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Cognitive Measurements to Design Effective Learning Environments

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Cognitive Measurements to Design Effective Learning Environments Fred Paas1 & Slava Kalyuga2 1 Open University of the Netherlands 2 New York University, USA – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cognitive Measurements to Design Effective Learning Environments


1
Cognitive Measurements to Design Effective
Learning Environments
Fred Paas1 Slava Kalyuga2
1 Open University of the Netherlands 2 New York
University, USA
3
I C L E P S WORKSHOP 2005 August 30
2
Overview
  • COGNITIVE MEASUREMENT GROUP-BASED INSTRUCTION
  • Measurement of cognitive load
  • Interpretation of performance, mental effort,
    and combined scores
  • COGNITIVE MEASUREMENT PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION
  • Diagnostic assessment of organized knowledge
    structures
  • Applying combined efficiency measures in
    adaptive training

3
Basic Assumption
If individuals are to learn effectively in a
learning environment, the architecture of their
cognitive system, the learning environment, and
interactions between both must be understood,
accommodated, and aligned
Cognitive Measurements
4
Cognitive architecture
  • Perceive incoming information
  • Attend to information
  • Limited capacity
  • Limited duration
  • Separate processors for visual and
  • auditory information

?
?
  • Permanently store all knowledge
  • and skills in a hierarchical network
  • (schemas)
  • Unlimited capacity

5
  • Schema
  • categorizes elements of information
  • according to the manner in which
  • they will be used
  • consists of a multi-dimensional web
  • of interconnected nodes of
  • information
  • can be treated by WM as a single
  • entity, and if the learning process
  • has occurred over a long period of
  • time, it may incorporate a huge
  • amount of information
  • can be processed consciously or
  • automatically

6
Intrinsic
  • Extraneous
  • not relevant for learning
  • Germane
  • relevant for learning

7
Cognitive Load Theory Instructional Techniques
8
Measurement of Cognitive Load
9
Goal-Specific Problem Solving
10
Goal-Free Problem Solving
11
Measurement of Cognitive Load
  • Objective measures
  • Task and performance
  • Secondary task
  • Psychophysiological
  • Subjective measures
  • Rating scales

12
Measurement of Cognitive Load
  • Objective measures
  • Task and performance
  • Secondary task
  • Psychophysiological
  • Subjective measures
  • Rating scales

13
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14
Measurement of Cognitive Load
  • Objective measures
  • Task and performance
  • Secondary task
  • Psychophysiological
  • Subjective measures
  • Rating scales

15
Subjective measures Rating scales (NASA-TLX)
16
How to interprete performance and mental effort
scores?
Instructional Condition Performance (1-10)
Mental Effort (1-10)
A B C D
2 2 8 8
9 2 3 9
17
Efficiency of Instructional Conditions
Performance
M P Efficiency 0
Mental Effort
18
Motivation in Instructional Conditions
Performance
Mental Effort
Motivation 0
19
Instructional Efficiency/Motivation
Performance
high motivation
high efficiency
Mental Effort
low motivation
low efficiency
20
  • Find usable objective technique
  • Distinguish between different types of load
  • Use measures to personalize instruction

21
COGNITIVE MEASUREMENT PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION
22
Expertise reversal effectCognitive load
effects depend on levels of learner
expertiseinstructional designs or procedures
that are effective for novices may be ineffective
for more proficient (expert) learners.Instructi
onal implications- instructional techniques
need to change with alterations in expertise-
it is critical to have simple rapid measures of
learner proficiency (performance and mental
effort).
23
Real time (rapid online) diagnostic assessment
of organized knowledge structures.Why
organized knowledge structures (schemas)?Cogniti
ve studies of expertise organized knowledge
base in LTM is central to cognitive processing
(De Groot, 1946/1965, Chase Simon, 1973)
they affects the way we process information in WM
and solve problems (Novices vs Experts).
24
  • Reading comprehension
  • (linguistic schemas)

This was the course that the student whom the
school that was criticized by the newspaper
expelled failed.
25
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26
  • Solve for x 5x - 4

27
Solve for x 5x - 4
x - 4/5
28
Solve for x 5x - 4
5x/5 - 4/5
29
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30
  • Diagnostic cognitive assessment should be
  • sensitive to different cognitive attributes
  • sensitive to different levels of proficiency
  • practically usable
  • Typical time scale of cognitive processes up to
    several seconds.

31
  • Rapid diagnostic approach
  • general What is the highest level of organised
    knowledge structures (if any) a person is capable
    of retrieving and applying to the briefly
    presented material?
  • first-step method Presenting learners with a
    task for a limited time and asking them to
    indicate their first step towards solution.

32
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33
  • A multiply both sides by 3
    2x 1 3
  • B subtract 1 from both sides
    2x 2
  • C divide both sides by 2
    x 1

34
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35
  • Scoring method
  • Skipping steps reflects a higher level of
    proficiency the learner has corresponding
    operations automated or is able to perform these
    operations mentally without writing them down.
  • If a learner omitted some
    intermediate steps, she/he should be allocated an
    additional score for each skipped step.
  • For 2x 1 3 scores 0 to 4
  • 4 x 1
  • 3 2x/2 2/2
  • 2 2x 2
  • 1 2x 1 - 1 3 - 1

36
Assessment design procedure
37
EXAMPLES. Arithmetic word problems,
Marshall (1995)
Change Schema After 6 passengers had left the
bus, 9 passengers remained. How many passengers
were on the bus initially?
Group Schema Peter's book contains 50 pages.
Peter read 15 pages in the morning. In the
afternoon, he read the remaining pages and
finished the book. How many pages did Peter read
in the afternoon?
Vary Schema A car travelled 60 kilometres in an
hour. If the car continued to travel at the same
speed, then how far would it travel in 5 hours?
Restate Schema Water is mixed with juice
concentrate in the ratio 2 1. How many litres
of water need to be mixed with 10 litres of
concentrate?
38
  • Rapid verification diagnostic technique
  • Presenting learners with a series of possible
    task solutions for a limited time and asking them
    to rapidly verify the suggested solution steps.

Physics (kinematics) vector addition motion
problems A ship is traveling at 7 m/s. A dog
runs across the deck at the same speed in a
direction of 60 relative to the direction of
motion of the ship. What is the velocity of the
dog relative to the sea?
39
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40
Combined efficiency measures
E P/R
41

42
Using rapid diagnostic techniques in adaptive
training for dynamic learning task selection
(tailoring levels of task complexity and learner
support).
43
Selection algorithm governing the selection of
learning tasks with different levels of
difficulty (stages 1-4) and support (worked
examples, completion tasks, and conventional
tasks/problem solving exercises). Adapted from
Kalyuga and Sweller (2004)
44
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45
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46
Adaptive training based on combined efficiency
measures
Performance
5
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
0
1
Mental effort
3
2
1
0
-1
2
2
1
0
-1
-2
3
1
0
-1
-2
-3
4
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
5
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