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Classifying Living Things

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Chapter 2 Why Classify? Quiz 2A Classifying Living Things * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Classify to arrange things into groups Classification: the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classifying Living Things


1
Classifying Living Things
  • Chapter 2
  • Why Classify?
  • Quiz 2A

2
Classify
  • to arrange things into groups

Classification the process of grouping things
based on their similarities
3
Taxonomy
(from Gk. taxis arrangement, order)
  • the science of classifying organisms into groups

4
How does a good classification system help?
  • Generalization by learning about individuals
    you may also learn about the whole group.
  • It makes information about specific organisms
    easier to organize and find.

5
The Classification Hierarchy
  • First recorded classification of organisms was
    attempted by Aristotle the Greek scientist and
    philosopher.

6
Aristotles Classification System
  • Plants
  • HERBS - if they lacked woody parts
  • SHRUBS - if they had several short
    woody stems
  • TREES - one large woody stem .

7
Aristotles Classification System
8
Aristotles Classification System
  • Animals
  • FISH swim
  • BIRDS - fly
  • LAND ANIMALS - walk

9
artificial classification system
  • based on appearance
  • (physical characteristics)

Aristotle's system was used for approximately
2,000 years. (used into the 1600s)
10
Carolus Linnaeus
  • In the 1700's Carolus Linnaeus, a
    Swedish-naturalist, discovered problems in the
    systematic arrangement for botany and began to
    sketch his own classification method.

11
Carolus Linnaeus set forth a new classification
system in his works (books he wrote).
  • Species Plantarum
  • Systema Naturae

12
Species Plantarum
  • published 1753
  • forms the basis for plant classification

13
Systema Naturae
  • published 1758
  • forms the basis for animal classification

14
Carolus Linnaeus
Linnaeus is known as the father of modern
biological classification or the father of
taxonomy.
15
Carolus Linnaeus
Linnaeus also established the modern scientific
method of naming plants and animals.
His system is also an artificial classification
system (based on physical characteristics). It
has more flexibility than the previous
systems. It is still used today.
16
Linnaeus's 7 Basic Levels of Classification
His system has 7 basic levels (largest
---gtsmallest)
kingdom phylum (division) class order family genu
s species
Species are often divided into sub-species (or
varieties like dogs). Subphyla subclasses
may also be used.
17
The more classification levels that two organisms
share, the more characteristics they have in
common.
18
As you move down the levels there are fewer kinds
of organisms in each group.
19
Levels of Classification
Some classification systems have an eighth level
domain that is a level higher than kingdom.
20
Organisms are placed into domains and kingdoms
based on their cell type, their ability to make
food, and the number of cells in their bodies.
21
Unicellular prokaryotes
The "true bacteria". Examples Enteric bacteria
like E. coli, Salmonella typhus, Legionella,
Heliobacter pylorii (cause of many ulcers),
Neisseria gonorrhea (cause of gonorrhea),
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are able to convert
nitrogen gas into ammonia. Clostridium (tetanus,
botulism).
22
also unicellular prokaryotes but they are found
in some of the most extreme environments on Earth
(such as hot springs, very salty water, swamps,
volcano vents in the Pacific Ocean floor, and the
intestines of cows)
23
Protist
Fungi
Animal
Plant
24
The Six Kingdoms
Kingdom Archaebacteria Kingdom
Eubacteria Kingdom Protista Kingdom
Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia
25
What about Humans?
Man is not an animal he is Gods highest
creation and created in Gods image.
26
Christian Classification System?
Why dont Christians invent a Christian
Classification System that would not be
influenced by evolutionary bias? Any new system
that uses physical characteristics as the basis
for classification would likely group organisms
quite similarly to the current system.
27
Christian Classification System?
There is a Christian classification system that
has been proposed called baraminology. The term
baraminology comes from the Hebrew words bara,
meaning create, and min, meaning kind.
Baraminology attempts to classify organisms
according to their biblical kind.
28
Christian Classification System?
Since one of the primary functions of a
classification system is to eliminate confusion
regarding organisms, having a separate system
that is similar but not really parallel would
likely add confusion rather than eliminate it. A
more reasonable solution is for Christians to
accept the Bible as the source of all truth and
reject any evolutionary bias found in the current
system..
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