing
    groundwater simulation models within GIS.
  • Support spatial and temporal referencing of model
    data allows the display and analysis of model
    data within a real geospatial and temporal
    context.
  • Focus on modflow as the standard model used in
    the groundwater community

Non spatial representation (layer, row, column)
Geospatial representation (x, y, and z
coordinates)
10
Old design
One big geodatabase with 3 conceptual
components Hydrogeology, Simulation, Temporal
11
Outline
  • Background objectives, previous design
  • New design and books, Framework
  • Groundwater components
  • Examples

12
New Design
  • Better integrate surface water and groundwater
  • Easier implementation
  • Solution
  • One framework including basic surface water and
    groundwater features
  • Componentize the data model smaller thematic
    pieces

13
Components
Components can be added to the framework to
represent specific themes in more detail
Surface water components
Groundwater components
Network
Wells and boreholes
Framework
Drainage
Hydrostratigraphy
Hydrography
Geology
Chanel
Simulation
Temporal (enhanced)
Temporal component
14
Two books
Surface water Groundwater
Introduction Introduction
Framework Framework
Space and Time (technical) 3D ArcGIS (technical)
Hydro networks Geology
Watersheds Wells and Boreholes
River channels Hydrostratigraphy
Temporal Temporal
Simulation Simulation
Implementation Implementation
15
Framework
Groundwater features
Surface water features
Time Series
16
Framework
Watershed
Waterbody
HydroPoint
Stream
Aquifer
Well
MonitoringPoint
Time Series
17
Surface water and groundwater
  • In many cases data are collected and stored
    separately
  • Store, visualize, and analyze data in the same
    context

Well in the Edwards Aquifer (state well 6823302)
Streamflow Gage at Comal Springs, New Braunfels
Texas
18
Aquifer features
  • Polygon features for representing aquifer
    boundaries and zones within them

Map of major aquifers in Texas
Edwards Aquifer
19
Aquifer features
  • An aquifer is defined by one or a set of polygon
    features
  • Aquifer features can be grouped by a
    hydrogeologic unit id (HGUID)
  • FType for defining types of aquifer features

20
Well features
Well 1729 State well number 6829103
Types of wells
  • Wells represented as 2D point features
  • Can be related with a certain Aquifer
  • FType for defining types of wells

21
Hydro Features
  • HydroID Unique ID within the geodatabase
    (internal relationships) Every feature in Arc
    Hydro is assigned a unique HydroID
  • HydroCode Public identifier (external
    relationships)

22
HydroCode links to external applications
  • Web interface for groundwater data in Texas
  • Texas Water Information Integration
    Dissemination (WIID)

The state well number becomes the HydroCode of
the Well feature in Arc Hydro
23
Aquifer and well
Well 1729 State well number 6829103
24
Wells and TimeSeries
Well features are related with time series (water
levels, water quality)
25
Surface water features
  • Watershed Polygon features for representing a
    drainage area
  • Stream Line features representing the path of
    flow as linear hydrographic features (blue lines
    on a map)
  • Waterbody Polygon features representing water
    bodies
  • HydroPoint Point features for representing any
    point hydrographic feature (diversion, spring,
    dam, etc.)

26
MonitoringPoint has time series
Monitoring points are related with time series
(streamflow, water quality, precipitation)
27
Surface water groundwater linkage
  • AquiferID is added to the surface water features
  • Surface water and groundwater features can be
    linked through the AquiferID and HydroID
    attributes
  • Work in progress still trying to figure out
    exactly which relationships are needed

28
Surface water groundwater linkage
  • Relationships between surface water and aquifer
    enable analysis based on spatial and hydrologic
    relationships

Stream reaches overlying an aquifer outcrop
29
Outline
  • Background objectives, previous design
  • New design and books, Framework
  • Groundwater components
  • Examples

30
Components
  • Geology - mostly representation of data from
    geologic maps
  • Wells and Boreholes Description of well
    attributes and vertical data along wells
  • Hydrostratigraphy 2D and 3D description of
    hydrostratigraphy
  • Temporal - Representing time series data
  • Simulation Representation of groundwater
    simulation models

31
Geology
Features for representing data from geologic maps
Faults
Caves
Data from USGS report http//pubs.usgs.gov/sim/20
05/2873/
32
Components
  • Geology - mostly representation of data from
    geologic maps
  • Wells and Boreholes Description of well
    attributes and vertical data along wells
  • Hydrostratigraphy 2D and 3D description of
    hydrostratigraphy
  • Temporal - Representing time series data
  • Simulation representation of groundwater
    simulation models

33
Well
  • Wells are the most basic features in groundwater
    databases
  • Attributes of wells describe its location, depth,
    water use, owner, etc.
  • In many cases these data are collected from
    driller reports

34
Well
  • The Well location is defined as a 2D point in the
    Well feature class
  • In the Arc Hydro model we only predefine a set of
    basic attributes

Wells in the Edwards Aquifer
35
Wells and 3D data
  • 3D data is referenced along the well
  • From depth (top) To depth (bottom)

From
To
36
Wells and Boreholes
  • Vertical data (stratigraphy, casing) are related
    with wells
  • 3D information is stored as tabular data in the
    VerticalMeasurements table
  • Can create 3D features (points, lines) for
    visualization

37
Creating 3D displays
  • We can create 3D displays of wells with the
    elevation and depth attributes of the well feature

Land surface
Extruded well features
38
3D features (BorePoints and BoreLines)
  • Data on 3D intervals/points along the well

Wells with hydrostratigraphic information
39
3D features (BorePoints and BoreLines)
  • Original data is in text format
  • Each data represents the top of a formation at
    one well

Data from USGS report http//pubs.usgs.gov/sir/20
04/5226/
40
3D features (BorePoints and BoreLines)
  • Data on 3D intervals/points along the well are
    stored in tabular format

41
3D features (BorePoints and BoreLines)
  • Combining the well geometry (x, y) and the
    vertical measurements we can describe a set of 3D
    geometries (x, y, z)

42
3D features (BorePoints and BoreLines)
  • BorePoints representing geologic contacts along
    wells
  • Each point represents the top of a hydrogeologic
    formation

Well
Land surface
BorePoint
43
3D features (BorePoints and BoreLines)
  • BoreLines representing intervals along wells
  • Each line represents a hydrogeologic unit (top
    and bottom)

BorePoints and BoreLines can also be used to
represent other features along wells
(construction, sampling ports, screens)
44
Components
  • Geology - mostly representation of data from
    geologic maps
  • Wells and Boreholes Description of well
    attributes and vertical data along wells
  • Hydrostratigraphy 2D and 3D description of
    hydrostratigraphy
  • Temporal - Representing time series data
  • Simulation representation of groundwater
    simulation models

45
Geology to hydrogeology
  • Stratigraphic units are usually grouped into
    hydrogeologic units
  • An aquifer can have a number of hydrogeologic
    units
  • Definition may change based on scale (local vs.
    regional) and purpose

Stratigraphic units
Hydrogeologic units
Upper confining unit
Georgetown Fm.
Georgetown Fm. (GTOWN)
Cyclic Marine member (CYMRN)
Pearson Fm.
Leached collapsed member (LCCLP)
Edwards Aquifer
Regional dense member (RGDNS)
Grainstone member (GRNSTN)
Kirschberg evaporite member (KSCH)
Kainer Fm.
Dolomitic member (DOLO)
Basal Nodular member (BSNOD)
Upper Glen Rose (UGLRS)
46
Products and workflow
47
Hydrostratigraphy
HydroGeologicUnit table provides a conceptual
description of hydrogeologic units
Spatial features
Relates with spatial features representing
instances of the HGU
48
HGUArea
  • 2D polygons defining boundaries of hydrogeologic
    units

BorePoints representing top of hydrogeologic units
Kainer boundary
Georgetown boundary
49
GeoSection
  • 3D polygons representing cross sections
  • SectionLine defines the 2D cross section line

Section line connecting a sequence of wells
Section A-A (HydroID 4666)
50
GeoSection
  • Each polygon is part of a section group defined
    by the SectionID
  • The SectionID of the polygon relates back to the
    section line

Section A-A (HydroID 4666)
51
GeoRasters
  • Raster catalog for storing and indexing raster
    datasets
  • Can store top and bottom of formations
  • Each raster is related with a HGU in the
    hydrogeologic unit table

Georgetown
Person
Kainer
Glen Rose
52
GeoRasters
  • GeoRasters also store hydraulic properties such
    as transmissivity, conductivity, and specific
    yield

Raster of hydraulic conductivity in the Edwards
Aquifer
53
GeoVolume
  • Objects for representing 3D volumes
  • Geometry is multipatch

54
GeoVolume
  • Can create the volumes as a set of 3D triangles
  • Not real volume cant do any 3D operations
  • Volumes in this example were generated in GMS and
    imported to the geodatabase

Volumes in GMS
GeoVolumes in the geodatabase
55
Derived GeoSections
  • GeoSections can also be created by cutting
    through GeoVolumes

C-C
D-D
E-E
E-E
D-D
C-C
GeoSections
Section lines on a 2D view of GeoVolumes
Derived 3D GeoSections
56
Components
  • Geology - mostly representation of geologic data
    from geologic maps
  • Wells and Boreholes Description of well
    attributes and vertical data along wells
  • Hydrostratigraphy 2D and 3D description of
    hydrostratigraphy
  • Temporal - Representing time series data
  • Simulation representation of groundwater
    simulation models

57
Types of time varying datasets
  • Single variable time series A single variable
    recorded at a location, such as stream discharge
    or groundwater levels
  • Multi variable time series Multiple variables
    recorded simultaneously at the same location,
    such as chemical analysis of a water sample
  • Time varying surfaces (raster series) Raster
    datasets indexed by time. Each rater is a
    snapshot of the environment at a certain time.
  • Time varying features (feature series) A
    collection of features indexed by time. Each
    feature in a feature series represents a variable
    at a single time period.

58
TimeSeries and TSType
  • Each measurement is indexed by space, time, and
    type
  • Space FeatureID
  • Time TSDateTime
  • Type TSTypeID

TSType provides information on the time series
59
Getting data views
  • We can slice through the data cube to get
    specific views of the data

Where and What?
What?
Where?
Query by location (FeatureID 2791)
Query by type (TSTypeID 2)
Query by location and type (FeatureID 2791
TSTypeID 2)
60
Data views
Get all the data of TSType 2 measured at Feature
2791
61
Data views
  • FeatureID of the time series HydroID of the
    spatial feature (e.g. Well)
  • TSTypeID relates to the TSType table

Well HydroID 2791
62
TimeSeries Table
  • A query by location (FeatureID) and type
    (TSTypeID)
  • Create a plot of time series related to a feature

Well HydroID 2791
63
Data views
  • A type-time view Get water levels (TSTypeID 2)
    for 2/2004

Water level in the Edwards Aquifer in 2/2004
Set of layers for different times creates an
animation
64
Multi-variable time series
  • Multiple variables recorded simultaneously at the
    same location
  • Indexed by location (FeatureID), and time
    (TSDateTime)
  • Example water quality parameters

Variables
65
Multi-variable time series
  • Can query for multiple variables together

New Braunfels Springs
Well HydroID 2833
66
RasterSeries
  • Raster datasets indexed by time
  • Each raster represents a continuous surface
    describing a variable for a given time

January 1991
January 1992
January 1993
67
Feature Series
  • A collection of features indexed by time
  • Example of particle tracks
  • Features are indexed by TSType, TSDateTime, and
    GroupID
  • Each group of features creates a track over time

68
Components
  • Geology - mostly representation of geologic data
    from geologic maps
  • Wells and Boreholes Description of well
    attributes and vertical data along wells
  • Hydrostratigraphy 2D and 3D description of
    hydrostratigraphy
  • Temporal - Representing time series data
  • Simulation representation of groundwater
    simulation models

69
Representing simulation models
  • Georeference model inputs and outputs (in space
    and time)
  • Focus on MODFLOW, block centered finite
    difference grid (nodes are in the center of the
    cells)
  • Represent 2D and 3D models

Mesh-centered Finite difference grid
Block-centered finite difference grid
Finite element grid
70
Simulation
Features for representing data from simulation
models
Cell2D
Cell2D
Boundary
Cell3D
Node
Node
Cell3D
71
Tools for read model inputs/outputs
Example Create water budgets for selected cells
Water budget terms for the defined zone
72
Groundwater Modeling System
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