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Chapter 34: Introduction to Animals

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Chapter 34: Introduction to Animals 34-1 The Nature of Animals 34-2 Animal Bodies 34-3 Comparison of Invertebrates and Vertebrates Chapter 34: Introduction to Animals ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 34: Introduction to Animals


1
Chapter 34 Introduction to Animals
34-1 The Nature of Animals
34-2 Animal Bodies
34-3 Comparison of Invertebrates and Vertebrates
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34-1 The Nature of Animals
I. The Nature of Animals (Kingdom Animalia)
  • Eleven major phyla based on phylogenetic
    relationships. (animals are for simplicity
    divided into invertebrates and vertebrates)

4
(1) Invertebrate
  • Animal lacking a backbone 95 of ALL animals
    are invertebrates.

5
(2) Vertebrate
  • Animals with a backbone represent ONLY 5 of
    all animal species.

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II. Characteristics
  • Multicellular eukaryotes that are heterotrophic,
    no cell walls, locomotion.

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(A) Multicellular Organization (enables
adaptability)
  • Each animal cell depends on the presence and
    functioning of other cells (interdependency exist
    at the cellular level)

10
(1) Specialization
  • Is the adaptation of a cell for a particular
    function (i.e., there is a division of labor
    among animal cells)

11
Critical Thinking
(1) From the perspective of a SINGLE cell, what
may be one ADVANTAGE of cell specialization and
one DISADVANTAGE of cell specialization?
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(2) Cell Junctions (NOT found in unicellular
organisms)
  • Connections between cells that hold the cells
    together as a unit (tissue).

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(B) Heterotrophy
  • Nutrients are obtained from outside organic
    material and are ingested by all animals.

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(1) Ingestion (Intracellular)
  • Digestion occurs WITHIN the animals body,
    allowing proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates to
    be extracted for cellular use (metabolic
    activity).

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(C) Sexual Reproduction and Development
  • Most animals can reproduce sexually (unison of
    gametes), however some can reproduce asexually as
    well.

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(1) Zygote (2Na diploid cell, feature of sexual
reproduction)
  • First cell of a new individual undergoes
    mitotic divisions as development takes place,
    paving the way for cell specialization.

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(2) Differentiation (a.k.a. the cellular pathway
to specialization)
  • As new cells are yielded from a dividing zygote,
    genes become activated or deactivated leading to
    cell differentiation.

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(D) Movement (e.g., locomotion is a common animal
behavior)
  • Facilitated by the interrelationship of two
    types of tissue found ONLY in animals

(1) Nervous Tissue (2) Muscle Tissue.
22
Critical Thinking
(2) Consider that an endoskeleton can support
MORE weight than an exoskeleton, would a
large-bodied animal with an exoskeleton be more
likely to live in the water OR on land? Explain
your reasoning.
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(1) Neurons (Nervous Tissue Cells)
  • Conduct electrical signals working in a circuit
    between nervous tissue and muscles. (Detecting
    environmental stimuli can RESULT in movement)

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III. Origin and Classification
  • The first animal ancestors were believed to be
    from the seas, and possibly arose from COLONIAL
    protists (of which were heterotrophic and
    eukaryotic).

NOTE Colonialism brought similar unicellular
organisms together as a unit, possibly
encouraging specialization of different cells.
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34-2 Animal Bodies
I. Body Structure (morphology is BOTH external
AND internal)
  • Those that LACK true tissues and an organized
    body shape (sponges) to highly organized tissues
    and a consistent body shape (the other ten phyla)

28
Critical Thinking
(3) Observe the body of the animal pictured
below. (a) What kind of symmetry does the animal
display? (b) Is the animal cephalized? (c) How
many germ layers are present? (d) How many
openings does its digestive system possess? (e)
Does the animal posses neurons?
29
(1) Symmetry
  • Refers to a consistent OVERALL pattern of
    structure in an animal body plan. (e.g., Sponges
    of Phylum Porifera display NO symmetry)

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(A) Patterns of Symmetry (e.g., sponges excluded)
  • Symmetry shows ONE of TWO patterns depending on
    body plan.

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(1) Radial Symmetry (e.g., Sea anemone,
jellyfish, and hydra)
  • Similar parts BRANCH OUT in all directions from
    a central line NO head region.

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(2) Bilateral Symmetry (e.g., Moth, planarian,
human)
  • Two SIMILAR halves on either side of a central
    plane includes BOTH anterior/posterior ends AND
    a head region.

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(3) Dorsal-Ventral Anterior-Posterior (i.e.,
anatomical POSITIONS)
  • Top (dorsal), Bottom (ventral), Head (anterior),
    and Tail (posterior)

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(4) Cephalization (evolution of a head region
in an animal)
  • Concentration of sensory and brain structures in
    the ANTERIOR end of the animal (i.e., a
    cephalized animal has a head)

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(B) Germ Layers (present in developing animal
zygote i.e., embryo)
  • Fundamental tissues found in embryos of ALL
    animalsgive rise to EVERY body featuretissues
    and organs.
  • Sponges are the ONLY animals with have NO GERM
    LAYERS.
  • Cnidarian and Ctenophore embryos have TWO GERM
    LAYERS.
  • ALL other animals have evolved THREE GERM LAYERS.

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(C) Body Cavities (most animals have SOME type of
body cavity)
  • A body cavity is a fluid-filled SPACE that forms
    between the digestive tract AND the outer wall of
    the body during development.
  • NOTE TWO functions
  • Provides a firm base against which muscles can
    contract.
  • Acts as a reservoir and transport medium for
    body chemicals.

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II. Animal Diversity
  • There are features zoologists consider (1)
    Presence/Absence of Tissue Layers, (2) Body
    Cavity Type, and (3) Presence/Absence of
    Backbone.

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(A) Invertebrates (10 invertebrate PHYLA of
Kingdom Animalia)
  • Highest VARIATION among the ANIMALS, including
    body symmetry, tissue organization, and cell
    specialization.

50
(B) Chordates (last phyla of Kingdom Animala,
includes Vertebrates)
  • Characterized by PRESENCE of a notochord, dorsal
    nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, and a postanal
    tail.

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(1) Notochord (develops into the BACKBONE)
  • A firm, flexible rod of tissue located in the
    dorsal part of the body.

53
(2) Dorsal Nerve Cord (develops into the BRAIN
and SPINAL CORD)
  • A hollow tube lying just ABOVE (dorsal to) the
    notochord.

54
(3) Pharyngeal Pouches (develop into
GILLSaquatic species)
  • Small outpockets of the ANTERIOR part of the
    digestive tract.

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(4) Postanal Tail (develops in a tail in some,
vestigial in others)
  • Muscle tissue located BEHIND the posterior
    opening of the digestive tract.

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(C) Vertebrates
  • A subphylum of Phylum Chordata, includes fishes,
    amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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34-3 Comparison of Invertebrates and Vertebrates
I. Invertebrate Characteristics (classification
of phyla)
  • Variation in SYMMETRY, SEGMENTATION, SUPPORT,
    and the major BODY SYSTEMS.

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(A) Symmetry
  • Radial (receive stimuli from ALL directions)
    Bilateral (allowed for CEPHALIZATION to occur).
    NOTE Most invertebrates are bilateral

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(B) Segmentation
  • A body of REPEATING segments or SIMILAR units
    (annelids) segments can FUSED and SPECIALIZED
    (arthropods).

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(C) Support of the Body (internal OR external
skeleton)
  • Influenced by AQUATIC or TERRESTRIAL
    inhabitation (water pressure, gravity, etc)

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Critical Thinking
(4) On mammals and birds, the head is positioned
higher with respect to the body than it is on
amphibians and reptiles. Why do you suppose it
may be evolutionary advantageous to have a head
positioned OVER the body?
67
(1) Exoskeleton (does NOT grow ? stretched, shed
and replaced)
  • Rigid outer covering ? PROTECTS the soft
    tissues, including arthropods and mollusks.

68
(D) Respiratory and Circulatory Systems
  • Evolved to EXCHANGE gases, nutrients, and wastes
    from CELL activity.

69
(1) Gas Exchange (CO2, a metabolic waste product
of respiration)
  • Exchange of gases (CO2 and O2) among cells
    occurs by DIFFUSION.

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(2) Gills (aquatic arthropods and mollusks)
  • Specialized organs adapted for exchanging gases
    in AQUATIC habitats.

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(3) Open-Circulatory System (e.g., aquatic
arthropods and early mollusks)
  • Blood-like fluid is pumped from the body vessels
    to the BODY CAVITY, and returned to the body
    vessels. (i.e., a primitive, LESS efficient
    system)

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(4) Closed-Circulatory System (e.g., annelids and
later mollusks)
  • Blood SEPARATED in tubular vessels exchange
    between cells and capillaries that line each
    cell. (i.e., MORE efficient, faster)

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(E) Digestive and Excretory Systems
  • Digestion AND excretion result from actions of
    METABOLIC activity.

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(1) Gut (digestive tract RUNS through the body)
  • Food is broken down AND nutrients are absorbed
    by cells that LINE gut.

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(F) Nervous System (sensory data)
  • High variation (spongesNO neurons, primitive
    responses octopusone of the most evolved
    invertebrate brains, capable of emotion)

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(G) Reproduction and Development
  • Asexual and sexual TWO types of DEVELOPMENT are
    observed.

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(1) Hermaphrodite (e.g., ALWAYS have a mate vs.
REDUCED variability)
  • Capable of BOTH types of gametes ? allowing an
    individual to behave sexually as male OR female.

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(2) Indirect Development (e.g., MOST
invertebrates, including beetles)
  • Invertebrates have an intermediate LARVAL stage
    during the life cycle

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(3) Larva (INDIRECT development TWO niches)
  • Free-living, IMMATURE form of an organism.

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(4) Direct Development (e.g., fewer
invertebrates, grasshoppers)
  • Born or hatched with the SAME appearance and
    niche it will have as an ADULT (i.e., no larval
    stage)

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II. Vertebrate Characteristics (a subphylum of
Chordata)
  • ALL vertebrates (fish aside) spent PART of their
    life on land SUPPORT of body and RETAINING water
    are two adaptations.

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(A) Support of the Body (vertebrates)
  • HABITAT and LOCOMOTION ? influence ENDOSKELETON.

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(1) Endoskeleton (supports a backbone)
  • An INTERNAL skeleton that can support a LARGE,
    heavy body GROWS as the VERTEBRATE grows.

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(2) Vertebrae
  • Repeating BONY UNITS of the backbone,
    positioning of limbs and skull evolved for
    FLEXIBILITY.

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(B) Body Coverings (over endoskeleton)
  • Protection, Insulation, Watertight, Gas Exchange

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(1) Integument (provides a BARRIER against the
environment)
  • Outer COVERING of an animal (e.g., fish,
    amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal integuments)

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(C) Respiratory and Circulatory Systems
(vertebrates)
  • Closed-circulatory system with chambered heart
    with either gills or lungs.

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(1) Lungs (terrestrial AND aquatic vertebrates)
  • Moist-membranous surfaces deep inside the
    animals body, require a muscular diaphragm.

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(D) Digestive and Excretory Systems (vertebrates)
  • Occurs in elongated GUT ? deals with expelling
    wastes WHILE conserving water.

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(1) Kidneys (ammonia is a PROBLEM ? MUST be
detoxified by body)
  • Filter wastes from the BLOOD while regulating
    water levels in the body.

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(E) Nervous System (more advanced in vertebrates)
  • Highly organized brain and neural circuits
    specific REGIONS of the brain have evolved
    certain duties.

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(F) Reproduction and Development
  • Internal AND external fertilization methods are
    observed.

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Chapter 34 Introduction to Animals
34-1 The Nature of Animals
34-2 Animal Bodies
34-3 Comparison of Invertebrates and Vertebrates
102
34-4 Fertilization and Development
I. Fertilization and Early Development
  • Embryologydividing zygote and the formation of
    the three primordial germ layers (embryonic
    tissues).

(A) Gametes
  • Sperm (specialized for movement) Ovum (larger,
    size dependent on how long the food supply in the
    yolk must lastcompare fish vs. bird eggs)

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(B) Fertilization
  • Sperm nucleus merges with ovum nucleus (restores
    diploid number) and replication of DNA begins as
    the first cell division takes place.

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(C) Cleavage (immediate zygote divisions) and
Blastula Formation
  • As cleavage ensues, the number of cells
    increases (2-4-8) but the cells do not increase
    in size (i.e., they get smaller to fit)

(1) Blastula (hollow ball of embryonic cells) and
Blastocoel (cavity)
  • As the number of dividing cells increases, the
    mass becomes a hollow ball.

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II. Gastrulation (stage following blastula
formation)
  • An area of the blastula collapses inward,
    forming the blastopore, which ultimately
    transforms the blastula to a gastrula
    (multilayered embryo).

(1) Archenteron (primitive gut surrounded by
endoderm)
  • Blastopore folding results in a cup-shaped
    embryo and a deep-cavity which behaves like a gut
    (i.e., the archenteron).

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(2) Ectoderm (outermost germ layer of gastrula)
  • Develops into the outer layer of the skin, the
    hair, nails and nervous system.

(3) Endoderm (innermost germ layer of gastrula,
surrounds archenteron)
  • Develops into the throat passage, gills/lungs,
    and digestive organs.

(4) Mesoderm (middle germ layer of gastrula most
versatile germ layer)
  • Develops into the skeleton, muscles, inner layer
    of the skin, circulatory system, and the lining
    of the body cavity.

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III. Patterns of Development
  • Body symmetry, number of germ layers, and body
    cavitythree types

(1) Coelom
  • A body cavity that is COMPLETELY LINED by
    mesoderm.

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(A) Blastopore Fate and Cleavage
  • Two phylogenetic pathways in TRUE Coelomates
  • (1) Mollusks, Arthropods, and Annelidsblastopore
    develops into a MOUTH, and a second opening
    arises to become an anus.
  • (2) Echinoderms and Chordatesblastopore develops
    into an ANUS, and a second opening arises to
    become a mouth.

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(1) Protosomes (mouth-FIRST) Spiral Cleavage
  • Cells of protostomes divide in a spiral
    arrangement (determinate cleavage).

(2) Deuterostomes (mouth-SECOND) Radial
Cleavage
  • Cell divisions are parallel to or are at right
    angles (indeterminate cleavage).

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(3) Determinate Cleavage (Protostome Development)
  • If the cells are separated in this embryo, each
    one will develop into its part and the overall
    organism will die.

(4) Indeterminate Cleavage (Deuterostome
Development)
  • If the cells are separated in this embryo, each
    cell will embark on its own path to become a
    separate organism.

NOTE I.C. very early in embryo development in
humans can result in identical twins.
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(B) Coelom Formation (variation as embryos)
  • Protostome vs. Deuterostome in both types, the
    mesoderm (red) lines the interior of the outer
    body wall and surrounds the gut (mouth-anus).

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(2) Enterocoely (gut-body cavity Deuterostome
coelom formation)
  • Mesoderm forms by rapid division of cells lining
    the dorsal part of the blastopore.

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(1) Schizocoely (split-body cavity Protostome
coelom formation)
  • Mesoderm forms by rapid division of cells at the
    boundary of the endoderm and ectoderm.

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(C) Types of Body Cavities (3 Types)
  • Relationship between Ectoderm, Mesderm, and
    Endoderm.

(1) Acoelomates (without a coelom flatworms)
  • NO body cavity present the endodermic gut and
    the outer covering of the animal are connected by
    the solid tissue of the mesoderm.

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(2) Pseudocoelomates (false-body cavity
roundworms)
  • Mesoderm lines the interior of the coelom BUT
    does NOT surround the exterior of the endodermic
    gut.

(i.e., the mesoderm lines the fluid-filled coelom
and the endodermic gut is suspended in the fluid
of the coelom.)
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(3) Coelomates (true coelom mollusks,
annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates)
  • Mesoderm lines the body cavity and surrounds and
    supports the endodermic gut.

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